J201 Media and Society
J201 Media and Society
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This 21 page Reader was uploaded by Morgan Miller on Saturday May 24, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Oregon taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 171 views.
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Date Created: 05/24/14
Chapter 13 Values Ethics Democracy Terms News the process of gathering information and making reports that use a narrative framework that is news reports tell stories Newsworthy whether it merits transformation into news stories Ethnocentrism way by which reporters judge other countries and cultures on the basis of how they live up to or imitate American practices and values Responsible ca italism value as held by American journalists responsible capitalism assumes that t e purpose of business is not to maximize pro ts but to create increased prosperity for all Small town pastoralism value identi ed whereby journalists tend to favor the small over the large and the rural over the urban Individualism individualistic journalism that has rugged tenacity for confronting and exposing corruption Con ict of interest situations in which journalists may stand to bene t personally from producing a story or from presenting the subject in a certain light Pack journalism reporters desperate for material stake out someone s house chase celebrities in herds or packs or follow a story with such unoriginal single mindedness that the entire profession seems to lose its bearings Sound bit TV equivalent of a quote in print news part of a broadcast news report in which an expert a celebrity a victim or a person on the street responds to some aspect of an event or issue with short memorable comment Public journalism helped involve readers more actively in creating news Modern Journalism in the information Age Journalism has been meant to provide info that enables citizens to make intelligent decisions this isn t happening anymore because Media producing too much info Info doesn t approve the quality of public and political life What is news news newsworthy criteria timeliness proximity con ict prominence human mterest consequence usefulness novelty deviance journalists in uence our interpretations of what is going on around us and the dec1s1ons we make Values in American journalism neutrality lack of bias leads to credibility inVerted pyramid news lead most important information rst attribution of sources minimal use of adverbs and adjectives third person point of View more neutral reaches many Viewers as possible Other Values ethnocentrism responsible capitalism small town pastoralism indiVidualism according to Herbert Gans sociologist Ethics and News Media Ethical predicaments deception Nelly Bly s fakes insanity to get inside a corrupt asylum in the 1880s does the end justify the means absolutist ethics suggests that a moral society has laws and codes that everyone must live by at all times and in all cases Situational ethics we must make decisions on case by case basis about how we can best serve the greater public book lying and withholding information constitutes deception ethics code adopted by Society of Professional ournalistsSP calls on journalists to seek truth and respect it minimize harm act independently be accountable privacy invasion weighing protection of individual privacy versus public s right to know con icts of interest Journalists don t actively participate in politics or support social causes Can t reveal political affiliations resolving ethical dilemmas consulting philosophers Aristotle golden mean desirable middle ground between extreme positions lmmanual Kant categorical imperative society must adhere to moral codes that are universal and unconditional applicable in all situations at all times Jeremy Benthan and John Stuart Mill greatest good for the greatest number Mallting ethics decisions loollt at philosophers aeporting Rituals Journalists have developed speci c reporting rituals that are derived from two desires to make news interesting and to demonstrate fairness objectivity Focusing on the present started downplaying historical developments that led up to a current event treating events as momentary sensations pressure for reporters to tell compelling stories beating competitors to get a story rst early story aren t as accurate or complete pick journalism Relying on experts can lend credibility and balance to a news report and help reporters translate specialized knowledge into accessible language for readers and viewers create narrative con ict pitting quotes from one export against rebuttles from another pundits supposed experts who can cheaply feed the cavernous news hole with knowledge and opinions were often used to ll news cheaply with knowledge and opinions rather than experts Creating and balancing story con ict balance presenting all sides of an issue without favoring one position allows to set up con ict which sells some offer 3quot person recount that transcends judgment of the issue and gives impression of neutrality Acting as adversaries use tough questioning to confront wrongdoers than expose misdeeds prominent in political reporting Journalism in the Age of TV and the Internet Internet immediacy to journalism TV news and websites foreground a dramatic narrative approach and use video to help tell and sell stories Internet sites investigative journalism TV news stations no longer do in depth reporting Comparing print TV and Internet news print editors t stories around ads on the printed page TV news directors have to time stories to t between commercials ads seem more intrusive print journalists derive credibility from neutrality TV news reporters ain credibility from providin live on the spot reporting believa le imagery earnestpersona le demeanor pretty faces and happy talk attractive people with upbeat personalities who exchange banter happy talk ad libbed or scripted banter relaxed feeling sound bites Adapting to the Internet update breaking stories online online versions traditional video audio negative 1 print reporters do e mail interviews that lack surprise and spontaneity 2 large amount of information on internet causes more work to be copied newspapers produce well researched and fact checked articles that go into greater depth convergence digital cameras for photos and videos blog tweet internet version of stories all expected of journalists Alternative models public journalism and fake news relies heavily on informational model emphasizes describing events and issues from a neutral stance participatory journalism movements citizens more actively participate in news process Example The Onion and The Daily Show satirize limitations of mainstream news and provide original news and analysis Fake news The Daily Show and john Stewart and the Colbert Report Pew research center study in 2oo7 found that people who watched these satiric shows were more often better informed than other news consumers usually because they got news from multiple sources TV news needs to break free from tired formulas and create fresh ways to tell stories Public journalism works to involve citizens and journalists more centrally in civic and political life journalists began sponsoring forums where citizens were invited to have a voice in the news that effected them and published stories framed from citizens perspectives Journalism in a Democratic Society Freedom of press importance of challenging leaders public s right to know two sides to every story Intruding on people s private lives Ful ll social responsibility journalists need to become activists Public journalism movement aided by internet fosters deliberative democracy citizen groups local government and news media work together to actively shape social economic and political agendas Converged journalism offers citizens an opportunity to in uence their leaders Increasing variety of news sources allow for journalism that uses techniques like paying attention to historical and economic contexts of stories doing more investigative reports participating in public life of their own communities admitting cultural biases and occasional mistakes Lecture Media Economics Media economics sales production costs staff salaiy Economics the study of how societies use scarce resources to produce Valuable commodities and distribute them among Various groups allocation of resources Media economics 1 THE STUDY OF HOW MEDIA INDUSTRIES USE SCARCE RESOURCES TO PRODUCE CONTENT THAT IS DISTRIBUTED AMONG CONSUMERS IN A SOCIETY TO SATISFY VARIOUS WANTS AND NEEDS albarran 2 A TERM EMPLOYED TO REFER TO BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES OF FIRMS PRODUCING AND SELLING OUTPUT INTO VARIOUS MEDIA INDUSTRIES owers et al Economics can in uence decisions about what production for whom allocation pu how capital control organization and why Major Media Corporations Viacom has ownership of cable media networks entertainment studios Paramount pictures and has partnerships with Ilulu and Net ix News Corp started by Rupert Murdock owns Fox New York Post Wall Street Journal National Geographic Disney owns ABC ESPN Marble theme parks cruise ships Lucus lm Star Wars their media networks account for 45 of their revenue studio entertainment Pixar Marvel Lucus accounts for 18 and theme parks and resorts account for 28 Time Warner Harry Potter and Two and a Half Men they have 32000 employees worldwide and own TV lm publishing and website businesses Sony record labels consumer and professional devices blu ray Comcast Universal NBC largest media entertainment company by revenue cable provider wants to buy Time Warner CBS stations radio stations lms TV show soundtracks All are involved in multiple industries and are global bene ts are they don t put all of their eggs in one basket Largest Companies 2o13In Billions A few of the top 10 0 Wal Mart 4692 0 Exxon Mobil 0 Apple 0 General Motors 35 Microsoft 46 Comcast 626 55 Google 66 Walt Disney Ben Dicken media consolidation is an illusion of choice 6 media giants control 90 of what we read watch and listen to Positives of having major corporation trend setters public visibility smaller corporations have more stability under larger Negatives hard for small companies to make a name control messages diverse voices are limited Structural trends 3 goals MaXimize pro ts reduce costs reduce risk economics of scale synergy development and promotion branding segmentation specialization diversi cation globalization joint ventures Pur ose of Media entertain inform share ideas in uence pub ic service make money communication balance purposes with needs of stakeholders Media and Public Interest Info should circulate freely ownership should be broad and diversi ed some media should be publicly accessible serve vs target citizens vs consumers consumer control vs consumer choice Quiz 1 What are some newsworthy criteria Answer 1 newsworthy criteria timeliness proximity con ict prominence human interest consequence usefulness novelty deviance 2 What are some Values in American journalism Answer 2 Neutrality Ethnocentrism individualism 3 What can economics in uence Answer 3 Economics can in uence decisions about what production for whom allocation how capital control organization and why
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