Week 1 Notes
Week 1 Notes CHEM 103-025
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lauren Buch on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 103-025 at University of Delaware taught by Jacqueline Fajardo in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 143 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Nursing and Health Sciences at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Integrated Chemistry 103 Dr Faj ardo Week 1 9194 Syllabus 39 ifaiardoudeledu 0 Office 169 Brown Lab and ISEL 402 G 0 Office Hours appointment 0 Clicker frequency DA 0 Sit with a partner lots of group activity 0 GO TO CLASS to earn clicker points 0 Skills for college 0 Formulate good questions Networkingcommunication Adaptability Proactivity Analytical skills 0 Creativity 0 Active learning in syllabus language 0 O O O 0 No need for textbook in class but you still need to have it 0 Set up smartwork online for practice homework and extra credit 0 POGIL workbook for workshops MANDATORY 0 Sapling homework set up online with link in syllabus 0 Don t give up on problems they give hints O Quizzes on homework you had the previous week timed 0 Exams Mondays 57 pm 0 105 112 1130 0 USE CANVAS 0 COAST Method 0 Collect Organize Analyze Solve Think about it 0 Method we will use in class 0 Brown Lab 202 Chemistry library with solution guide using COAST 0 Reading calendar in Canvas on googledoc 0 ChemTours on link in reading calendar Chapter 1 Matter and Energy The Origin of the Universe 11 Classes of Matter A Matter is everything in the universe that has mass and occupies space a Mass the property that defines the quantity of matter in an object B Energy is a fundamental component of the universe a Energy the capacity to do work C Chemistry the study of the composition structure and properties of matter and of the energy consumed or given off when matter undergoes a change a Chemistry is responsible for synthetic materials much of modern life D Principal Classes of Matter a Pure Substance cannot be separated by a physical process water Physical process transformation of a sample of matter such as a change in physical state that does not alter the chemical identities of any of the substances in the sample i Element 1 Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances 2 Organized via the periodic table ii Compound 1 A pure substance that is composed of two or more elements bonded together in fixed proportions and that can be broken down into those elements by some chemical process 2 Elements can only be separated by a chemical reaction a Chemical reaction transformation of one or more substances into different substances 3 Law of constant composition all samples of a particular compound contain the same elements combined in the same proportions b Mixture can be separated by a physical process i Homogenous Mixture 1 Substances making up the mixture are distributed uniformly and the composition and appearance of the mixture are uniform throughout also called solutions solids liquids and gases ii Heterogeneous Mixture 1 Substances are not distributed uniformly 12 Matter An Atomic View A Atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical characteristics of the element a If you grind a sample of pure silicon there would be a limit to how tiny a particle to could be and still be silicon limit is one atom b Chemists view matter on the atomic level aka microscopic or particulate level B Molecule a collection of atoms chemically bonded together in a characteristic proportion smallest unit of compound multiatom particles C Chemical formula a notation for representing elements and compounds a Consists of the symbols of the constituent elements and subscripts identifying the number of atoms of each element in one molecule H 2 0 D Chemical equation notation in which chemical formulas express the identities and their coefficients express the quantities of substances involved in a chemical equation a Arrow separates the initial materials reactants from final materials products b Show the ratio but not the structure of the reactants of products E Use structural formulas and molecular models structural formula ballandstick model spacefilling model to show chemical bonds a Chemical bond the energy that holds two atoms in a molecule together b Structural formula shows the atoms and the bonds between them shows how they are connected but does not indicate relative size or angle of bonds c Ballandstick model indicates the angle between the bonds but relative sizes do not always match d Spacefilling model spheres are drawn to scale and are next to each other as atoms are in real life but bonds are hard to see 13 Mixtures and How to Separate Them A Seawater is not homogenous contains suspended particles of undissolved solids sand phytoplankton sediments etc B Particles separated by filtration physical process a process for separating particles suspended in a liquid or gas from that liquid or gas from that liquid or gas by passing the mixture through a medium that retains the particles a Particles caught on the filter can be further treated by solvent extraction chemical process soaking the filter in a vial of liquid that dissolves many of the compounds present inside the cells b The pigments can then be separated from each other using TLC thin layer chromatography different pigments migrate upward with the solvent at different rates producing a distinctive pattern C Can also use distillation another physical process seawater is heated to a temperature at which water is vaporized contacts a cool surface and condenses back to liquid water and is collected as purified distillate 14 A Framework for Solving Problems A COAST method a C collect i Decide how to use the information given to answer the problem b O organize i Visualize the problem identify the key conceptterms sort through the information given for what is or is not relevant assemble the needed key information c A analyze i Work backwards to create links between information you have to the answer you seek d S solve i Insert starting values and appropriate constants keep units consistent e T think about it i Determine whether or not the answer makes sense 15 Properties of Matter A Intensive property a property that is independent of the amount of the amount of substance presence shine malleability color melting point etc B Extensive property a property that varies with the quantity of the substance present length width mass and volume C Physical property a property of a substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance density intensive properties a Density massvolume D Chemical property a property of a substance that can be observed only by reacting it to form another substance ammability reactivity identity of substance with which it reacts and the identity of the products formed 16 States of Matter A Solid a form of matter that has a definite shape and volume B Liquid a form of matter that occupies a definite volume but ows to assume the shape of its container C Gas a form of matter that has neither definite volume nor shape and that expands to fill its container aka vapor D Transformations of states a Evaporation liquid to gas Condensation gas to liquid Melting solid to liquid Freezing liquid to solid Sublimation solid directly into a vapor f Deposition vapor directly to a solid 17 The Scientific Method Starting Off With a Bang A Scientific method an approach to acquiring knowledge based on observation of 9 9rgt phenomena development of a testable hypothesis and additional experiments that test the validity of the hypothesis B Hypothesis a tentative and testable explanation for an observation or a series of observations C Scientific theory model a general explanation of a Widely observed phenomenon that has been extensively tested and validated a Hypothesis that withstands the tests of many experiments over time and explains the results of further observation and experimentation achieves this rank D Steps of the scientific method a Observe natural phenomena propose tentative hypothesis test hypothesis With experiments or additional observations revise if necessary refine hypothesis make predictions based on it test validity of prediction With more experiments modify hypothesis if necessary establish a theory or model but continue to test validity 18 Making Measurements and Expressing the Results A SI base units a Mass kilogram kg b Length meter m c Temperature kelvin K d Time second s e Energy joule J f Electrical current ampere A g Amount of a substance mole mol B SI Prefixes azamz m Exa E 1018 PaaP 1d5 Tera T 1012 w wrvpap c GyG m9 Mega M 106 Kilo k 103 h Hecto h 102 mMm1d Deci d 10 1 Centi c 10 2 Milli m 10 3 Micro u 10 6 Nano n 10 9 Pico p 10 12 Femto f 10 15 Atto a 10 18 r Zepto z 10 21 C Significant Figures a All the certain digits in a measured value plus one estimated digit b The greater the number of significant figures the greater the certainty with H O evpparwe which the value is known c Rules i Zeroes at the beginning of a value are never significant They just set the decimal place ii Zeroes at the end of a value and after a decimal point are always significant iii Zeroes at the end of a value that contains no decimal point may or may not be significant They may only be there to set the decimal point so use scientific notation to be more clear iv Zeroes between nonzero digits are always significant d ONLY USE SIG FIGS AT THE END OF A CALCULATION e Weaklink principle the answer has the same number of sig figs as the number with the lowest amount of sig figs make your answer match the smallest number D Precision and Accuracy a Precision the extent to which repeated measurements of the same variable agree i Use the range average plus or minus b Accuracy agreement between an experimental value and the true value i Use something you know and test against the experimental results 19 Unit Conversions and Dimensional Analysis A Conversion factor a fraction in which the numerator is equivalent to the denominator but is expressed in different units making the value of the fraction 1 B Initial units X desired unitsinitial units desired units C Make your units cross out using what you have to get to what you want
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