PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY II
PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY II CH 302
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Spinka on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 302 at University of Texas at Austin taught by David Laude in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see /class/181873/ch-302-university-of-texas-at-austin in Chemistry at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Study Strategies in Dr Laude s General Chemistry Before we start time out for Thoughts on being an Active Learner rather than Passive Learner Note that the procedures developed in this handout are among a million ways you might do things However they all fall in the category of ACTIVE LEARNING Whatever you do be an ACTIVE LEARNER Example of a passive learner Reads the chapters from beginning to end Works the homework problems with answer keys or similar problems readily available Blah blah blah Just like always in every class But most importantly has no evidence that anything is actually learnediinstead assumes that by reading the chapter and doing the homework and coming to class that everything is learned Active Learners Constantly assesses what is understood and what is not understood Comes to class aware of what will be covered and knowing what is not known Comes to office hours with speci c questions about a lack of conceptual understanding Targets the speci c content material to be learned Has a way of proving that the material is actually known Assesses testtaking and content problem areas from previous exams and quizzes Creates realistic test taking simulations How to get an A in CH301 and CH302 First Know Yourself Second Know Your Exam Once this is done Know Your Subject Part 1 Knowing yourself as a test taker Ask the following questions about each test or quiz 0 Did I feel I knew the material going into the test 0 Was I happy with my studying habits 0 Did I use time wisely on the test 0 How did I feel about my performance while I was taking the test 0 How did I feel right after the exam or quiz 0 How did I feel after I received my grade Based on the answers to these selfanalysis questions diagnose the follow symptoms Symptom Comes to test poorly prepared and does badly Diagnosis Immature study habits or misplaced priorities Symptom Come to test con dent but soon realize that you cannot work many of the problems Diagnosis Poor calibration of what needs to be done to succeed on a collegelevel exam Symptom Comes to class prepared but quickly develops stress and timemanagement issues Diagnosis This student tends to blame testtaking anxiety but often offers this as an excuse for not really being con dent about the material Symptom Moves con dently through exam and leaves certain of a good grade only to be disappointed by results Looks back at material and blames it on stupid mistakes There are two kind of students who have this experience Diagnosis 1 One type is overcon dent about their knowledge base They are good students who know 90 of what is needed but on a multiplechoice test that is only enough knowledge to select an incorrect but pretty close answer These students have miscalibrated the amount of learning necessary to be successful This student is so bound by rules that if questions are even slightly different from previous material then they miss them This is the student who most of ce blames the instructor for bad questions rather than looking in the mirror Diagnosis 2 The second overconfident student really does know the material but has no interest in playing the game to do well on an exam This student shows up with the wrong number pencil a calculator with a dead battery and no scratch paper This kind of student believes that nishing rst is more important than getting the problem right You know who you are it bothers you when you see other people leaving not because your are nervous about nishing but because you don t want to believe other students know the material better and faster This kind of student misses negative signs and units doesn t see the word NOT thinks small to large instead of large to small This kind of student would never dream of actually checking workyou may you will but deep inside something is screaming you don t need to do this you don t make mistakes By the way I know this last kind of student well because it is me Oh and don t atter yourself that you are in this category Being is this category is to suffer the sin of arrogance Also to be in this category requires that you really do know the material and the vast majority of students do not Developing tangible solutions based upon Who you are First Obtain old exams and quizzes Next to every missed question on an exam or quiz ask the question why did I miss this problem What was I thinking at the time Was I overconfident was I guessing Was I freaking out If I missed it because I didn t know the content why is that Did I believe I knew the material when I did not Did I not study material in that section as well as in other Look for patterns in your mistakes When you see the reason ask yourself what can I do to not make that mistake again Maybe you missed the material that was taught at the end Maybe you missed the material that was taught at the beginning Maybe you missed the material that you learned while riding in a car to Dallas Second Based upon what you glean from an honest assessment of your exams make lists of ways you make mistakes in exam preparation and ways you make mistakes in test taking Sample list for exam preparation I learn best when I go to the Thursday help session I learn best when I study in the library I learn best when I work the problems in Davis first I learn best when I read the notes just before class Now make your own list for exam preparation Sample list for test taking to be considered before every question you answer I will always make sure I look for the correct units especially kilograms to grams I will make sure I see if the answer is ascending or descending order I will make sure I hit the exponent button on the calculator I will make sure that I enter the numbers on a calculator twice I will make sure I rule out clearly incorrect answers before working calculations Now make your own list for exam preparation Part 11 Know your exam You take multiple choice exams based upon specific problem types identi ed in class So develop a strategy that works for this kind of test Here is an approach in two parts First Learn the material from the perspective of content areas that will be on the exam rather than by learning all the material in a serial fashion Question A man stands outside the library and says you can answer the question I ask in one of two ways First you can go in the library and read every book and then come out and I will ask you the question or I can tell you the question and then you can go learn the answer Sadly most of you learn the first way though you don t realize it You act as if you need to learn everything cover to cover and from the first problem to the last rather than knowing what you need to know Solution One solution is to create individual cards on which you place all the information about a speci c question Whether you learn this material in a lecture from a friend from a HW from the Internet write it down on the card That way you are localizing all the material for what you know will be a test question Then when the test comes all you see in front of you is the card with the information on it rather than a blur of dozens of hours of lectures and studying for the entire exam This is no different than what you do naturally for the things you know well I know sports But I don t know it because I memorize every fact from Sportscenter or the paper in order Instead when I read something new I immediately put it onto the appropriate index card in my case the index cards are in my brain Cards like Oakland Raiders or my lovehate relationship with Steve Sparer So every time you see a new set of content areas like in every musings create a new card That way you study for an exam with a handful of cards in your hand not a zillion pages of notes and answer keys A picture of how information you process finds its way on to cards An example of a card on electronegativity Worksheet 8 Review Structure for Working Simple AcidBase Equilibrium Problems Assuming high Ca and Cb and separated Ks there are only three equations needed to solve simple acid base problems strong weak and buffer There are only ve possible variables to put into these equations K3 Kb H OH Ca CI 01 So there isn t a lot of complexity at the bottom of this The hard part is figuring out which equation to use and What each of the variables is To accomplish this task we use the following procedure 1 strip away all the extraneous information spectator ions 2 identify strong acids and bases 3 identify weak acids and bases 4 determine if you should neutralize 5 perform neutralization calculation 6 decide Whether to work the problem as an acid or a base Once these steps are done the problem is greatly simplified to the point that you can use the table above to work a calculation The back of this page shows every possible type of starting conditions and how they reduce to one of the problems above 1 Getting rid of spectator ions Always eliminate the ions that do nothing all alkali metals and alkali earths Nal Kl Ca and all conjugate bases of strong acids Cl39 NO339 ClO439 139 Br39 Thus NH4Cl is NH4 NaOH is just OH KCOOH is just COOH 2 Identify strong acids and bases Strong acids are HCl HNO3 H2804 HClO4 HBr H Strong bases are NaOH KOH MgOH2 BaOH2 and other alkali metal or earth hydroxides Notice What happens when you get rid of spectator ions for strong acids and bases HCl become H HNO3 becomes H NaOH becomes OH MgOH2 becomes 20H In other words all strong acids are H All strong bases are OH 3 Identify weak acids and weak bases Hint this is done by looking for the words weak acid or weak base it is also done by looking for a small KB or small Kbvalues numbers like 14 x 10395 or 63 x 109 it is also done by looking for the word acid in a compound that is not strong acid it is also done by looking for the suffix ate Thus formic acid is a weak acid and sodium malonate is a weak base And how do you represent a weak acid HA instead of HCH3CH2COO which only serves to confuse you And how do you represent a weak base A39 instead of NaCH3CH2COO which only serves to confuse you By the time you are through with step 3 you will have identified the presence of all acids and bases You should have only six possible symbols representing them or OH for strong acids and bases HA or BH for weak acids B or A39 for weak bases Any other terminology is a waste of time on a test Without much time 4 If possible NEUTRALIZE You neutralize if 0 you have both an acid and a base present 0 one or both of the acid or base are strong for example 0 HCl and Sodium Acetate are H and A39 so neutralize Acetic acid and NaOH are HA and OH so neutralize HCl and NaOH are H and OH so neutralize Acetic acid and sodium acetate are HA and A39 so do not neutralize 5 To neutralize you convert both acid and base into moles Then create a neutralization reaction into which you place the initial mole amounts Identify the limiting reagent and then calculate the final mole amounts Convert back to molality by dividing by total volume if necessary Examples 0 5 moles PF and 5 moles A gt 5 moles of HA plus 0 moles of H and A 0 2 moles of H and 1 mole of A gt 1 mole of HA with one mole of A left over 0 003 moles of OH and 001 moles of HA gt 001 moles A with 002 moles OH left over Note that after neutralization you can still have a weak base problem a weak acid problem a buffer a strong acid problem or a strong base problem In other words you have to do a neutralization to find out what kind of problem you have 6 Decide on your calculation terrain Do you work with acids calculate with pH H and Ka Want to work with bases Calculate with pOH OH and Kb It doesn t matter what you choose but remember to give the answer they ask for H OH pH or pOH How do you move between acid and base terrain Use 0 to move from a Ka to a Kb Kw KaKb 1014 or pKw pKa pr 14 to move from a pH to a pOH Kw H OH 10 14 or pKw 2 pH pOH 14 Examples of AcidBase Problems Using Different Starting Materials in calculations use Ka for acetic acid 2 18 X 10 5 and Kb for ammonia 18 X 10 5 use strong ammonium chloride
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