Psychopathology Weekly Notes
Psychopathology Weekly Notes 20732
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kenedy Ramos on Sunday February 28, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 20732 at Gonzaga University taught by Dr. Fernandez in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Psychopathology in Psychlogy at Gonzaga University.
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Date Created: 02/28/16
Psychopathology Weekly Notes Eating Disorders Disorders include Pica Rumination Disorder AvoidantRestrictive Food Intake Disorder Anorexia Nervosa Bulimia Nervosa and Binge Eating Disorder Statistics Prevalence is 12 for anorexia and 34 for bulimia Thoughts that 1020 of people with an eating disorder die and only 10 receive treatment Of these 80 do not receive treatment that is sufficient in intensity Bulimia Nervosa 30751 Recurrent episodes of binge eating larger than would expect in discrete time period sense of lack of control over eating during episode Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain like vomiting laxatives diuretics fasting or excessive dieting These two features at least one time a week for 3 months and unduly evaluate self by body shape and weight Mild average of 12 episodes of inappropriate compensatory behaviors a week Moderate average of 47 episodes per week Severe average of 8 13 episodes per week Extreme average of episodes per week Psychological features binges often triggered by stress and negative emotions most have comorbid psychological disorders like depression or anxiety Medical features purging can results in severe problems like electrolyte imbalance cardiac arrhythmia seizures and renal failure all fatal erosion of dental enamel permanent colon damage Majority female and average onset around age 1619 For males later onset and predominately gay or bisexual males 68 of college women suffer from bulimia Tends to be chronic if left untreated and patients have an elevated risk for suicide Anorexia Nervosa 3071 Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to a signi cantly decreased body weight Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain Disturbance in way one s body weight or shape is experienced undue in uence of body weight or shape on selfevaluation F5001 Restricting Type during last 3 months weight loss is primarily through dieting fasting and or excessive exercise F5002 Binge eatingpurging Type recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging like selfvomiting or laxatives etc SIDE NOTE Mild BMI greater or equal to 17 kgm2 Moderate 161699 kgm239 Severe 151599 kgm2 Extreme BMI lt 15 kgm2 Medical Features Low blood pressure heart rate decrease kidney and GI problems loss of bone mass amenorrhea loss of menstrual period brittle nails dry skin hair loss lanugo soft downy body hair depletion of potassium and sodium and can cause fatigue and death 04 12 month prevalence for females 101 ratio of females to males in clinical populations Usually develops during adolescence or young adulthood Majority of white females in middle to upper middle class families Onset often associated with stressful life events like leaving for college Course and outcome are highly variable some recover after a single episodes some uctuate and others have a chronic course Comorbidity with bipolar depressive and anxiety disorders many report either an anxiety disorder or sxs prior to onset COD in some especially those with the restrictive types alcohol and substance disorder can also be present Binge Eating Disorder Recurrent episodes of binge eating characterized by the following eating in a discrete period of time an amount of food that is de nitely larger than what most would eat in similar period of time under similar circumstances sense of lack of control over eating during episode Associated with more than 3 of the following eating much more rapidly than normal eating until feeling uncomfortably full eating large amounts of food when not feeling physically hungry eating alone because of feeling embarrassed by how much one is eating feeling disgusted with oneself depressed or very guilty afterward Marked distress regarding binge eating is present binge eating occurs at least three times a week over three months Not associated with recurrent use of inappropriate compensatory behavior as in bulimia and foes not occur exclusively during the course of bulimia or anorexia Occurs in normal weight overweight and obese individuals Compared to those that are obese those with BED consume more calories have greater functional impairment lower quality of life more subjective distress and greater psychiatric comorbidity Females 16 and males 08 little known development but can occur in children dieting follows development in many individuals typically begins in adolescence or young adulthood remission rates higher than for bulimia or anorexia course relatively persistent Comorbid with bipolar disorders depressive and anxiety disorders and to a lesser degree of substance use disorders Cultural Implications Mostly found in Westernized cultures recent immigrants have increased rates of eating disorders Values can be generated to children age 9 20 age 14 40 trying to lose weight Eating disorders have increased threefold in the last 50 years Up to 21 of college women show subthreshold sxs 61 of college women show some sort of eating pathology Only 15 minutes of exposure to beauty ads increases girl39s perception of importance of beauty in popularity with boys Leads to selfworth happiness and success thought Males report more of a desire to be heavier and more muscular Genetic contribution to body type White and Hispanic females exhibit more body dissatisfaction than anyone else Biological and Familial Considerations Biological neurobiological abnormalities low levels of serotonergic activity related to impulse control and binge eating question of cause or effect remains but roll in maintenance Familial typical family for someone with anorexia successful concerned with external appearance desire for harmony Mothers of girls with disordered eating tend to want their daughters to be thing be dieting and have less family satisfaction Psvcholooical Considerations Low sense of personal control and selfcon dence perfectionism only if accompanied by perceptions of being overweight and low selfesteem preoccupations of food distorted body images rate themselves as larger than controls of same size feel like frauds preoccupation with how viewed by others mood intolerance purging attempt to regulate mood Medical Treatment Antidepressants Prozac FDA approved in 1996 for eating disorders can help reduce binging and purging behavior in shortterm not ef cacious in the longterm have not been found effective in anorexia or BED Goals of Psvch Treatments in Bulimia Ner And BED CBT E address beliefs about weight dieting harmful attempts to control weight and methods to compensate Bulimia educate physical consequences ineffectiveness planned meals stages dysfunctional thoughts and attitudes about body shape weight and eating coping strategies for resisting impulse BED adapting CBT successful lPT as effective along with selfhelp programs Goals of Psvch Treatment in Anorexia Ner Weight restoration rst and easiest goal to achieve not predictive of long term success but essential due to severe potential medical complications including cardiac failure CBT target food weight body image thought and emotion overemphasis on thinness as selfworth value Every effort to involve the family negative communication regarding foodeating eliminated structured meals attitudes about body shapeimage distortion discussed Prevention Most predictive factors of later problems early concern with being overweight Address concerns psychoeducational approaches normalize weight gain following puberty restricting calories and dieting could cause weight gain Risk factor approach identify most at risk and intervene early