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Psychology 202: Social Psychology 2&3

by: Bryce Buser

Psychology 202: Social Psychology 2&3

Marketplace > University of Oregon > Psychlogy > Psychology 202 Social Psychology 2 3
Bryce Buser

Azim F. Shariff PhD

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About this Document

Complete lecture notes for social psychology 2 and video notes from social psych 3.
Azim F. Shariff PhD
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This 4 page Reader was uploaded by Bryce Buser on Wednesday May 21, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 112 views.

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Date Created: 05/21/14
Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates These notes also include my video notes for Social Psychology 3 The Movie can be found on blackboard There is a midterm week 8 on Thursday so there will be no notes for that day What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Study after lecture Going over notes right when you get home from a lecture helps you to remember it better Even if you just scan the newly taken notes for a few minutes it39s better than going home and promptly forgetting everything your professor just said This way as you go over the notes you may recall something that your professor was talking about that you didn39t make clear enough in your notes for you to return to it later and remember what it was Tuesday May 15 2014 Corresponding Readings 513565 Vocabulary 3 TopicsThings to Remember 1 Ask why resist your intuition and trust science 2 Nothing is written 3 Naturalistic Fallacy 4 Confirmation Bias Testing A Hypothesis When testing a hypothesis the correct way is to by attempting to falsify it you confirm it Confirmation Bias people have a tendency to like the information that confirms what they believe in without regard to whether the information is actually true People also tend to ignore information that contradicts what they believe in the confirmation bias is our own filter of information It is the cause political dissonance con ict Examples include being stopped at every red light or horoscopes First Impressions First impressions set a schema shape confirm subsequent impressions are interpreted within that schema Groupthink The tendency for groups to too easily minimize con icting opinions and reach a consensus agreement lecture notes It includes diffusion of responsibility confirmation bias and conformity Conditions for Groupthink adapted from lecture notes 1 Overestimation of the group39s power and righteousness a Illusion of invulnerability b Unquestioned belief in a group39s inherit morality 2 Close Mindedness a Ignoring or rationalizing away doubt b Stereotyped views of opposition 3 Pressures toward uniformity a Self censorship b Illusion of consensus c Direct pressure to be loyal d Mind Guards Overcoming Groupthink work on critical thinking in every situation especially with groups Have people bring in fresh perspectives and consider the consequences The Halo Effect we see people who are attractive as being more intelligent honest nicer better lovers and warmer Cognitive Dissonance holding two con icting ideas and the discomfort that it brings We have a motivational desire to reduce dissonance and can be used to change people39s minds An example is Aesop39s fable of the Fox and the Grapes The fox tried and tired to get the grapes that were hanging form the vine When he was unsuccessful he decided that they were sour grapes anyway which is where the phrase sour grapes comes from The Overjustification Effect the groups that were underpaid in the Festinger and Carlsmith study rated the tedious task that they had to perform as better than those who got paid a lot of money because they had no external reason for having completed the task or encouraging others to perform the task They internalize their argument and decide that the task must have been better than they originally thought The Ben Franklin Effect if you do a favor for someone you will likely end up liking them more because you have to justify to yourself why you would do them a favor in the first place lust World Hypothesis the world is essentially just and bad things happen to good bad people Summary we have a psychosocial urge for always being right which result in errors in the thinking system Confirmation Bias We seek only to confirm what we already believe Doubt not only the external authority doubt yourself It takes courageous self criticism and intellectual honesty to be open minded when you have a brain that is struggling to keep itself safe and closed Lecture notes Experiments Kunda 1987 studied the links between breast cancer and drinking caffeine Female coffee drinkers were more likely to accept evidence that there were no connections and were more skeptical about the study than males Festinger and Carlsmith 1956 Had two groups perform a tedious task then both groups had to persuade a third party to do the tedious task The first group was given 1 and the second group was given 20 before each group was asked to rate the task This resulted in the over justification effect which can be seen above in vocabulary Lord Lepper and Ross 1979 Took two groups of people who for and against capital punishment Both groups read an article that supported capital punishment and one that was against capital punishment The group that was for capital punishment found that the study that was for capital punishment had a better argument and more convincing evidence while the group that was against capital punishment found that the study that was also against capital punishment had better arguments and evidence By the end of the study each group had grown even firmer in their original views Anderson Lepper and Ross 1980 asked who made the better firefighter the one from a movie like setting or the ones that are more like reality When asked no one knew An essay was provided that said the movie like firefighter was better and everyone said that it was true When an essay was provided that said the reality like firefighter was better half still stuck with the original essay First impressions Lerner 1965 subjects watched other subjects being shocked The subjects who were not being shocked developed a negative opinion of the subjects being socked saying that they deserved it The higher the worldviews people have the more negatively that they feel more negatively toward underprivileged groups Tuesday May 20 2014 Corresponding Readings None Note These are my notes from the movie Flight from Death which was shown for class today The movie is posted on blackboard and the following are some key points I believe are important If you have not seen the movie I recommend you watch it these notes are strictly to jar your memory not catch you up on what you missed Flight From Death Cognitive Problem we have an awareness of death There is a story recorded on stone tablets that dates back to ZOOBCE about avoiding death Scientists are sill working on ways to avoid prevent etc death 54 million people who are alive right now will die in the next 12 months Ernest Becker39s book The Denial of Death was published in 1974 Culture A shared belief about reality We need culture because we are meaning hungry people We can control others with money paying someone to do a job Social Death Resorting to violence dismissive attitudes to those who believe different things than we do We can confirm our beliefs by changing others Political con icts etc are psychologically driven Studies have shown that when we are reminded of death we tend to have more aggression to those who are different in beliefs from us Mortality Salience Hypothesis the first test was done in Tucson AZ with court judges A girl was brought in for prostitution for the judges who had been reminded of their own death set bail for the girl at 450 while judges who had not been reminded set bail at 50 In other experiments using the Mortality Salience Hypothesis it was found that those who were death reminded did not use symbols incorrectly such as the American ag or a Crucifix In a third study after being reminded about death a group of students prescribed twice as much hot sauce for someone to try than those who had not been reminded of their own death The fear of death is universal September 11 2001 attack on differences political beliefs etc and on symbols buildings Terror Management theory urge for revenge and protection as well as to invest in and defend worldviews The psychological concept to master death by killing others More killed for God and Country than for any other reason Vietnam search and destroy Banish death but we can never banish chance Illusion ways to explain the human existence Unconscious denial is where we get in trouble Degree of unlived life dying before we life Main Question What are we to do with life Individual movements and process of life would we do it all again We didn39t come into nor will we leave life by our own will the only thing we can do is to meet it with courage


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