Topics in American Popular Culture
Topics in American Popular Culture LIT 80
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1 1508 Lisa Lowe Immigrant Acts It is through the terrain of national culture that the individual subject is politically formed as the American citizen what forms of culture is she talking about iconography visual symbols ads visual art performance kinetic bodily movement narrative Mrsma what we know now about n arrative Narratives whether ctional or nonfictional textual or lmic share certain formal structures time devices for manipulating it histoirm cit and voice point of v39ew existence of a narrator Narratives whether ctional or non ctional textual or lmic are forms of social relation Mrsma nationhood and narrative the imagined community from Benedict Anderson prior to the rise of the newspaper in c19 there were no obvious ways to imagine yourself simultaneously linked to other individuals strangers to youwith whom you might have something in common reading is key to rise of democracy critics argue for the importance of the bildungsroman the narrative of evolving selfhood to the democratic tradition Mrsma Gilb 2 slides 1 1508 from Lowe The bildungsroman emerged as the primary form for narrating the evelopment ofthe individual 39om youthful innocence to civilized maturity the telos of which is the reconciliation ofthe individual with the social or erquot it elicits the reader s identi cation with the bildung 39 ical formation itselfa narrative ofthe individual s relinquishing ofparticularity an difference hroug identi cation with an idealized national form of subjectivityquot narratives of belonging What are our national culture s preferred narrativesstories of subject formation remember that narratives do not have to be fictional how does telos endpoint determine the course or plot of the narrative mama interpellation a concept from philosopher Louis Althusser to recognize yourself as a particular kind of subject such that you come when called subjectivity a psychological as well as a socialpolitical concept identification vs disidentification or alienation mama Gilb 2 slides 2 Latino XP Tobar IV lecture slides 10608 writing about trauma witness literature testimonio among the functions of testmanic to provide documentary evidence for legalhistorical reasons while insisting on the importance of personal narrative as evidence but also to use the writing process itself as a way to work through the trauma thatthe survivorvictim has undergone memory and narrative the model from Freud outlines a therapeutic process for healing wounds to the psyche narrative the talking curequot the need to read interpret the symbolic repetition reconstruction and workingthrough more key concepts 39om Freud contested but still very much alive the idea that we all have psychological defense mec anismsquot that get us hrough the day some key Latino XP Tobar IV trouble with the recovery model Can the originating eventwound ever be truly recalled much less worked through especially in a vehicle as imperfect as language debate on the ethics of representing violencehorror in photographs or film lecture slides 10608 Susan Sontag On Photography 1977 Photography Sontag claimed set the observer on a search for the photogenic by converting experience into an image a souvenirquot quotAlthough the camera is an observation station he act ofphotographing is moret an passive observing Like sexual voyeurism 39 a a 39 39 ily happening To take a picture is to have an interest in things as they are in the status quo remaining es a subject interesting worth photographing including when that is the interest another person39s pain or misfortunequot im ges anesthetize e e images or great surrering because or the sheer quantity or images by which we are deiuged sontag moduiated her eariier attackon photogra hy to some degree in Regarding the Pain nfOlhers2003 arter seeing Saraieyo That we are not totaiiy transrormed that we can turn away turn the page switch the channei does not impugn the ethicai yaiues or an assauit by images tis not a detect that we are not seare t at we do not suffer enoug w en we se these images Neither is the photograph supposed to repair our a s ch images cannot be more than an inyitation to pay attention to re ect to learn to examinet e rationaiizations tor mass suttering ottered by estabiished Latino XP Tobar IV shifting genres poetry and witness Pablo Neruda 19041973 Chilean poet politically active following Spanish Civil War most ambitious book Canto Genera19 other twen iethcentury Spanish and Latin American poets selfidenti ed with revolutionary Lelt causes Federico G rcia Lorca Cesar Vallejo Gabriela Mistral Roque Dalton Ernesto Cardenal Claribel Alegria Eduardo Galeano Rosario Mur39 o Martin Espada actively takes up Neruda mantle in n him some ways shadowi 9 lecture slides 10608 considering poems 1ft normal wozd ozdez ofa sentence is inverted in a poetic line tetet to two dittetent subiects and itso how mtg t e ambiguity lead you to dittetent Conclusions On abroadet scale what kinds of issues does the oem seem to be addtessing Is theze a crisis ofbellef ot emotion Who is speaking and to whom Do th pronouns shiftisay fzom quotIquot to quotwequot what else changesquot in setting voice ot toner ovet the course of the poem Whatrelationships between terms concepts ot images ate established Ate thete binary terms that wozk in opposition to each othet and it so do they establish a ckrandrfotth dialectic on metaphors and symbols Imagery and metaphorical language are languages primary ways of suggesting that which it does not e t pertectly explicit Visual and aural ages may set the scene tor a poetic statement or they may radiate some symbolic signi cance All imagm are n neseasinily sym ic nor is there a quotmaster key of universally accepted symbols that every reader agrees upon 39 39 39 39 its context as part of a sum ettect it is not a simple riddle to be decoded in only one way Circle or try to map out the ditterent images in the poem look tor contrasts inversions or repetitions among them Viramontes Herrera 112108 from the Chicano Movement to the immigrant rights movement Chicam39smo is alive and well httpwwwsantacruzsentinelcomlocalnewsc i 11040086 Since 2000 Latinos not only Mexican account for half the national population maps httppewhispanicorgstatespopulation 1 in 5 Mexican immigrants enter the country legally average wait for work permit even with family in US is 810 years 1 in R hnll nhnld nf Mn ir nn nrinin in thin I IQ threeminute overview of the Mexicanorigin population of the US only about 10 ofthe US population that identi es as ofMexican originquot traces family roots to pre 8 major waves ofMexican migration peak during and alter Mexican Revolution 19101920 some returning a erward mass deportations 1930s 40s another peak during Bracero Program 19421964 In 1980 the Mexicanorigin population was about 8 million in 1990 13 million in 2000 21 million in 2006 28 million what s behind the growth of these past two decades In 1986 under Reagan the Immigration Reform and Control Act provided paths to citizenship for those who had entered the US withou documentation but could prove they had held jobs and had clean criminal records Meant to discourage illegalundocumented immigration it had the opposite effect with more families rejoining on this side of the border 1992 NAFTA cements the close integration of the US and Mexican economies but does not address transnational movement of persons the phenomenon oftransmigration emerges the entanged histories of Cuba and Puerto Rico in a few reductive sound bites C19 strong US interest in acquiring Cuba as territory trade nvestment ow of pro independence exiles to US Ten Years War 186878 War of Cuban Independence 189598 last part of Spanish empire to abolish slavery and last to achieve independence with help of AfroCuban and with arrival of US naval and ground forces AfncanAmencan troops and commanders what happens when you defeat the Empire the Spanish American Wai of 1898 was the US intervention into ongoing independence struggles in Cuba and the Philippines Treaty of Paris 1898 gives US control over Cuba Puerto Rico the Philippines Guam but ghting continued in the Philippines for 4 more years as the First Philippine Republic was put down by US forces insurgency vs declared war US Antilmperialist League founded in reaction to Philippine atrocities and apparent will to keep territories in colonial relationship Philippine con ictjusti ed on basisthat islanders not yet ready for selfgovernance Cuba was the only one of the 4 colonies ceded by Spain to the US that was not annexed An occupation government was set up with most lucrative business concessions going to US firms and elections were held Cuba before the Revolution Platt Amendment 190134 Cuban self governance but with serious restrictions on sovereignty maintaining US right to intervene militarily claiming Guantanamo Machado asserts dictatorial powers 1929 military coup 1933 puts Batista in power sporadic resistance movements and revolts throughout this period Castro amp co Castro wealthy young lawyer first tried electoral avenues and public protest 1953 attack on the Moncada barracks in Santiago fails Castro sent to prison then released to exile in Mexico where he meets Che Guevara after two years of guerrilla warfare based in the mountains Castro comes to power Batista ees first waves of Cuban exile US at rst recognizes revolutionary government but nationalization of industriesresources 1960 and Castro s resentment at US demands for continued influence in Cuba sour relations crackdown on perceived enemies of new regime begins right away many wealthy people ee as well to Miami and NYC area they view exile as temporary US plots overthrow of Castro government as part of Cold War theatre Bay of Pigs 1961 many middle and upperclass Cubans support the Revolution s aims to preserve Cuban sovereignty and socially progressive agenda to end poverty illiteracy racism crackdown on dissidents and deviants in early 60s accompanied by tight restrictions on who can leave the islandillicit boats and rafts begin making 90 mile trip to Florida Operation Pedro Pan 196062 sends 14000 Cuban children to foster care in US while parents remain on island subsequent waves of Cuban migration response to Cuba s participation in anti colonial war in Angola 197588 Mariel boatlift 1980 in response to embarrassing protests at embassies Castro declares that anyone who wants to leave can do so 125000 take to the sea in leaky boats and rafts including a sizable number of AfroCubans US impact on Cuban life US embargo on trade with Cuba el bloqueo 1962present longest embargo in history Perfodo especial en tiempo de paz with collapse of Soviet Union 1991 no fuelcash Community cooperation conservation and foreign tourismSS economy remittances from relatives living in the US constitute a major source of sustenance among those on the island the speCIal migrant status of Cu bans Wet foot dry foot policy if you reach US soil you are eligible for political asylum an permanent legal residency citizenship US Coast Guard has taken various positions in aiding or refusing to aid those on boats Elian Gonzalez case 6 yo boy who left Cuba with mother in 1999 taken in by Miami relatives INS intervenes to return to father in Cuba Puerto Ricans vs Cubans independence movements underground in c19 1868 Grito de Lares Marti somos dos alas del mismo pajaroquot PR achieves more sovereignty from Spain than Cuba does with elected government by 1989 nonetheless when US sends military in support of Cuban independence movement in iential PRans ask US to land there too little resistance 39om Spanish troops early on opposing parties in support of statehood or independence form this opposition persists today special status of Puerto Rico and its citizens Jones Act 1919 PR is an organized but unincorporated territoryquot as New MexicoArizona had been until 1912 and as Alaska and Hawai i still were 4 Commonwealth status local autonomy representation but no vote in Congress Puerto Ricans whether living on island or stateside are US citizens however they can only vote in US elections through residence in a state roughly 4 million onisland 4 million on mainland Lit 80N Fall 2008 VIEWING GUIDE PINERO director Leon Ichaso 2001 starring Benjamin Bratt This is a biopic a biographical lm about the life struggles and eventual death of a real artist Like many biopics it nods at the genre of documentary film in places as when the lm opens with a scene of the shooting of a lm interview with Pi ero after he won a number of Tony Awards for his play Short Eyes While other successful recent biopics Ray Ali etc have proceeded more or less chronologically with some strategically placed ashbacks to help explain the psyche of the main character Ichaso in contrast chose to edit this lm in a much jumpier and complex way It can be difficult to know on a rst viewing where a given scene is placed in time In addition he cuts frequently between blackandwhite and color shots sometimes within the same scene A move to blackandwhite mayibut does not necessarilyiindicate a ashback There are also many beautifully constructed poetic establishing shots of the New York skyline a junkie s needle a crumbling building The chapters I ve cut from this suggested viewing schedule totaling 24 minutes do not then make the film seem jumpier than it actually is in fact it might even have more continuity in this abridgement If you like the lm please do give it another viewing including these chapters which give more depth to some of the secondary characters especially Mikey s girlfriend Sugar CHAPTER 1 1974 Miguel Mikey Pi ero wins Tony for best play Flashback to 1972 when he gets started writing in prison in a scene with two important supporting characters Edgar and Tito Intercut with scenes set in several other timespaces that will be referred to later in the lm CHAPTER 2 Late 1980s Mikey scoring visiting doctor and then visiting Profe Miguel Algarin his stalwart friend Flashback to opening of Short Eyes on Broadway in 1974 and his relationship with Joe Papp the most powerful man in the New York theatre world Intercut again with scenes set in several other timespaces that will be referred to later in the lm CHAPTER 3 SKIPPED Introduce at some point set in late 1970s the character of Sugar an ambitious young actresswriter who pursues Mikey They become a couple Cut to 1988 in a diner where he tells her he has cirrhosis of the liver and perhaps they should marry so that she can inherit his estate a joke since he s obviously broke CHAPTER 4 1986 Mikey is resentful that his friend Reinaldo Povod s play Cuba and his Teddy Bear is the hot new Broadway play he and Papp no longer get along either Pi ero was supposed to have the leading role in the play but Papp gave it to Robert DeNiroitrue story Background on his relationship with Povod who had been his protege he taught him how to write Flashback to 1974 Algarin rents a space for the Nuyorican Poets Cafe and Pi ero reads a poem there CHAPTER 5 SKIPPED More on Sugar and Mikey Sugar was sexually abused by her father as a child and this theme dominates her art Mikey s father abandoned the family when he and Prof Gruesz A LITTLE FAKE BOOK ON PROSODY There is healthy disagreement about the degree to which the formal aspects of a poem determine its meaning Form refers both to visual aspects the shape of lines the way they play with white space and to acoustic ones the way the words sound when read aloud together Some critics divide poems into closed form what you probably think of as traditional stanzas and metrical arrangements and open form free verse calligrams and other typographical experiments digital multimedia poetry etc The play between ear and eye and the relative importance of each differs from one poem to the next while performance and kinetic movement can add yet another dimension of meaning To read most poems written before roughly I920 when open forms took on greater prestige than closed you ll need to know about the traditional line stanza and metrical forms described here But even in many open form poems the trace or ghost of older forms remains and some poets periodically revive them note for instance the popularity of the New Formalism in some circles of the US poetry scene today GENERAL READING PRACTICES FOR POEMS Assume first that you will need to read the poem through several times to get a basic understanding of what it may be trying to say If the normal word order of a sentence is inverted in a poetic line paraphrase or diagraIn it Are there parts of speech left out Are grammatical rules and normal word order syntax violated in a phrase or sentence Is a dependent clause aInbiguous could it refer to two different subjects and if so how might the aInbiguity lead you to different conclusions On a broader scale what kinds of issues does the poem seem to be addressing Is there a crisis of belief or emotion Who is speaking and to whom Do the pronouns shift say from I to we What else changes in setting voice or tone over the course of the poem What relationships between terms concepts or images are establishedfor instance the cluster of economic terms in Dickinson s This was a Poet Are there binary terms that work in opposition to each other and if so do they establish a back and forth dialectic speaker a fictive I like a narrator in a work of fiction not the same as the author himself or herself although they may strongly resemble each other as in Whitman s case Imagery and metaphorical language are language s primary ways of suggesting that which it does not choose to make perfectly explicit Visual and aural images may set the scene for a poetic statement or they may radiate some symbolic significance All images are not necessarily symbolic nor is there a master key of universally accepted symbols that every reader agrees upon The i1nage makes sense in its context as part of a sum effect it is not a simple riddle to be decoded in only one way Circle or try to map out the different images in the poem look for contrasts inversions or repetitions aInong them Common misstep in analysis The poet uses the color red which is a symbol of blood and deathquot Well maybe but only if there are other significant contextual clues that support the idea that the poem is worrying about death eg the redbeaked vulture tore at his rotting prizequot If on the other hand the poem is simply describing a red dress that a woman is wearing this discovery of symbolic meaning is much more of a stretch AS we Ilse language we are continually In metaphor the thing being spoken of is comparmg one ung to women the tenor the thing to which it39s being Speaking of Something in terms 9f compared is the vehicle E g the sea of anOther ung 1t resembles39 This 15 life lifetenor seavehicle metaphor from Greek metaferein to carry across If that comparison is explicit my love is like a red red rose he was as thick as a brick the figure of speech is a sirnile An extended metaphor is called a conceit Whitman s conceit in The Sleepers is that he watches and sleeps beside every person on the globe I go from bedside to bedsidel descend my western course A particularly extravagant or humorous metaphor may be labelled catachresis Eg Whitman s I find I incorporate gneiss gneiss is a kind of rock formation the metaphor of becoming the land seems overblown here perhaps perilously close to riduculous Metonymy substitution also involves making one thing stand for another but in this case the comparison is one of common association rather than poetic effort for instance using sweat to mean hard work the sweat of our brow blood for self sacrifice Yankee blood has been spilled heart for feeling You have no heart etc Synechdoche is a kind of metonymy that represents the part through the whole or the whole through the part the White House announced to mean the President said bread to mean food in general Give us this day our daily bread D RHETORICAL SCHEMES Unlike metaphor and metonymy which may continously change the impression of meaning you get from the poem rhetorical schemes are just names for the patterns into which language naturally falls and which writers often consciously choose to heighten 39 Parallelism repeats a certain part of speech thereby putting a set of phrases in balance it often suggests that the things are of equal importance or value Take note of what part of speech is being repeated The city sleeps and the country sleeps The living sleep for their time the dead sleep for their time Anaphora is a particular form of parallelism in which the repeated part of speech is in the initial position of the line And the tree toad is a chef d oeuvre for the highest And the running blackberry would adorn the parlors of heaven And the narrowest hinge in my hand puts to scorn all machinery 39 Antithesis also uses grammatical parallelism but opposes rather than equates the terms Whitman often introduces antitheses in order to claim they re really the same I am of old and young of the foolish as much as the wise 39 Chiasmus criss cross repeats a set of parallel terms in inverse order AszszA One of the great nation the nation of many nations A A B B HEARING METRICAL PATTERNS A primer on scansion Before Whitman most English poetry was written in accentual syllabic form a combination of counted syllables and stresses accents in any given line Scansion is a technique for annotating the sounds of poetry according to stressed and unstressed syllables somewhat like musical notation It applies to both open and closed form poetry You could annotate the Declaration of Independence using these scansion tools It s not perfect and some critics have argued that the whole idea of stressed unstressed syllables is a gross even elitist oversimplification of the way people actually speak It s an important critique but again since earlier poets took meter so seriously many of their aims and arguments will be completely opaque to you without understanding how they determined meter Scanning a poem means that you note where the stressed and non stressed syllables fall and mark them accordingly I celebrate myself and sing myself quotcelebrate might also be read 1 You ll notice the tendency here toward two beat clusters in English we tend to run one syllable words together and divide longer words into more readily stressed units An iamb is a stressed syllable followed by an unstressed one as in unless a trochee is the reverse as in greater Most twobeat clusters you come across in English will be iambic Each cluster whether two beat or three beat is called a foot Lines of poetry are classified according to the number of feet they have and the kind of foot that prevails Thus iambic pentameter is a line with five iambs it is the most common line in English To count the number of feet draw a long slash between the tw or three beat clusters Trimeter 3 foot tetrameter 4 foot and hexameter 6 foot lines are also relatively common Other line lengths exist but they are less common as in Poe s The Raven which is full of relentlessly regular trochaic octameter lines Take thy beak from out my heart and take thy form from off my door As this example suggests regular metrical substitution is necessary to keep a line from getting excessively sing songy and annoying Thus a poem does not have to keep strictly to its assigned meter indeed it needs substitutions Meter refers to an ideal pattern from which we expect there to be frequent deviations Often these deviations deliberatly call attention to a particular word or idea and are therefore important One of the advantages of scanning a poem is that you can see the deviations more clearly The trochaic substitution is frequently used in iaInbic lines often at the beginning Helen thy beauty is to me Like those Nic an barks of yore 1 Stress is relative this is not an exact science Notice the way that a rhythmic pattern can take over your normal way of pronouncing stressed syllables if you re reading lines of iambic pentameter you wil unconsciously start stressing words to make them fit the meter like this one which I m tempted to make perfectly iambic Some have called this the tyranny of meter It s no small irony that Whitman the pioneer of free verse begins Song of Myself with an iambic pentameter line Each of these first two lines of Poe s To Helen begins with a trochaic substitution the poem goes on in perfect iambic tetraineter lines until the pattern ruptures again with the two key lines that end the second stanza To the glory that was Greece And the grandeur that was Rome Despite these substitutions the overall pattern of the poem is principally iambic This line contains one of those sinkholes you can easily fall into when you start scanning the word Nicean which I ve given an accent mark to indicate its middle stress You ll often see accent marks where the poet means you to pronounce a normally one syllable word with two syllables in order to fit the meter called pronounced CALL ed not CALLD More often the poet expects you to know the general exceptions The is often elided or run into the next word rather than counting as its own beat so you d say ThTERnal where the text states The eternal Words ending in er or en are often implicitly shortened O er for over this may or may not be indicated with punctuation There is a whole range of acceptable substitutions to the basic skeleton of meter2 A double stressed foot is a spondee as in yo yo adj spondaic and as you can imagine it aggressively calls attention to itself There are threebeat feet as well but it is much rarer for these to characterize the entire line although there are some formidable exceptions as in Longfellow s Evangeline written in dactylic hexaineter Generally they substitute for the normal iainb or trochee These are called the anapest as in unabashed and the dactyl as in comedy And poets working in meter often allowed themselves omitted syllables as well usually leaving out the expected unstressed beat at the end of a line see the end of the line from The Raven on the previous page Likewise it was both permissible and common to add an extra unstressed beat at the end of a line to permit end words like question an extra syllable at the end of an iambic If t line is a 7 1 quot 39 39 Obscure metrical terms to dazzle your friends Even in free verse and prose you with Two unstressed syllables are called pyrrhic can use this notation to identify though many prosodists argue that a foot without a stress is no foot at all An amphibrach goes Etclziggti bgfh 115 I 1132339 Good examples are rare though the name of m 13 poem is not the metrical pattern former place of employment The College of William and Mary is one The amphimacer is but the look of the line itself We dubious but That s the dope might be one if you Otice unusual deVia O S in the said it in such an enthusiastic and rapid manner that P0911173 appearance on the page as the three syllables just had to go together well as its aural stresses A very short line in the midst of many long ones is attention getting just as the swerve away from a parallel structure is Whitman s catalogues are perfect examples when after the long parallel lists we hear But they are not the Me myself we wake from the almost hypnotic trance he s put us in and pay attention Our attention is also drawn to where the line breaks and the overall cadence musicality the combination of sounded phrases of the poem 2 As those of you who have taken poetry courses dealing with earlier periods know conventions of acceptable substitution change over time as verse forms come in and out of fashion To read such poems well you need to have an idea about the metrical preferences and controversies of the time The As the 19 11 century wore on poets got tired of working with the same metrical forms and experimented with what might have once been considered outlandish and weirdstanzas see The Raven A line of poetry whether in accentual syllabic meter or in free verse is considered to have an endstop if it pauses at the end with a conuna period or natural stop It is enjambed if instead it pushes on to the next line without a breath A caesura is a pause often marked by a comma period semicolon etc sometimes a natural breath pause in the middle of a line A line of unrhymed iaInbic pentameter is when you read a Poem look at the called blank verse Most of Shakespeare s words in the beginning and end Plays are in blank verse position of lines in close proximity to each other and see Whether they A line of iaInbic hexameter rhymed or not is may connect The relationship of an alexandl ine lines to each other often meaningful too read against each other certain lines might contain contrasting ideas or repeat and reinforce a larger theme Two lines grouped together whether they rhyme or simply form a natural sentence phrase are generally read as a couplet Three lines comprise a tercet four a quatrain A closed or heroic couplet consists of two end stopped lines the first line does not extend into the next open couplets in contrast are enjambed The organization of units greater than the line is also important The stanza encompasses as many lines as the poet clusters together without a blank space between As in music a refrain in poetry is any line repeated in between various stanzas But eye and ear both come into play when you look at a stanza to some readers part of the delight of a closed form poem is the neatly composed picture it makes against the blank page the feeling of arranged life The traditional stanza units described on the next age are most meaningful for describing metrical or closed form verse but free verse writers often use them knowingly as well Rhyme is obviously another way to tie words and concepts together in a poem either in a relationship of similarity or difference End rhymes are positioned on the ends of lines that are linked in a rhyming pattern internal rhyme echoes within one line Rhyme is marked usually on the margins of the page by assigning a letter to each common sound ABAB for a typical hymn ABAC if the last line introduces a different rhyming sound and so on through the alphabet as you annotate the poem Rhyme isn t just a formula for completing some blueprint of a verse scheme when well used it helps structure the whole experience of reading a poem If you know a rhyme is coming the poem or a line of thought within the poem won t feel finished until it does A surprising rhyme can upset your previous understanding of what was happening in the poem or it can change the tone making the poem suddenly funny or ironic Alliteration the saIne sound beginning different words consonance the repetition of consonants at any location in the word assonance the repetition of vowel sounds and onomatopoeia the imitation of natural sounds are related strategies for enhancing the musicality of the poem True rhyme must have a conunon final sound true blue Off slant or near rhymes are close but not perfect rhymes even Heaven some poets like Dickinson prefer them Sight rhyme is self evident love prove Macaronic rhyme rhymes two words from different languages lesson essen COMMON METRICAL FORMS Beyond the units of foot line and stanza there are a number of well known verse forms of designated length You might see these as rigid constricting forms from which Whitman had to free himself and other writers but you can also think of them as formal challenges and as a way of entering into dialogue with everyone who has written before in that form When you discover that a poem is written in one of these structures then think about its relation to tradition one can work within a given verse tradition in order to undermine it eg Poe s Silence a sonnet with an extra line The meter most common to Old English according to linguists had four foot well accented lines The rhymed tetrameter quatrain is perhaps the most basic stanza form in the language with any number of rhyme patterns dbdb dbbd and xdxd where xan unrhymed line are the most conunon Traditional ballad stanza alternates tetrameter lines with trimeters see Longfellow s The Village Blacksmith in quatrains 4 3 4 3 stanzas which can repeat as long as the balladeer can stand it The same pattern can also be called common meter and is frequently found in hymns and in Dickinson s oetry Many other hymns are written in all tetraIneter quatrains 44 4 4 long meter usually rhymed dbdb or in all trimeter ones short meter 3 3 3 3 Most popular songs are written in some form of tetraIneter line The blues form generally in tetrameter repeats a statement twice with slight variation followed by a resolution Why given the staying power and popularity of tetrameter forms did English language writing turn toward the pentameter line One theory is that this was poetry s way of getting free of music The five beat line evades the sing songiness and the forward moving narrative quality of these folk meters which are so synunetrical 4 beats X 4 lines By comparison a pentameter line seems asymmetrical and many poets found it more appropriate for re ective thought PentaIneter lines like tetraIneters tend to be organized in quatrains the elegaic quatrain rhymed dbdb is one But there are exceptions to this norm too one famous example is terza rima a complex interweaving of interlocked iambic pentameter triplets rhymed dbd bcb cdc edefef etc Rhyme royal is a 7 line iaInbic pentameter stanza rhymed dbdbbcc Ottava rima is a similar 8 line stanza dbdbdbcc The Spenserian stanza has 9 lines dbdb bcbc C and ends with an alexandrine 6 beat line for variation and sumInation Then there s the sonnet perhaps the most prestigious lyrical form in Western literary history it s comprised of 14 lines of iambic pentameter A Petrarchan sonnet is divided into the first 8 lines the octave dbbd dbbd and the next 6 sestet cde cde A Shakespearean sonnet is divided into 4 quatrains and a couplet dbdb cdcd efefgg There have been many variations upon each pattern over time And poets have invented many other verse forms that can be adapted to suit most any line length from trimeter to hexaIneter The villanelle weaves together six dbd dbd dbd triplets with many of the rhymes coming from the same word of slightly varying refrains The sestina is an incredibly complicated six line stanza in which the same words are repeated in a different order at the end of each line For further reference see John Hollander Rhyme 39s reason Ll guide to English verse Yale University Press 1989 Mary Oliver A poetry handbook San Diego Harcourt Brace 1994 Richard Bradford A linguistic history ofEnglish poetry London Routledge 1993 NOW THAT I VE SCANNED IT WHAT DO I DO WITH IT OK you ve taken your bitter pill and learned all this specialized vocabulary You re fully equipped to dazzle your friends with your ability to ferret out a pyhrric subsitution You ve taken the poem at hand line by line and divided it into feet noted the overall meter and pertinent substitutions and marked out the overall rhyme scheme and stanza arrangement You feel a bit as if you ve done an autopsy on a poem that was alas living when you first found it What next What on earth does it matter Scansion like any kind of close analysis of language is not an end in itself Rather it is a tool to help you see concretely patterns and deviations from patterns you may not be able to perceive otherwise Those patterns don t necessarily contain a hidden meaning but they and their absence point a reader directly toward some elements more powerfully than others Finding concrete evidence in the formal arrangement of the poem that some words or images are emphasized more than others or that a traditional form is invoked and rejected will give you far more authority to make claims about the meaning and direction of the poem It s much better quality evidence than idle speculation about the author s emotional state or unfounded generalizations about a vague feeling you might associate with a sound or symbol On the final page is a checklist to use when you do a reading of a poem With practice you ll be able to do it in a matter of minutes Not every formal observation you make will ultimately matter But some will So do that dissecting discover the patient s unique identity and watch it come to life again D Common misstep in analysis many people feel obliged in writing about poetry to characterize the feeling of certain sounds the repeated sss feel lazy the long Os feel mournful and so forth As with our discussion of symbolism however these impressions are only convincing if there is a larger context of meaning within the rest of the poem to justify them If the words themselves don t support that impresion logically you re opening yourself to the accusation of being excessively subjective you may hear the w sound as happy but I don t Beware then of making too much of sound patterns On the same note beware of generalizing about the emotional responses of all readers Attention to the reading experience is a good thing but remember that your experience may not be the same as everyone s Alarcon slides 103108 what is globalization thetransformation of localregionallna ional phenomena cultures economies communications networks etc into globa ones since late c20 freetrade agreements EU NAFTA A T and many more ave profoundly changed the way trade and taxation worked from c18 forward what moves freely under globalized economy ods capital persons as tourists or as migrant labor force rumma Arman mes globalizing information and culture globalized economy arises at the same time as transformation of information itself into a commodity the digital age cultural globalization Hollywood vs national cinemas but also a twoway incorporation into US culture information ows intemet instantaneous communication and the collapse of old space time experience key to sustaining globalized culture and economy rumma Arman mes globalization and LatIn America In 2000 Latin Americans working in the US sent 23 billion to their home coutnn39es one third of all foreign investment in that region average increment 200300month per migrant 80 million separate transactions where is the political power usually associated with having such economic means rumma Arman mes Latino Expressions Tobar ll sun or Mexico outline map of central america La violencia in Guatemala 19601996 the toll 100000 to 200000 dead disproportionater from Mayan communities 4000050000 missing desaparecido The use of the Spanish adjective desaparecido desaparecida as a noun una desaparecidoa began in Guatemala contiguous events El Salvador similarities to Guatemalan economy in early 20th century oligarchic elite families own most means of production along with US and EnglishEuropean companies promoting monocrop agriculture coffee fruit with vertical integration 1930540s efforts at creating unions and rural peasant organizations to counter the excessive power of corporations leftist hero Faribundo Marti not to be confused with the Cuban Jose Marti massacred along with 1040000 others in La matanza of 1932 insurgency and counterinsurgency continued from 19801992 under a succession of rightwing military governments often backed by the US though a land reform effort was pushed through Congress in 1983 several allied insurgent or rebel groups predominant among them the FMLN Frente Faribundo Marti para la Liberaci n Nacional Latino Expressions Tobar contiguous events Nicaragua 0 most consistent history ofUS interventions in Nicaragua onduras libusters Marine landings backing up unpopular governments More strategic as well as economic interests canal Marines occupied Nicaragua 19121933 0 le ist hero Augusto Sandino whose peasant army was able to force the Marines to withdraw in 1933 later assassinated by Anastasio Somoza whose family ruled the country until 1979 O In 1960s opposition party formed as FSLN Frente Sandinista para la Liberacion Nacional known as the San inistas The Nicaraguan Revolution and US activism in the 19805 0 July 1979 the FSLN takes power by attracting a more farreaching coalition than other lelt revolutionary groups had yet managed not only students union workers and rural peasants but also he middle class the press and the Catholic Church begins national reconstruction 0 general election af rming FSLN in 199 quot 39ee and fair by European Union and other observers O m m m m a a E 3 EL 6 C 2 0 3 U m o 0 m 9 E m a m n a m w a 5 in z 1 i E in 0 iii 3 1 w 5 I o Costa Rica as well as using the School of he Americas O Sandinista revolt energizes the US lelt o 1983 ongress prohibits federal funding ofthe centres which are using guerrilla tacticsquot sabotage of economic and civic structures to bring down Sandinista government 0 IranCont a Affair administration CIA Oliver North co y l nvert C U r rtl sells arms to ran and co s procee s to ve contra aid resulting controversy reveals that drug money 39 g39nnings of crack 39 quot 39 wa al u channelled to Nicaragua 0 in 1990 elections Sandinista party loses presidency and many seats in national assembly 0 3 u m Latino Expressions Tobar witnessing and testimonial literature 0 Holocaust analogies oRigoberta Menchu Nobel Peace Prize Winner 1992 Yo Rigoberta Menchz owhat are the ethical dimensions of representing genoci e o history if defined as offically sanctioned data narrative put in opposition to memory oral history personal experience memory and history 0 tem porality the way a culture thinks about events duration interval and places them in relational sequence 0 temporal constructs among humans have often been organized around notions of the sacred 0 just as Western modernity sought to rationalize an abstract notion of space so too did it rationalize time linear progressive time Johannes Fabian Time and the Other How Anthropology Makes its Object 1983 rev 2002 oanthropologists assumed they were here and now While natives were there and then Fabian calls this a denial of coevalness ocoeval existing on the same temporal plane o Primitive being essentially a temporal concept is a category not an object of Western thought Latino Expressions Tobar ll memory and narrative the model from Freud therapeutic process for healing wounds to the psyche Onarrative the talking curequot Othe need to read interpret the symbolic vocabulary of dreams and inadvertent gestures Freudian slipsquot through which the syche encodes indirectly what it cannot face directly Orepetition reconstruction and workingthrough e key concepts from Freud contested but still very much alive the idea that we all have psychological defense mechanisms that get us through the day some key mechanisms Odenial Orepression Odissociation Osublimation Odisplacement trauma and the recovery model 0 postFreudian skepticism can the originating eventwoun r be truly recalled much less Worked through especially in language or in symbolic language 0 individual victims survivors of posttraumatic stress disorder childhood abuse recollected at various levels 0 collective victims survivors of genocide and other mass traum o ethical dimension of remembering and of representing Latino Expressions Tobar 1 complete 9292008 2 dominantthemes today 7 Ian ua e wa s of talking about what we reductively call bilingualism 7 the spacetime continuum diagesis in narrative abstract vs lived space According to 2006 US Census data r 19 percent of Latll los ll l the U S State thatthey Speak 7 Most secondrgerleratlorl Latlrlos speak Engllsh but 50 speak Sparllsh athorne e 30 mllllorl people in the us ages 5 or older speak Sparllsh in the home What does it mean to be bilingual Maximalminimal bilingualism what s your vision of a perfectly bilingual person Does a touristwho can communicate their basic needs for a bathroom beer or directions qualify Bilingualism vs biliteracy Bilanguaging as a dynamic everyday process also known as codeswitching Tobar 1 lecture slides 1 Latino Expressions Tobar 1 complete 9292008 Register a variant form ofa language that is appropriate for specific social situations and not others Bilanguaging also involves managing multiple registers and therefore takes place in social space as well Some observations on the written representation of codeTsWItching1 In order to maintain intelligibility a ong primary language readers its actual frequency of usage must be compressed Each usage stands in for presumably many others Inserting lexical items is far easier than representing advanced codeswitching How to represent code switching 1 EXPLICIT TRANSLATION given immediately before or a er Spanish wordp rase 2 CONTEXTUAL TRANSLATION embedded nearby but not directly atter use of Spanis wordp rase 3 UNTRANSLATED COGNATE WORD where no contextual clues are provided but there is a ready cognate in English 4 WITHHELD NONCOGNATE TRANSLATION where clues to term not provided for monolingual Tobar 1 lecture slides Latino Expressions Tobar 1 complete 9292008 diagesi the timespace in which a narrative takes place Abstract vs lived space from Henry Lefebvre The Production L fEtgpace ABSTRACT Measured by absolutes Experiential notrelation Quanti ed Personalized Commodi able 39 Relational Homogenized same Full ofmemory space for multiple Multisensory persons Dominantly visual Literature thrives on the intersections between the shaping powers of language and the productive powers of space Literature attends to affect and the 39t uses s ce and spatial properties quotMary Pat Bradv Exlincl Lands Temporal Geographies Tobar 1 lecture slides 3 Diaz 2 lecture slides 102908 narrative time why does it matter Aguantando reconstruct the histoirelstory the events beinggecounted against the order of he re39citharrative 3951 g Iquot if ff 3 2 3 33 WK 1 2 I patterns themes motifs metaphors in story by order of time of narration pnoto as only memory o sign of father Waitingfor father to return poverty leaking roof vermin food Northamer can attacks economy sonooireading kind Abueio as destroyer of vermin pretty Marni gets nit on reiatiyes suororratnermotner n nonrieaking nouse Northamerican tourists food Waiting for Marni to return reumon ietter arriveswith no Si ns Northamerican names Rafa nnds out WhatYunior can t family more irnportantthan frien s sonooino reading father broke ms maniy word food states as destination Yunior Wanted to see pnoto Yunior as destroyer of smrts Waiting for Marni 0 return ocean pretty Marni gets mt on Northamerican movies Marni snares memory of courtsmp signs Northamerican food father keeps ms maniy Word Wallace Martin Recent Theories of Narrative pp 129130 The most signi cant use of exposition involves the search for the origins of meaning in the past In itself the past consists of an enormous amount of information that we might better do without as Nietzsche suggestedexcept that it contains everything we want to know about how the present came to be It is irrelevant until something happens that suggests the poss bility ofa new future and at the same time a new past one that leads to this moment each step forward in the action unlocks a wider range of the relevant past Diaz 2 lecture slides 102908 narrative voice and point of view narration always implies a narrator a voiceand us a particular point of view remember that narration can be ctional or non ctional another term for point of view subjectivity from 39 elf a subject meaning haVIng a s consciousness an identity it is not a term of insultjudgment Narrator is never a synonym for author even if the use of the first person encourages you to think so and even if contextual evidence ests a correlation between author s life and events that happen to herhis characters the first and second person the varieties of first person narration level of access to inner thoughts address to imagined audiencereader second person is a variety of rst person you wait for your brother and your mother to leave the apartment p 143 keywords with rst person reliability authenticity confessional modes of representing speech amp thought in narration citation I reported speech He said Not a chance indirect reportagel paraphrase He said there was no ch nce there can also be direct indirect reporting ofthoughts as unvoiced dialoguemonologue w39 u quotation marks 39 to himsell why do I bother you can report internal dialoguemonologue along with states ofemotion or consciousness Wondering why he bothered coming to class at all vaguely perturbed by this whole performance thing he d inherited rom is workaholic parents he drilled all as the lecturer droned on 10808 lecture slides questions to put to a poem W oar the implied speaker and listener Ifthe poem appzoxlmates a spoken register what is it What rhetorical strategies does it use rhetoric the study ofhow something is communicated rather than 141ml it communicated EXAMPLES persuasive appeals to reason emo ion parallelism hyperbole euphemism anaphora that speechwriters iust love Does the poem make use ofa recognizable discourse discourse a specialized use of language ltezed by institutions ofsoclal power that seeks to imposes limits and restrictions on the way certain concepts can be thought more questions to put to a poem what previously existing poems or genres of poems does it recall what conventions does it make use of wh t ind of specialized knowledge does it skits ideal reader to possess If there is such a moment of poem and the source text likeiis it Critical celebratory or something else convention a frequently encountered rule of a genre may be a cliche may be comtortin inledexlualily when a later text intentionally invokes an earlier one formal questions to put to a poem which lines fall together in natural groupings couplets within a stanza the two shortestlongest lines the Ellst and last lines of each stanza and of the poem as a whole Are they quoteyequot or f g What elements of syntax are compressed or put out of order Find the points where a thought stops either an endcstopped line r a caesura in the middle of a line Dld a thought get interrupted befole being completed s ofsounds what termsimages are thus linked together a 11 what is asymmetrical in the poem Is there a rhyme word or parallel stxuctuxe that s expected but doesn t anlve1f50 what s suggested by its absence poems39 EspadaCervantes
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