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by: Layla Gusikowski MD


Layla Gusikowski MD
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Layla Gusikowski MD on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AHC 378 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/181895/ahc-378-university-of-texas-at-austin in Ancient Hist And Classical Civ at University of Texas at Austin.

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Date Created: 09/07/15
AHC 378HIS 350L Source Exercise The Lost Colony of Octo Korai Reading Read Boardman Chapter 1 The Nature of the Evidence BEFORE starting this exercise Take especial note of the dating schemes he offers for pottery coinage and other pieces of material evidence Assignment Read the background and questions given below then answer them to the best of your ability Answers may be in outlinenote form so long as they are coherent or written out typed or handwritten The idea of this exercise is to wring as much as you can from the evidence you have to form a coherent picture of life in and the history of Octo Korai while at the same time realizing the limitations of your evidence and exercising care in how far you can take your conclusions You should be able to complete the exercise in 35 pages You will need 0 Boardman Chapter 1 The Nature of the Evidence 0 Your notes from the class lecture on archaic Greek history on Tuesday September 4 A map and images see the course website You may use other reference works and the Internet in completing this exercise since Octo Korai is ctional you will not nd the answers in them You must cite any outside sources that you do use Background Sometime in the archaic period a colony called Octo Korai Eight Maidens was founded at the southernmost tip of the Athos prong of the C halcidic Peninsula in Thrace By the time of Xerxes invasion of Greece it had vanished All that remained of Octo Korai until recently were a few scattered references in literary sources given below The identity of its mother city is not even known The Athos peninsula is now home to a number of Greek Orthodox monasteries The monks in one of these monasteries recently decided to expand their garden and happened upon the remains of a building several graves an inscription and some artifacts which appear to be the sole surviving remains of Octo K orai The monastery will not permit further excavations and what follows represents the sum of knowledge of Octo Korai The question is how to interpret it especially in light of the following the answers to which historians would dearly love to know 0 Trace the history of Octo Korai using all of the evidence below When do you think the colony was founded When did it end You do not need to give specific dates but at least indicate how you might go about answering this question Is there any way of telling what brought about its downfall From the evidence can we determine any other significant events in the history of the colony o What city do you think was the metropolis of Octo Korai and why What was the relationship between colony and mother city Was Octo Korai a successful colony Why do you think it was founded What was daily life like in Octo Korai Can you determine this from the evidence Was this a rich colony A poor one What resources did it have What was the state of its economic health How did the inhabitants of Octo Korai view their colony What does the foundation story tell us about such factors as religion pragmatism relations with the locals etc What does the inscription tell us of the colony s establishment and governance On the whole how reliable is the evidence and your answers to the questions above What gaps would you like to fill and what kind of evidence would serve you the best in reconstructing Octo Korai Does any evidence contradict other evidence and how might you resolve any contradictions Or is all the evidence complementary There are now wrong answers only logical ones With that in mind please turn to the evidence The Literary Evidence PseudoThucydides fragment 4 This author is called pseudo Thucydides because this passage is written much in the style of Thucydides 1 1003 Until the remains of Octo Korai were discovered it was assumed that pseudo Thucydides whose identity is unknown was imitating Thucydides Now the opposite may be true About the same time they sent ten thousand settlers of their own citizens and the allies to settle the place then called Octo Korai or Eight Maidens which no longer exists They succeeded in gaining possession of Octo Korai from the Athonians but in building their colony they were attacked again and again by them because they regarded the settlement of Eight Maidens as an act of hostility The settlers eventually drove the Athonians from the Athos Peninsula entirely From a papyrus of Harpocration now lost39 only a mutilated copy survives H arpocration was a dictionary writer of unknown date but with a Roman name He preserves many stories that fill out the background to events or places only mentioned in classical authors The proverbial expression dead as eight maidens comes from the colony Octo Korai in Thrace The colony was founded by the ruled by It was named The settlers who survived consulted an oracle and accordingly they chose eight maidens from the wealthiest settlers and locked them overnight in the temple When they opened the doors of the temple in the morning they discovered that all of the maidens had died in their sleep From that day on there were no troubles at Octo Korai until the coming of the barbarians They built a shrine to the maidens and renamed the colony for them From a fragment assigned to the poet Simonides Simonides ofCeos ca 556 468 BC wrote a number ofpoems including hymns He lived in Athens until 511 when he moved to Thessaly He was friends with the two leaders of the Greeks against the Persians Themistocles of Athens and Pausanias of Sparta He is best known for his poems on the battles of Thermopylae and Plataea O Octo Korai fairest and most fortunate of northern cities The Archaeological Evidence The remains of two houses destroved bv re Two small houses A on the left B on the right of typical Greek design with a central court and rooms opening off the court One house has a small shop attached 12 The functions of the rooms 7 kitchen storage etc 7 appear to be typical The houses are very like a number of houses found west of the Areopagus in Athens built sometime in the fth century BC Image A Potte found in the two houses Two entire pots were found one in each storage room and a number of fragments in the courtyards and kitchens There are seven fragments 0 Two fragments of Corinthian ware blackfigure technique both found in House A The style is quite coarse and the scenes cannot be identi ed The fragments do not seem to be from the same vessel 0 Two fragments of Athenian blackfigure ware one found in each house One depicts a small building a temple in much the style of the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi A Persian soldier can be identified on the other 0 Three fragments of Athenian redfrgure ware all found in House B All show evidence of scorching before fragmentation Two show armed Persian soldiers one a Greek hoplite The fragment showing the Greek hoplite has part of a name and a word on it KALOS The two pots were found one in each house 0 The rst is a Corinthian pyxz39s or perfumejar middle style 600575 BC showing animals intertwined Image B o The second is an Athenian panathenaic amphora black gure with some traces of olive oil still inside It shows a chariot race and cannot be securely dated Image C The Cemetery Evidence Just north of the houses three graves were found The cemetery probably continued south and beneath the houses because to the north of the graves runs an old streambed All the graves are oriented on an eastwest aXis The graves were largely undisturbed and can be summarized as follows 0 The graves of two men one elderly one young The grave of the elderly man contains several fragments of Corithian and Attic blackfrgure ware too worn to make out the designs and a goldlink chain The grave of the young man contains a full hoplite panoply breastplate shield greaves helmet spear and fragments of Attic redfigure ware perhaps a panAthenaic amphora since a horse can be seen on the fragment There are no other grave goods The grave of a woman and infant There are several undecorated pots possibly local ware containing grain and the remains of olive oil and some gold jewelry including earrings set with lapis lazuli The Numismatic Evidence Several coins were found in the courtyards of the houses There are five in all 0 An Athenian silver coin showing a Gorgon s head on the obverse and a bull s head on the reverse within an incuse square dating from the midsixth century BC Image D A Corinthian silver coin ca 625585 with a winged horse Pegasus on the obverse and an incuse swastika on the reverse Image E Three silver coins of different weights and denominations each showing a horse in full gallop on the obverse and within the reverse incuse square the helmeted of a woman Athena The Epigraphic Evidence Found near the three graves was an inscription It appears to be in the style of a foundation decree for comparanda see Fomara nos 18 and Graham Appendix 2 see the syllabus both on reserve at PCL The inscription is written right to left with haphazardlyformed letters all of which indicates a very early date TEXT Since Apollo told spontaneously to colonize Athos it has been decreed that five thousand men are to set sail They may be accompanied by their families if they so wish Their leader will be They must send payment of 500 drachmae a Greek unit of currency every year back to the metropolis or give soldiers when soldiers are needed They must grant tothe right to sacrifice and to


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