New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Ms. Burley Crooks


Marketplace > University of Texas at Austin > Applied Learning > ALD 320 > COGNIT HUMAN LEARN AND MOTIV
Ms. Burley Crooks
GPA 3.86

Marilla Svinicki

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Marilla Svinicki
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Applied Learning

This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Burley Crooks on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ALD 320 at University of Texas at Austin taught by Marilla Svinicki in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/181917/ald-320-university-of-texas-at-austin in Applied Learning at University of Texas at Austin.




Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/07/15
ALD Unit 2 2222011 104300 PM Metacognition vs Selfregulation o Selfregulation includes selfcontrol in all areas such as o MetacognitionControl of thinking 0 Motivation and emotionControl of affect 0 Resource managementControl of personal and environmental resources o Environment management In order to have enough energy to study I take a short nap in the afternoons o Motivation and Emotion IfI find myself frustrated I sit down and try to think of what is causing that o Metacognition IfI have to prepare for a test I try to predict what kind of questions will be on it and how to answer them 0 This is because you have to THINK and ANALYZE of what to expect and how to prepare Epistemology o Certainty of knowledgeIs there an absolute truth or is everything else relative o If you don t get it immediately you ll never learn it 0 Science is the way to discover the truth o Simplicity and structure of knowledgeIs knowledge just fragmented facts or organized o Source of knowledgeWho knows what is true 0 The teacher knows the answer 0 What I think is true is irrelevant Criteria for truthWhy is something true 0 Science is the way to discover truth 0 If it s in print it must be true Speed of learningIf you don t get it right away can you ever get it o IfI don t get it right away I never will Nature of learning abilityIf you don t have the ability can you develop it 0 I ve never been good at math and never will be Teaching Strategies o Teach them in context not as isolated skills o Teach a variety of strategies in a variety of situations Teach about thinking strategies covert not just study tips overt Have students reflect after learning on how they did and what they did to get where they are c Have them work with other students to learn and use strategies o Model metacognition when you work with students and point it out o Show them how the strategies will help them and can be learned TEST CORRECTIONS Method of loci ammonic device helps with memory tricks for remembering o Imposing structure on a thing with no structure o Example structure on a random list of words Epistemological beliefs How you think about learning and knowing o Beliefs about what it means to know something is true 0 Certainty of knowledgeIs there really a truth we can know 0 Source of knowledgeWho knows what s true 0 Criteria for truthWhy is something true o Beliefs about learning and ability 0 Speed of learningDoes learning happen immediately 0 Nature of Learning ability Metacognition focuses on thinking o Metacognitive skill categories 0 SELFKnowing yourself and your strengths and weaknesses as a learner TASKUnderstanding what is needed to accomplish different types of tasks STRATEGIESHaving an array of strategies you can learn MONITORINGPlanning and evaluating strategy use Motivation and emotion focuses on feeling o Control strategies in this area 0 Monitoring Being able to recognize your emotional or motivational state and its causes 0 Emotional control Having strategies to increase a positive and decrease a negative emotion o Motivational control Have strategies that help motivate you O O O n Finding value in what you re doing a Recognizing small successes n Rewarding yourself for persistence Resource management o Examples of areas to manage 0 Physiological resources How healthy rested etc 0 Mental resources Clear head working toward clear goal 0 Environmental resources Place to work materials needed equipment needed 0 Interpersonal resources People who can help you and support you Child Development of These Skills c There is a change in the way children think across ages 0 Piagentian changescomplexity and abstracton o Vygotskian changesinner speech o They become more aware of what thinking is o They become more aware of causation and planning o They become more sophisticated in using strategies o They get more feedback on their abilities and limitations Types of Modeling Disinhibition If I m still lecturing and someone starts to pack up to leave other students start too Arousal When the whole class is nervous about a test even usually calm students get nervous Inhibition When the classroom noise level is too high if the teacher speaks more quietly the class usually quiets down Facilitation When I ask the students to put away their materials if one student starts to follow my instructions others will too o Facilitation I pair up a student who has good selfregulation skills with one who is developing those skills so she ll learn faster o Arousal If a student in my class starts to get angry or upset I usually remove him from the classroom so the other students won t be affected o Facilitation If a student in my class starts asking very good questions and I comment on it the other students questions become more involved and deep as well SCT to Teach o Key Features Decide when the key features of the skill that must be learned should be used c Attention phase Directing students attention to the key features of the skill 0 Pick a good modeler o Exaggerate highlight simplify narrate o Retention phase Encoding the mental model script or schema o Imagery Organization Familiarity or similarity Cognitive rehearsal Instructor demonstrating a skill to a class and talks out loud about what he is thinking Necessary Steps o Motor reproduction phase Retrieve the mental model and practice with feedback THE MODEL MUST BE COMPETENT Disinhibition and Inhibition apply to BAD behavior Retroactive Inhibition When learning a new set of information causes you to forget a previously learned set Reciprocal causationdeterminism The interaction between the learner the behavior and the environment that is the basis of Social Cognitive Theory Explain how the various components affect one another Disinhibition o Inappropriate burping in the cafeteria o Bullyiing a younger child o Honking your car horn in traffic o Bragging about beating another team badly Strategies for self efficacy o Enhancing it 0 Success or progress at the skill and emotional reaction to it o Persuasion by a trusted source 0 O O O o Vicarious experience of a similar learner o Identifying with a similar group success or failure Selfregulation o Targets of regulation vs processes of regulation 0 Targets are metacognition emotionmotivation and resource management 0 Processes are activities that help you engage in selfcontrol Goal setting and planningsetting standards and goals Selfmotivationself reaction and reinforcement Attention controlself imposed stimulus control Use of strategiesmetacognition and other two types Benefits of Group Work o Social Cognitive Theory 0 More models to imitate o Constructivism o More information to draw on 0 Larger variety of information 0 Talking it out helps you format your thoughts o Socioconstructivism 0 Others thinking triggers yours 0 Common meaning comes as you discuss your ideas o Social Psychology Motivation 0 Support from the group 0 Pressure from the group Types of Group Work o Discussions 0 Topic driven whole class teacher led hard to directtake notes o Reciprocal Teaching 0 Skill like understanding teacher and student take turns demonstrating work o Cooperative Learning 0 Groups of students with a common goal teacher organized student run o Peer Tutoring o More advanced students help one another o Community of Learners 0 Everyone in class including the teacher is learning Benefits of Group Work o Individual Level 0 Higher level thinking stragegies 0 Complexity of knowledge schemas o Group level 0 Increased product 0 Benefits as a Pedagogical Tool o Group represents broader prior knowledge to draw on o Hearing another s answer stimulates your retrieval o Group can often solve more complex problem than individual because it has more strategies o Groups situations involve more motivation and peer pressure to continue Theories explaining group work o Social interdependence theory exists in a collaborative setting when the accomplishment of each group member s goal is affected by the actions of others o PSI conditions in a group creates conditions conductive for promative interactions 0 Individuals encouraging and facilitating each other s efforts to achieve in order to reach the group s goal REVIEW DAY o SelfEfficacy Ms Smith has built a good relationship with her students because she is always honest about her feedback to them Need a reliable and truthful source o Metacognitive Charles takes concept map type notes in discussion class so he can see relationships Deals with the way the individual thinks and their knowing what is best for them o Motivation Alyssa gets ready for a class by reminding herself how the content fits her long term goals Knowing your learning will make a difference in the future o Resource Management Sitting down to write a paper with your data in a quiet area all ready to go Gathering all information BEFORE beginning to work o Attention Older children as models amp Motivation Because the older student shows what younger kids could become Teacher has an older child demonstrate a skill to her class o Components of SCT O O O O 0 Identify the key features and steps to be learned Attention Pick a good model and highlight the key steps as you demonstrate Retention Help learners get a good mental model that summarizes the steps of the procedure Production Give the learners an opportunity to practice with feedback after Motivation Positive feedback opportunities to succeed vicarious reinforcement o Recognizing SCT in Teaching 0 O O In collaborative learning Modeling production reinforcement motivation etc In reciprocal learning Modeling when the teacher guides at first retention sequence of questions asked steps production when the students respond motivation positive feedback In coaching sports of all kinds Modeling having another player demonstrate something retention production motivation 2222011 104300 PM 2222011 104300 PM ALD Unit 3 3312011 93300 PM Motivation Basics o Motivation 0 Gets the behavior started 0 Keeps the behavior going o Who is responsible for motivating learning 0 The student She s so motivated o The teacher How do I motivate my students 0 The situation The students will be more motivated if they can choose their own topic EmotionThe other side of motivation o Very early psychology focused a lot on emotion o For example Pavlov Freud o One way they talked about it 0 Approach vs avoidance o Neuroscience is supporting this The positive emotion side of motivation Flow Approach o The ultimate state of intrinsic motivation o A Csikzentmihalyi Flow The Ultimate Experience 0 B Same experience reported across activities 0 C Balance between challenge and control The negative emotion side of motivation Fear Avoidance o Anxiety and its effects on learning 0 The YerkesDodson curve UShaped curve Balance of arousal and performance because if you are not aroused at all you won t perform well enough but if you are too nervous you will also not perform your best Physiological effects Cognitive effects Low anxietylow performance Flow amp Fear are both examples of arousal Where does motivation come from o Intrinsic motivation autonomous o The task or behavior itself is pleasurable or painful 0 Examples eating chocolate or getting spanked O O O O o Extrinsic motivation controlled 0 The motivation comes from outside the task or individual 0 Examples reinforcement material social etc punishment rules social mores Extrinsic to Intrinsic may be a continuum o Intrinsicgenerated by the individual or the task 0 I like playing tennis o Integratedvalues of the society are accepted as truths by the individual 0 Exercise is good for you c Interjectedvalues of the society are behind the choices a student makes 0 Everyone in my social circle plays tennis o ExtrinsicAnticipated or actually received external consequences control the behavior 0 I play tennis to get in good with my boss The evolution of motivation theory o Early theories 0 Motivation based on the lack of something like an unsatisfied need 0 Behavior that would satisfy the need was activated 0 This process does not have to be learned it is innate o Current theories 0 Motivation based on evaluation of the situation 0 The learner makes cognitive decisions about what to do Early theories to note o Behavior theory rewards and punishment o Drive theory balance physiological needs o Needs theory balance psychological needs 0 Motivation based on experiencing a deficit of one of three things Achievement Approval Affiliation o Placing a child in time out Maslow s hierarchy of needs o Some needs are more basic than others o You cant work on a higher need until the basic needs are met 0 SelfActualization esteemachievement needs affiliation love or companionship safety needs physical needs April 5 2011 Expectancy Value Theory o Expectancy that you can do the task o Specific task or skill o How to affect it 0 Early successes Previous successes O Vicarious successes Persuasion by others 0 Challenge of the task o ValueWhat is the task worth 0 How to affect it Utility value RIGHT NOW Interest and fun task ChaHenge Match to goals Tangible rewards o You may expect to be successful without ever getting any reward Common Types of Fear in Educational Settings o Test Anxiety 0 Caused by pairing the situation with embarrassment andor punishment for failure 0 0 April 7 2011 Achievement Goal Orientation o Learners adopt an orientation to their work which influences how they expend their energies o Learners sometimes adopt LEARNING goals 0 Learners sometimes adopt PERFORMANCE goals o Four main academic goals 0 Mastery Orientation I want to learn Learner is focused on improvement Learner will take risks and try things Learner treats mistakes as learning opportunities John is the first one to volunteer to try out a new learning strategy to see if it will help him 0 Performance approach I want to look competent Learner is outcome oriented rather than learning oriented n Would rather get an A than anything else Learner compares self to others Learner is active but not a risk taker Learner doesn t like to make mistakes 0 Performance avoidance I don t want to fail Learner is focused on avoiding mistakes Learner doesn t seek help Learner won t take risks Alicia never speaks in class because she doesn t want to say anything foolish 0 Work avoidance strategic effort I want the biggest bang for my effort buck Learner seeks the path of least resistance Learner views mistakes as annoyance or obstacles Learner is focused on process rather than outcome Beneta is constantly checking egradebook to see how many points away from an A she is o Positive benefits of adopting mastery approach 0 Intrinsic motivation Belief that competence develops Exhibits selfregulation Better use of learning strategies Willing and able to change attitudes Prefer challenge Seek feedback Errors are opportunities Persist in face of failure 0 Doesn t mind failure if they tried hard o Fostering mastery goals 0 Give students choices so they can experience responsibility and its results 0 Minimize comparison between students 0 Focus on personal improvement goals 0 Model mastery orientation in all that you do 0 Give positive diagnostic feedback 0 Emphasize the learning value of mistakes 0 Foster classroom community April 12 2011 o A modern motivation theory Attribution theory 0 We re always trying to determine the causes of our successes or failures 0 We make A39I39I39RIBUTIONS about success or failure 0 It is the learner s perspective that is important even if it is not accurate 0 An attribution can affect motivation and behavior even if it is not accurate o Characterizing Attributions o Locus of causality internal or external How much of this cause is within me 0 Stability stable or unstable 0 Controllability controllable or uncontrollable o Locus of Causality o Abilityinternal o Effortinternal 0 Task difficultyexternal o Luckexternal o Stable vs Unstable o Abilitystable pretty consistent in situations 0 Effortunstable depends on how much motivation you have to do something your engagement 0 Task difficultyunstable o Luckunstable o Examples o If the teacher is having a good day you might get praise for your effort External unstable 0 I got an A in statistics because I worked really hard to get better Internal stable 0 You have to be good at math to do well in statistics and I m not Internal stable 0 I m failing because math is too hard External unstable o Dimensional Examples 0 Internal amp Stable aptitude longterm effort 0 Internal amp Unstable Skillsknowledge temporary effort 0 External amp stable characteristics of the task 0 External amp unstable chance CONTROL 0 Controllableeffort task difficulty 0 Uncontrollableability luck April 14 2011 o Negative reinforcement 0 Ms Kyong releases students from the threat of detention if they settle down and get to work o Restitution replacing something back to it s original state o Extinction stop source of reinforcement 0 April 19 2011 Escape negative reinforcement o By responding the person escapes from an unpleasant situation that he or she is experiencing o Scratch insect bite that itches 0 Clean room to stop nagging 0 Close window to stop draft 0 Headphones to not listen to unpleasant noise Less drastic means of decreasing behavior in operant conditioning o Extinction stopping reinforcement o Restitution have to make it right pay back o Reprimands verbal punishment o Positive practice do the right thing o Timeout remove the child o Suspension longer version of time out o Response cost lose a previously earned privilege or benefit What is the behavior your are targeting o Should be observable or measurable Do you want it to increase or decrease o INCREASE Positive or negative reinforcement directly or vicariously what type of reinforces are available o DECREASE punishment or less drastic means directly or vicariously Motivation Theories to Know o Behavior Theory 0 Operant conditioning o Attribution theory 0 Links to success 0 A way to explain what is happening to you that proves self worth o Expectancy value theory 0 Increase selfefficacy and value of task 0 Design tasks that students believe they can accomplish successfully 0 Help students see the value of the things you re asking them to learn o Goal orientation theory 0 Promote mastery goals Mastery Performance approach Performance avoidance Minimize comparison between students Focus on personal improvement goals o Selfdetermination theory 0 Provide autonomy in charge of own fate give students control over part of their learning competence make it possible for students to be successful and communitymore motivation o Relatedness create a community of learners to support each other 3312011 93300 PM 3312011 93300 PM


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.