Environmental Studies 3: Week 8 Notes
Environmental Studies 3: Week 8 Notes
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Date Created: 05/23/14
Week 8 Major IDs Ypres Influenza Stalingrad The Scorched Earth HBomb Tuesday May 20 2014 The Environmental Impact of Global Warfare Walk in Music La Valse Maurice Ravel Ypres World War 1 Overview Militarism of small countries looking for resources Environmental impacts of global warfare o Toxic messes o Led to nuclear energy and weapons o Tons of resources used Ypres small city in Belgium o Many battles fought there in WWI Germans seen as major antagonists o Thought they mess with France and get no response from the UK Sum of old regional hatreds brought to the forefront Lots of drafts first brought by France Alliances formed to maintain peace and security before the war started WWI also called the Great War ID Assassination of Franz Ferdinand ID o Heir to throne of AustriaHungary o Shot in Bosnia by Serbian terrorist o Brought back ethnic hatred o Extensive alliances got tons of people involved WWI began Western Front Western side of Germany Included Belgium France Holland and Luxembourg Germans wanted to make it to North Sea ID Ypres was key location to make it there 1 Battle of Ypres Mostly British vs Germans in early 1914 Winston Churchill ID fought as a foot soldier in that battle 238000 casualties Machine guns ID responsible for devastation Weren39t used extensively until WWI 2 39 Battle of Ypres Poison gas ID used o Also blister tear and vomiting gas ID o Technology had been around no one had used it until the Germans in the 2quot 39 Battle o Caused massive casualties o Wind could move gas towards those who were using it unreliable 105000 casualties Flamethrowers First used in WWI 2 39 Battle of Ypres 3quotquot Battle of Ypres Juy November 1917 570000 casualties Still digging up toxic chemicals and weapons in Ypres today 900000 casualties for all battles of Ypres Reminder for how big war had gotten Influenza Outbreak of 191819 killed 25 million worldwide Spanish Flu What influenza was called high mortality rate in Spain Questionable origins Asia ID Carried by swine Tons of people are involved in a war moving around the world really fast Wartime conditions Health care hygiene clean water disrupted Food shortages Alfred Crosby America39s Forgotten Pandemic Albert Mitchell Patient zero in the US Soldier at Camp Funston KS ID Became sick soon 107 more soldiers were sick Within a week reported in every state 1 wave of virus Spread to Europe with troops 2 39 wave started in New England Deadlier mutation 3quotquot wave 191819 US Public Health Service Supposed to guard against pandemics Tried telling people to wear medical masks Shut down public gatherings movies parades etc Disease killed young people more than old people Disease killed about 1 of the world s population Woodrow Wilson Then president Went to Treaty of Versailles drafting Got sick got nothing he wanted in the treaty Survived had a stroke wife basically ran the country for the rest of his term Was he weakened by the flu Franklin Roosevelt Survived the flu Picked up polio after fighting WWI never walked again Was he weakened by the flu Stalingrad Interwar Period Period between WWI and WWII Adolf Hitler WWII began when he invaded Poland Took over much of Western Europe with Nazi ID army Launched surprise invasion of USSR ID o Wanted to destroy USSR Didn39t have oil wanted oil fields in USSR o Hated the Russians anyway Battle of Stalingrad 194243 Continuous battle series of sieges 1000s froze and starved to death as well as being killed in battle Nazis put everything into taking the city Now called Volgograd ID Oil fields all around Caspian Sea ID near Stalingrad Russians let Germans into Stalingrad then blew it to pieces Germans had to retreat after 8 months All of Soviet strength vs all of German strength Turning point of war in Europe Reversed advance of Germans 500000 Soviets 500000 Nazis dead 25 million casualties Lilya Litvyak Tons of missions over Stalingrad Great Patriotic War Name of WWII in Russia 1 out of4 Russians died in the war Environmental Impact Area destroyed Thursday May 22 2014 The Environmental Impact of Global Warfare Walk in Music Staff Sergeant Barry Sader The Ballad of the Green Berets Country Joe and the Fish Fixin to Die Rag quotGreen Berets was about getting support for the Vietnam War quotFixin to Die was protesting it Film Clips Merrie Melodies Cartoons quotHerr Meets Hare and quotRussian Rhapsody Nuclear Blast Movie Scorched Earth Reading The Ecology of War Vietnam Controlled byJapan until end of WWII French came back to try and claim old colonial lands War between North and South US sent half a million troops into Vietnam Thought we were fighting Communism Defoliation US was fighting in a jungle Thought getting rid of the jungle would eliminate hiding places and make it easier to fight Agent Orange Defoliate Weed killer used to destroyjungles Toxic Used mostly in late 1960s Contaminated water supplies Destroyed ancient mangrove forests Operation Ranch Hand quotOnly we can prevent forests Caused long term erosion Changed local ecosystem Rome Plows Bulldozers used to destroy jungles 20ft long spear in front of them 11 ft wide Destruction led to lots of erosion and flooding Jungle Fires Douse wet trees with kerosene or gasoline set them on fire Damaged atmosphere ground and surface water o Due to contact with gas burning wood Weather Modification Fill clouds with silver iodide Too much rainfall mess with enemies ability to regroup Carpet Bombing Used Napalm to destroy landscapes Jacksonville AR Where they made Agent Orange Old WWII chemical plant Residents had much higher rates of lymphoma and Hodgkin39s Disease Water supply contaminated Still cleaning it up Lots of population died Earned name Dioxinville ID dioxin is a form of Agent Orange when mixed with water Persian Gulf War Saddam Hussein ID said Kuwait belonged to Iraq Invaded Kuwait Invasion ID George HW Bush ID organized coalition of countries to take back Kuwait Hussein promised the Mother of all Battles ID if they tried to take Kuwait US and friends were much better armed and organized destroyed the Iraqis Hussein retreated scorched the Earth as he did so His men sabotaged oil wells set them on fire US threatened to cut off water flow to soldiers if battle kept going Oil Spills Oil from sabotaged wells made it into water Killed local animals Smoke got into soldiers lungs caused respiratory problem called Gulf War Syndrome ID o Led to memory and sleep loss Form of environmental terrorism ID Desert doesn39t repair itself very well HBomb Thermonuclear Warfare Nuclear weapons Create immense amounts of heat Power equivalent to 15 megatons o 1 megaton 100 pounds of TNT