Bio Week 2 Notes
Bio Week 2 Notes LIFE 103
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna curry on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 103 at Colorado State University taught by Shane Kanatous; Graham Peers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants in Biology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Bio Vocabulary Terms Chapter 2631 excluding chapter 30 Anaerobic Respiration substances other than 02 such as nitrate ions or sulfate ions accept electrons at the end of the Electron Transport Chain Analogy similarity between organisms that is due to convergent evolution rather than shared ancestry Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi extended branching hyphae through the root cell wall and into tubes formed by invagination Ascia saclike covering for ascomycete spores Ascocarps ascomycetes develop these fruiting bodies that hold the asci Ascomycetes a wide variety of marine freshwater and terrestrial habitats Basal Taxon a lineage that diverges early in the history of a groups and lies on a branch point that originates near the common ancestor of the group Basidiomycetes includes mutualists that form mycorrhizae and two groups of destructive plant parasites Basidiocarps elaborate fruiting bodies that aid in sexual reproduction Basidium a cell in which karyogamy occurs followed immediately by meiosis Binomial twopart scientific name consisting of the genus and species Biofilms surfacecoating colonies that secrete signaling molecules to recruit other cells causing colonies to grow Bioremediation the use of organisms to remove pollutants from soil air or water Branch Points a two way branch that represent a hypothesis about evolutionary relationships Capsule a thick and welldefined sticky layer of polysaccharide or protein Chitin a strong but exible polysaccharide found in cell walls of fungi Chytridsclassifled in the phylum Chytridiomycota and are ubiquitous in lakes and soil Clades groups that consist of an ancestral species and all of its descendants Cladistics common ancestry is the primary criterion used to classify organisms Classes related orders are classified into these Coenocytic Fungi consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass having hundreds or thousands of nuclei Conidia asexual spores produced externally in clusters or long chains Conjugation DNA is transferred between two prokaryotic cells that are temporarily joined one cell donated and one cell receives Commensalism an ecological relationship on which one species benefits while the other is not harmed or helped in any significant way Decomposers breaking down dead organisms and waste products and thereby unlocking supplies of carbon nitrogen and other elements Deuteromycetes a group containing all fungi lacking sexual reproduction Dikaryotichaploid nuclei pair off two to a cell one from each parent Domains related kingdoms are placed in to one of the three main domains eukarya bacteria and archaea Ectomycorrhizal Fungi from sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and typically grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex Endospores resistant cells formed when cells lack essential nutrients the original cell produces a copy of its chromosome and surrounds that copy with a tough multilayered structure and then water is removed and the metabolism halts Endophytes fungi that live inside leaves or other plant parts without causing harm Exotoxinsproteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms Endotoxins lipopolysaccharide components of the outer membrane of a gramnegative bacteria released only when the bacteria die and their cell walls break down Extreme Halophiles live in highly saline environments Extreme Thermophiles thrive in very hot environments Extremophiles lovers of extreme conditions F Factor the ability to form pili an donate DNA during conjugation results from the presence of this piece of DNA F Plasmid cells with this circular piece of DNA function as the DNA donors during conjugation Facultative Anaerobes use 02 if it is present but can also carry out fermentation or anaerobic respiration in an anaerobic environment Family related genera are classified in this Fimbriae hairlike appendages that help cells stick to their substrate Genus The rst part of the binomial name part of Linnaean Classification Glomeromycetes an ecologically significant group because nearly all of them form arbscular mycorrhizae Gram Negativebacteria with less peptidoglycan and are structurally more complex with an outer membrane that contains lipopolysaccharides Gram Positive bacteria with simpler walls that contain relatively large amounts of peptidoglycan Gram Stain a dye developed by Danish physician Hans Christian Gram Haustoria specialized hyphae that fungi use to extract nutrients from or exchange nutrients from or exchange nutrients with their plant host Heterocysts specialized cells that carry out only nitrogen fixation Heterokaryon fused mycelium containing genetically different nuclei Homoplasies analogous structure that arose independently Horizontal Gene Transfer a process in which genes are transferred from one genome to another through mechanisms such as exchange of transposable elements and plasmids viral infections and perhaps fusions of organisms Host the larger organism in the symbiotic relationship Hyphae a network of tiny filaments Ingroup lineage that includes the species in question Karyogamyhaploid nuclei contributed by two parents fuse producing diploid cells Kingdoms related phyla are organized into thee Lichen a symbiotic association between a photosynthetic microorganism and a fungus in which millions of photosynthetic cells are held in a mass of fungal hyphae Maximum Likelihood identifies the tree most likely to have produced a given set of DNA data based on certain probability rules about how DNA sequences change over time Maximum Parsimony rst investigate the simplest explanation that is consistent with the facts Methanogens archaea that release methane as a byproduct of their unique ways of obtaining energy they are poisoned by 02 Molecular Clock an approach for measuring the absolute time of evolutionary change based on the observation that some genes and other regions of the genome appear to evolve at constant rates Monophyletic Group clade consists of an ancestral species and all of its descendants Mutualism an ecological interaction between two species in which both bene t Mycelium an interwoven mass formed from hyphae that in ltrate the material on which the fungus feeds Mycorrhizae mutually bene cial relationships between fungi and plant roots Mycosis an infection in an animal by a fungal parasite Nitrogen Fixation conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia Nucleoid where the chromosomes are located in a prokaryotic cell a region of cytoplasm that is not enclosed by a membrane Nucleariids consists of amoebas that feel on algae and bacteria Obligate Aerobes must use 02 for cellular respiration and cannot grow without it Obligate Anaerobes are poisoned by 02 some live exclusively by fermentation and others use anaerobic respiration Opisthokonts a name that refers to the posterior location of the agellum Orders related families are organized into these Orthologus Genes homology is the result of a speciation event had hence occurs between genes found in different species Outgroup a species or group or species from an evolutionary lineage that diverged before the lineage in question Paralogous Genes homology results from gene duplication multiple copies of these genes have diverged from one another within a species Paraphyletic Group consists of an ancestral species and some but not all of its descendants Parasite the bacteria that enters a host in a parasitic relationship Parasitism an ecological relationship in which a parasite eats the cell contents tissues or body uids of its hosts Pathogens parasites that cause disease Peptidoglycan a polymer composed of modi ed sugars crosslinked by short polypeptides Pheromones sexual signaling molecules Phyla related classes are placed in these Phylogenetic Tree a branching diagram that matches how taxonomists have classi ed groups of organisms nested within more inclusive groups Phylogeny the evolutionary history of a species or group if species Pili appendages that pull two cells together prior to DNA transfer from one cell to another Plasmids a typical prokaryotic cell may also have much smaller rings or independently replicating DNA molecules Plasmogamy the union of the cytoplasms of two parent mycella Polytomy a branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge Polyphyletic Group includes distantly related species but does not include their most recent common ancestor R Plasmids resistance genes are carried in these plasmids Rooted Tree the terminal branch point represents the more recent common ancestor or all taxa in the tree Septa crosswalls that divide fungi cells Shared Ancestral Character a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon Shared Derived Character an evolutionary novelty unique to a clade Sister Taxa groups of organisms that share an immediate common ancestor Soredia small clusters of hyphae with embedded algae Spores haploid cells that form new mycelia after germinating Symbiont the smaller organism in a symbiotic relationship 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