BSC 101 Helms Week 3 Lecture Notes 8/31-9/4
BSC 101 Helms Week 3 Lecture Notes 8/31-9/4 BSC 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Daniel Hemenway on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 101 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Helms in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 128 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology in Biological Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
BSC 101 Helms 83194 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 17 Opinions What we think about something based on subjective experience Predictions Expected observations in a particular experiment Hypothesis Plausible explanation of how something works or why someone would make a particular prediction Quality Must be testable and falsifiable Theory Broad explanation based of lots of evidence with little or no statements refuting it As strong as it gets Law Description of something consistently observed Mostly mathematical Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 18 There isn t really a single scientific method Scientists share lots of the same practices though all centering around questions and curiosity Science has its limitation in studying the natural world 1 Cannot examining the philosophical meanings of life 2 Cannot investigate the supernatural 3 Cannot examine the realm of values and ethics Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 19 1 Observable characteristics morphology The idea of being able to compare forms or structures of distantly related organisms Example Whale and Hummingbird both arehave Vertebrae Skull Hind Limbs What explains these similarities Common Ancestry Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 20 When we look at morphology there are several more specific things we see that lend support for the scientific theory of evolution Why do whales have hind limbs and a pelvis Its on land ancestor Vestigial Structures definition genetically determined structures or attributes that have apparently lost most or all of their ancestral function in a given species but have been retained through evolution BSC 101 Helms 83194 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 21 When a trait has the same structure across distantly related organisms this is because it s a homologous trait stems from common ancestry In this case we are looking at the forelimbs of various mammals Human 0 Dog Whale Homologous Structures definition The similarities in anatomical traits that result from common ancestry same structure different function for different organisms Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 22 When comparing the wings of a bat bird and a dragonfly you may conclude that all three have wings that are derived from a shared common ancestor A closer examination will reveal They have the same function but different structure Share a similar functional adaptation of flight They don t show an evolutionary relationship Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 23 2 Fossil Evidence Layers of gravel sand and mud accumulate embedding and preserving fossils Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 24 Dating fossils Positional Dating Bottom Deeper Older Top Shallower Newer This is a photo of an Archaeopteryx fossil Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 25 Based on the known rate of decay of these elements radiometric dating determines when the radiometric clock started and therefore the age of the rock layers associated with the fossil can be determined Certain elements break down at certain speeds Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 26 Comparative embryology Vertebrates pass through similar developmental patterns indicating that they share a common ancestor Similarities across distantly related organisms BSC 101 Helms 83194 Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 27 More similar DNA indicates greater degree of relatedness Evolutionary diagram based on the molecular comparisons of the cytochrome c gene of several organisms Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 29 Earth s landmasses were united in a single continent that we now call Pangea Terrestrial habitats Land Dinosaur inhabited and are the prominent organism Ruled by reptiles Aquatic habitats Ocean very rich with life Land Plants Ferns Ginkgo Conifer Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 31 Pigeonsized primitive bird quotArchaeopteryxquot had a mix of reptile and bird characteristics Birdlike traits WingFeathers Foot with three toes pointing forward one pointing backward Reptilelike traits Long tail with vertebrae Teeth Wing claw Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 32 Archaeopteryx was discovered in the 18605 The evolution of flight required several structural adaptations These transitional forms are all documented in A reptile had to evolve to have A lighter bone structure A more aerodynamic body Wing and muscle structures to flap and provide lift These adaptations accumulated over millions of generations Archaeopteryx provides us with how one species evolved from another Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 33 Taxonomy A field of biology that classifies identifies and names organisms Classify The process of placing organisms in categories or traits including body form anatomical structures developmental events that occur and the biochemistry of the organisms BSC 101 Helms 83194 All of these traits arise from DNA biologists assign the domain based on the two different types of cells composing organisms Taxonomic hierarchy domain kingdom phylum class order family genus and species Mnemonic device Did King Philip Come Over For Great Sex Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 34 Species Fundamental units of evolution and diversity Are these the same species How could you tell They are not the same species to be the same species they must be able to interbreed Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 35 Evolutionary tree definition a tool that provides a visual summary of a complex set of scientific data linking taxonomy with evolutionary relationships Evolutionary trees summarize evolutionary relationships Representation of time Show who is most closely related Represent best data about the pattern of relationships among groups of species Provide a visual summary linking taxonomy with evolutionary relationships Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 36 When we look at evolutionary trees often traits shared characteristics are labeled along the tree to show when they evolved like this What does this mean There was a speciation event Each organism beyond that shares that trait Evolutionary reversal Not common when a character reverts from a derived state back to the ancestral state over many generations Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 37 Three domains of life 0 1 Bacteria 2 Archaea 3 Eukarya BSC 101 Helms 83194 Bacteria Unicellular Prokaryotic cell structure No nucleus chromosome in nucleoid region No membrane bound organelles Cell wall not made of cellulose Capsule on outside Ribosomes make protein Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 38 Archaea Other prokaryote live in extreme environments Unicellular Prokaryotic cell structure No nucleus Coursepack Notetaking Guides Page 39 Eukarya Organisms with eukaryotic cell design True nucleus Membrane bound organelles Four groups 1 Animals 2 Fungi 3 Plants 4 Protists
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