Statistics first week of notes with example worksheet
Statistics first week of notes with example worksheet Math-K310
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katelyn Scott on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Math-K310 at Indiana University taught by Linda Krause in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 106 views. For similar materials see Statistical Techniques in Mathematics (M) at Indiana University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Chapter 1 Notes 11 o is the science of collecting organizing and drawing conclusions about data 0 Data can be gathered and analyzed about a whole population or a sample I a whole set I a smaller set of the population 0 Sample data must be collected in an appropriate way such as random selection 0 A is the collection of data from every member of the population 12 0 Consider the following when analyzing data 0 under what circumstances does the data apply the number of sports jerseys have no statistical meaning 0 is the source of the data objectived or biased o was the size and method used appropriate and credible I Random sampling good I Voluntary response sampling bad 0 People selfselect to participate Those with a special interest choose to participate and bias the sample 0 EXAMPLE Diet A consistently loses 1 more pound than diet B in a given amount of time 0 Statistical significance diet A is more effective than B 0 Practical significance diet B tastes better Is the statistical difference enough in a practical sense there are 241472381 adults in the us 0 Population changes every minute Simply approximate to 240 million 0 The order of the question can influence the answer I Red cars or blue cars are saferblue cars or red cars are safer o there may be a correlation between two variables but that does not imply that one causes the other 0 EXAMPLE People with a cold have runny noses and a fever so a runny nose causes a fever This is a false conclusion 0 False conclusion do not use correlation to imply cause 0 Consider the source 0 Raisins are good for you study was funded by a grape company I It is biased 0 Statistics supplied by the BLS Bureau of Labor and Statistics unbiased 13 o A parameter is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a 14 A statistic is a numerical measurement describing some characteristic of a 0 Data can be quantitative or categorical data is numbers representing counts or measurements 0 Use units of measurement with quantitative data data is names or labels that don t represent counts or measurements EXAMPLES o The height of grass in inches quantitative o Street light color red green yellow categorical 0 Jersey numbers 5 10 24 categorical Quantitative data can be discrete or continuous o countable o infinite and uncountable usually a nonterminating decimal or an inaccurate measurement there can be infinite possibilities on what number you round to EXAMPLES 0 Shoe sizes 5 556 discrete 0 Grass height 312 in 000000004 in continuous Discrete does not constantly change Continuous does not count it has all and everything between RecaH o a voluntary response sample is a selfselected sample so it is biased 0 We should not make conclusions about a population based on biased samples 75 of doctors agreed on something with only 4 doctors surveyed The sample is way too small so the statistic is biased Reported vs observed observed may be more accurate than observed EXAMPLE peoples weights 0 People report inaccurately observe scale just observe and draw conclusions manipulate a variable and determine if it influences other variables Complete Worksheet 1 before continuing then check using key Sampling techniques of data collection 0 number each subject and select every kth number 0 divide the population into groups based on certain characteristics then select some from each group o divide the population into groups then select some of the groups and use all elements of the selected group o use results that are very easy to get a small sample of n objects is selected in such a way that every sample of size n has the same chance of being chosen o members of a population are selected in such a way that each individual member of the population has an equal chance of being selected Chapter 1 Collecting Sample Data Section 4 Example In a random sample of 1250 people A 26 said no How many said no B 600 people said maybe What percentage of the responses were maybe Examples Is the study observational or experimental 1 At an outdoor concert 1000 people were surveyed 22 reported that they smoked at the concert 2 46 people listened to a talk about the effects of cigarettes on health 50 people watched a video of cancer ravaged people talking about smoking The study of the effectiveness of a cancer video on the 96 people was concluded when they reported whether or not they were going to try and quit Chapter 1 Collecting Sample Data Section 4 Example In a random sample of 1250 people A 26 said no How many said no 026x1250 325 said no B 600 people said maybe What percentage of the responses were maybe 6001250 048 48 said maybe Examples Is the study observational or experimental 1 At an outdoor concert 1000 people were surveyed 22 reported that they smoked at the concert Observational 2 46 people listened to a talk about the effects of cigarettes on health 50 people watched a video of cancer ravaged people talking about smoking The study of the effectiveness of a cancer video on the 96 people was concluded when they reported whether or not they were going to try and quit Experimental
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