COMMUNITY RELATIONS INF 387
Popular in Course
Popular in Information Studies
This 50 page Class Notes was uploaded by Maryse Herman on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to INF 387 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/181914/inf-387-university-of-texas-at-austin in Information Studies at University of Texas at Austin.
Reviews for COMMUNITY RELATIONS
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/07/15
inf 387C live from szb Managing Change O s ch Bo39i Bf i n f39 r imiion Objectives Understanding change and human behavior Managing change Motivation and innovation 0 556601 St inor maiion Change as a Constant Two things seemed pretty apparent to me One was that in order to be a Mississippi River pilot a man had got to learn more than any one man ought to be allowed to know and the other was that he must learn it all over again in a different way every 24 hours Mark Twain Life on the Mississippi 0 568661 8r i n f39 r imiion Behavior amp Change Know thyself Personal Assessment of Change Behavioral barriers It cannot be done There is no alternative Lack of clarity Fear and anxiety 0 s nbdi Br inor maiion Discussion of Readings What are some changes that affect management of organizations Barriers to change Operational Behavioral Catalysts to change 0 s cBBo39i 8r i n f39 r imiion Lasting Change Effective lasting change is achieved only if attitudes values and beliefs are addressed with the same strength and priority as operational and technical factors Pettinger p34 0 s ribdi Br inor maiion Managing Change Structured and strategic Opportunistic Ad Hoc O s ano39i 8r i n f39 r imiion Change Motivation Traditional McGregor Theory X and Theory Y Herzberg Twofactor change Individual relation to work is basic Attitude toward work can determine success or failure 0 s ribdi Br inor maiicn MCGregor Theory X People have inherent dislike ofwork and will avoid it if possible People dislike work People prefer to be directed dislikes responsibility is unambiguous and desires security above everything People must be controlled and threatened before they will work hard enough Assumptions lie behind most organizational principles today Tough management with punishments and tight controls 0 568661 8r r n f39 r imlion MCGregor Theory Y The expenditure of physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest Control and punishment are not the only ways to make people work man will direct himself if he is committed to the aims of the organization Job satisfaction commitment to the organization People want to learn People will accept and seek responsibility Imagination creativity and ingenuity solve work problems by a large number of employees 0 seam Br foor marron Change Motivation Many contemporary theories McClellan Theory of needs Need for achievement Need for power Need for af liation What do employees want Extrinsic and intrinsic motivators 0 568601 8r i n r r imiion Cognitive Evaluation Theory Historically motivation theorists assumed that intrinsic motivators such as achievement responsibility and competence were independent of extrinsic motivators such as high pay promotions good supervisor relations and pleasant working conditions But cognitive evaluation theory suggests othenNise When extrinsic rewards are used by organizations as payoffs the intrinsic rewards are reduced 0 s iibo39i Br Informalion Goal Setting Theory Motivation to work toward a goal or goals Specific goals increase performance Presupposes that employee is committed to the goal Goal setting is culturebound O s chBo39i 8r i n r39 r imiion Self Efficacy Theory Also called social cognitive theory Individual belief that he or she is capable to complete a particular task Selfefficacy can be increased by Enactive mastery Vicarious modeling Verba persuasion Psyched up 0 s ri di Br inor maiicn Organizations and 3rd Faceto Face IN F 3870 Information and Organizations Knowledge Cycle Choo Sensemaking Information Knowledge Organizations Knowledge Cycle Definition Shared meanings Knowledge creating tacit and internal explicit and external Decision making Sensemaking Definition Identify gaps of information knowledge experience Bridge gaps of information by using criteria to ascertain usefulness or value of new knowledge determine if new knowledge fits with old knowledge or experience make up what we don t know rumors misinformation misinterpretation Seven Properties of Sensemaking via Karl Weick Grounded in identity SOCial Parliament of Ongoing never selves starts and never Retrospective Stops Enactive of sensible Focused on and by environments extracted cues people shape amp are Driven by plausibility Paquot1 0ftheir rather than accuracy environment More Sense or Nonsense 2 via Karl Weick Actions affect Patterns may be situation amp yourself evident after the fact Intuition and Every representation experience is an interpretation interprets nonsense Language is action Effects of action cannot be predicted Scenarios Not to predict future Enables envisioning behavior Reveal nature and dynamics of forces shaping the environment Use hard analytical data and soft intuitive hunches Information gt Action When action grows unprofitable gather information when information grows unprofitable sleep Ursula K LeGuin Questions and Information Question reveals nature of problem Amount and reliability of information Multiple conflicting interpretations of information Varying value orientations politicalemotional clashes Information Ambiguity and Change Goals are Unclear Multiple Con icting Roles are vague respons bilities are unclear Success measures are lacking Symbols and metaphors used unclear Participation in decisionmaking is uid Information Diversity and Consensus Sensemaking constructs framework Shared meanings Purposes for concerted action Shared meanings Social order Temporal continuity Goaldirected clarity Organizational Sensemaking Process BeliefDriven Processes E ActionDriven Processes Models of Information Use Information Use Information Management Central Info Problem in Organizations Reduce ambiguity Develop shared meaning for 7 Collective and purposeful action Maintain a leVel of information equivocality Accommodate a diversity of interpretations Allows cognitive white spacequot for its members to Organizations as Sensemaking Communities Man is an animai suspended in webs of signi cance ne nimseiinas spun MaxWeber inf 387C live from szb marketing strategic and otherwise is H 7 ii WW 0 School of information Objectives Reach consensus on definition of marketing Explore components of market process Discuss various strategies from discussion board m l lizu 0 School of information A quotation Twenty years ago management was a dirty word for those involved in nonprofit organizations Now most of them know that nonprofits need management even more than business does precisely because they lackthe discipline of the bottom line The nonprofits are of course still dedicated to doing good But they also realize that good intentions are no substitute for organization and leadership for accountability performance and results Those require management and that in turn begins with the organization s mission Peter Drucker 1989 V H 7 ii nor 0 School of information Nonprofit 101 Develop a customer oriented frame of reference Look at sources of revenue Profit Government revenues Voluntary donations Legal definitions u l ii 0 School of information Nonprofit 101 cont d 0 Ask questions about organization Does the organization rely on donations in whole or in part Is the organization s performance likely to be subject to public scrutiny How is marketing perceived and by whom Does organization rely extensively on volunteers ls performance largely judged by nonmarketing measures V H 7 ii nor 0 School of information Challenges to NP Marketing Little good secondary data on consumers Difficult to motivate attitude or belief changes Marketing benefits of changed behavior Marketing management Process of planning amp executing programs designed to create build and maintain bene cial exchange relationships with target audiences for the purposes of satisfying individual amp organizational objectives u i ii 0 School of information Marketing Philosophy Product orientation Sales orientation Customer orientation V H 7 if not 0 School of lnformolion CustomerCenteredness To whom are we planning to market Where are they and what are they like What are their current perceptions needs and wants Will these perceptions needs and wants be different in the future How satisfied are our customers with our offerings u i if 0 School of lnformolion Customer Profile Age Location Gender Occupation Status Expectations Aspiration Values is H 7 ii NM 0 School of lnformolion The Product Quality amp durability Product amp senice Branding ranges Packaging Price Product amp senice Image amp identity benefits Place amp convenience i in i ii 0 School of lnformolion Evaluating Selection of Marketing Projects Evaluated by explicit performance measures Completed within a short to medium time period Use a limited portion of available resources Results should be obvious to key decision makers within organization H 7 ii NM 0 School of lnformalion inf 387C live from szb Organizations Planning amp Financial Control and Marketing Strategies Money Can anyone remember when times were not hard and money not scarce Ralph Waldo Emerson 18031882 Class Agenda Housekeeping Assignments General questionscomments Budgets what why how Marketing for nonpro ts Budgetary and Fiscal Controls What Is a Budget Forecast Cash Sources Cash Expenditures Organization as a financial statement Covers fiscal year A budget takes the fun out of money Attributed to Mason Cooley b 1927 US aphorist Enhance success by Forecast needs Forecast pro ts Forecast cash ow Why Budget Information provided Cash required for labor and materials Startup costs Daytoday maintenance costs Revenues needs Expected pro t What to Consider Variable costs Fixed costs Semivariable costs Inflation and other adjustments Profit Budgeting for Nonprofits Assess realistic levels of resources What activities are most important What activities can be supported Acknowledge that every activity has a cost Budget Format Examples Line item budget see example Formula see example Program see example Zerobased Budgeting Line Item Budget l I39rmmwl sum mama mum Wl lihll MTL M39 SMl iT n mmnw m mum mm mm o eri 1min mm mum mm mm 4mm mm mm or mm H zii mm mum 39 mu 2mm u n a mum mm 1mm 2mm mum mmm uwm mmm swim mum mmmmrmxm slum mural Formula Budget Basic collection Allowance per l I39E faculty Allowance per l I39E student Allowance per undergraduate major or minor field Allowance per master s field Allowance per 6th year degree Allowance per doctoral field 85000 volumes 100 volumes 15 volumes 350 volumes 3000 volumes 6000 volumes 25000 volumes Organizations Planning amp Financial Control FacetoFace 3 INF 3870 October 2003 Money yone remember when times were not hard and money not scarce Ralph Waldo Emerson 18031882 Class Agenda Housekeeping Assignments General questionscomments Midsemester survey Budgets what why how Fund development strategies Leadership All of the great leaders have had one characteristic in common it was the willingness to confront unequivocally the major anxiety of their people in their time This and not much else is the essence of leadership John Kenneth Galbraith 1977 IntegrityHonesty Communication skills Patient Active Listene Con dent and humble Trusting Motivator Trustworthy Orchestratetalent Celebrates talent amp achievements of employees Picture Yourself Here Budgetary and Fiscal Controls What Is a Budget Forecast Cash Sources Cash Expenditures Organization as a financial statement Covers fiscal year Why Budget Enhance success by Information provided Forecast needs Cash required for Forecast pro ts labor and materials Forecast cash flow StartUP COStS Daytoday maintenance costs Revenues needs Expected pro t What to Consider Variable costs Fixed costs Semivariable costs Inflation and other adjustments Profit Budgeting for Nonprofits Assess realistic levels of resources What activities are most important What activities can be supported Every activity has a cost Budget Format Examples Grant Budget Planning Tutorial Line item budet or m Formula see example Program see example Zerobased Budetin Formula Budget Basic collection 85000 volumes Allowance per FFE faculty 100 volumes Allowance per FFE student 15 volumes Allowance per undergraduate 350 volumes major or minor field Allowance per master s field 3000 volumes Allowance per 6th year degree 6000 volumes Allowance per doctoral field 25000 volumes Program Budget ISCHOOL AT A GLANCE Career Services 76641 Faculty full time 1366350 Teaching Assistants 9 708 Admin amp Professional 307956 Support Staff 326451 31812 10000 IT Services 118650 PCS 122055 Fund Development for Nonprofit Organizations Introduce basics of nonprofit management Determine what must happen before fund development Explore fundamentals of fund development and grant writing Identify sources for fundraising ideas and grant writing Nonprofit Management Basics Nonprofit organizations perform a different function than corporate or governmental agencies Most library and information service are nonprofit organizations Product of nonprofits is a changed human being Drucker Challenges for Nonprofits Offer community and common purposes Transform good intentions into results Focus on what the organization does best defining the competencies of the organization Convert donors into contributors How to Respond to Challenges Defining your mission and goals Grow strategies from mission and goals Marketing Define your market Meaning of Fund Development Recognize potential for growth and development of a donor Cultivate them to be an advocate for your program Encourage donor to take ownership in program Requires long term strategy Who to target for contributions Board trustees Advisors Constituents Foundations private community amp corporate Government agencies 10 Tailor Approach to Donor Group Individuals Research interests Identify something that connects them to your organization Board members Require donation for board membership Develop ownership in your program Tailor Approach to Donor Group cont d Foundation Explore grant submission requirements Identify their funding target areas Note when their board meets Government agencies Locate grant proposal deadlines Understand grant proposal guidelines 11 inf 3870 live from szb managing information services and organizations today s agenda introductions about tne course 7 studentperspective r instructurperspective virtualclassroom 7 r ssvveb 7 blackbuaid management style assessment 7 knuwtnvself 7 knuWuthErs historvofmanagem mana ement comp t ent etenoies arid mooeis organizational cul ure about the course you online 0 mlrl online 7 eoommunioation read everything 7 grou work 7 use orweooaseotoois resPond 39quot quotmely manner you the learner mlrl as instructor 7 reading 7 thi kll ig provide infrastructure 7 writing to support learning a communicating facilitate interaction introductions classroom online 0 web site why blackboard why digital drop box tools evaluation 0 group and individual participation reflective substantive Speci cs sample eportfolios http lvwvwischoolutexasedulkdelevanleporthtml http llewischoolutexasedulmeurereponfolio th llw h nan mg a 39 html assessments know thyself as a learner as a communicator emotional intelligence will you be tomorrow who you are today teamwork Requires trust Trust Defined depend upon each other to accomplish a particular goal accept risk when interacting with others teamwork amp trust characteristics of trust openness celebration of possibilities notion of context is essential evaluation criteria team performance 39 reach consensus on communication medium behavior strategies for managing problems establish evaluation criteria for group member participation why some history A person who knows only the skills and techniques Without understanding the a technician history of management 5000 pyramid construction BC Sumerian records of management practices Chinese dynasties had managerial ring anization functions control techniques 2250 BC modern management thought alexander the great 356323 BC machiavelli 1469 1527 adam smith 17231790 charles babbage 17911871 the prince Machiavelli deliberately provocative practical political guide character vitality or skill of leader determines success of any state practical success by any means even at expense of traditional 14691527 moral values scientific management Frederick Taylor maximum output in place of restricted output science not rule of thumb harmony not discord development of COOperatlon all workers to no their greatest 13551919 efficiency and prosperity individualism scientific management Henry L Gantt henry l gantt 18611919 developed taskandbonus system little concern for external environment of organization focused on production schedules 755k Name Tlen scientific management Max Weber theory of authority structure distinction between power and authority and between compelling action and voluntary action hierarchical system 18641920 for informed decision making bureaucratic organization division of labor specialization and standardization principle of hierarchy promotion into management demonstrated by technical competencies rules are to be recorded in writing Max Weber o It is horrible to think that the world could one day be lled with nothing but little cogs little men clinging to little jobs and striving towards bigger ones This passion for bureauc cy is enough to drive one to despair From Max Weber and German Politics classical movement Henri Fayol looked at administration from top down concentrated on roles of managers 7 Planners organizers cuntrullers diviSiOi i oflabor diSCiplii ie unity of command and direction 7 a Scalar chain forcommui iicatioi i 186171525 human relations approach 1930 s management studies began to focus on people and interpersonal relations increased efforts toward emocratization and staff participation human behavior movement psychological aspects of management sociological aspects of management selfactualizing movement Abraham Maslow Rensis Likert mOtiVation Warren G Bennis Douglas McGregor Robert make Theory X and Theory Y Jane Mouton Systems Approach and General Systems Theory participatory Chris Argyris organizational structure as impediment to self ful llment 8 managerial competencies 39 mentor director facilitator producer monitor broker coordinator Innovator managing organizations explore concept of organizational culture consider Why managers should understand organizational culture reflect on culture of the virtual organization organization defined 39 individuals systematically united for some purpose or wor state of being organized c comprised of actors resources activities culture defined whatever one must comprised ofthe know or believe to assumptions values operate in an norms and tangible acceptable manner to 5399quot Karmic f organization members and their behaviors 0 patterns ofbehavior members ofwithin a social organization the personality of an t symbos or aniza ion g I t t beliefs comp ex cons me I rules why understand organizational culture 39 assists understanding ofwhat goes on in an organization how different groups work together contributes to efforts to implement change rms decisions about where and with whom you want to war I guides managing groups across national ethnic and s functional boundarie culture describes how people see and understand their worlds prescribes some behaviors and forbids others 0 colors the emotional responses of people to events emerges from people s struggles to manage uncertainties and create order understanding culture critical to managing organizationWide change can mean the difference between success and failure in today s fast paced world consequences of culture manages collective uncertainties creates social order creates continuity creates collectivity identity and comm39tment encourages ethnocentrism categories of cultural forms symbols and objects language jargon gestures signals signs songs humor jokes gossip rumors 39 metaphors proverbs slogans stories legends sagas myths c rituals taboos rites ceremonies cultural manifestations meeting times punctual or everyone late ground rules for communication quantity vs quality employee oriented orjob oriented gender and diversity issues response to risktaking and innovation cultural manifestations in the virtual organization is Web presence usercentric or organizationcentric can you learn anything about the organizational structure through the Website how to contact people one contact point servicespeci c contact points more can you determine the cultural values of the organization is the organization s mission statement apparent how does accuracy and currency reflect on an organization symbols logos colors virtual organization defined network between organizations and individuals built ad hoc from small globally dispersed independent organizational entities characteristics of a virtual organization virtual communities can theoreticay be described as a solution for meeting ubiquitous information and interaction needs managers and experts cease to be lone custodians of the corporate knowledge base knowledge must be shared across cultural and timespace boundaries to create strategic frontiers in global and virtual enterprises what changes in the virtual organization 0 meetings 0 communication o managing information o managing organizational knowledge open vs closed organizations define open organization 0 define closed organization open organizations o manage through supportive use of authority 0 communicate up down and across chain of command 0 promote interactivity closed organizations manage through intimidating use of authority communicate oneway downward through the chain of command all other communication viewed as insubordinate closed organizations 39 top positions possess authority omniscience 39 t e and omnlpo enc avoid external feedback to avoid changes in status quo sharp distinction between planning and implementation structured by permanent departments and echelons xed property bylaws etc describe the culture of your organization what 10 words would you use to describe your organization o what is really important who gets promoted what behaviors get rewarded who ts in and who doesn39t why
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'