Statistical Methods for the Biological, Environmental, and Health Sciences
Statistical Methods for the Biological, Environmental, and Health Sciences AMS 7
Popular in Course
Popular in Applied Math And Statistics
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Milton Sawayn DVM on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AMS 7 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by David Draper in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see /class/182140/ams-7-university-of-california-santa-cruz in Applied Math And Statistics at University of California - Santa Cruz.
Reviews for Statistical Methods for the Biological, Environmental, and Health Sciences
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/07/15
14 z waxy v L 99 j WWI FHA Dnvvxqugrw C0MC DTl 0 g 1 ma AK Pg 25 Ex nhu minf Vwaciexachr Qa iumg0gagi fk qa qlq WW Fl 7mul1 3M 24 33er914 IM A a 5 N 50M74AaM A mu WA 9113 39 n a S 149T Z z 4531 139 5 M AHAA fllcf 11701 mz aw MW1102 7 act 5 2 WWmwii j wj a M Aquot 7 5ampvc aummmpmrpml5 xmpl ai MAAAM 4quot LL castji O paY C J romparLJOn S L145 1 Z P m 3914 pa n Jen 7L 5a mp R 5 lt 7 Ham m 150 mcipmdnigallyltj L Anai sis indepgmd njnmpl 3 ax 2 fcprdaWo v39Q m Cnroup 1 Fab 391 20d n J611L aJ L A011 2311 LQ S mjl g zm graham W 3 g group Maggiqu m7 39 Z7 1 f 7 39 u Hon hH cloht s Jaw HI wanr h rimv1 E m J ua v MAm W quotmanquot 13 1516 0 5 D 5 57104 390V155 Um ImamH 131 395 n 5 a wm mu up J E unsS A u A A CKMMKL 7Si r V5 MW M m A w Dr I lt3 mm pl T 4 mfma A W saw as I in I M I quot21 M H 4i uw rquot V 7a 5 57 1 7 mil ML I I VJ mam 61 5571 dim 5 Wang fm Wm M7 50 32 Kama 71mg rum 5n 1446 Prof David Draper Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics University of California7 Santa Cruz AMS 7 Discussion Section 2 1 Here is that data set from Zar 1999 again on butter y wing lengths in cm7 sorted from smallest to largest 33 35 36 36 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 414141 42 42 43 43 44 45 One possible histogram for these data would have 13 bars7 centered at 333445 another would have only 7 bars7 centered at 3353553757 7455 Draw both of these histograms and comment on which of them seems better to you at displaying the basic features of the distribution or maybe you7ll feel that they7re about equally good explain brie y 2 ln problem 3c in Discussion Section 17 I measure the temperatures in C and you decide to work with the same data but in F How will the basic shape of my histogram relate to the shape of yours Explain brie y 3 I measure the enzyme activity in the muscles of various animals7 including frogs in my sample of n 159 frogs the mean comes out 1537 with an SD of 016 the units are pmoleming of tissue7 and the distribution is close to normal a If you chose one of these frogs at random7 what approximately is the chance that its enzyme activity would be greater than 177 b About how many of the frogs in this sample had enzyme activity less than 114 c About what percentage of these frogs had levels of enzyme activity between 145 and 161 4 In each of the following examples7 thinking about the situation from the point of view of experimental design7 identify the treatment and response variables specify whether this was a controlled experiment7 an observational study7 or neither visualize the raw data by which I mean7 as usual sketch a data table with rows for subjects and columns for variables7 ll in the blank in the sentence 1 row for each 7 and if you know something about the variables in question ll in some typical data values summarize the strength of evidence for the effectiveness of the treatment under study and describe a stronger experimental design for assessing the clinical ef cacy of that treatment a In the late 1970s in San Francisco a woman named Dr Josephine Lo and her as sociates treated 31 patients suffering from severe headaches resulting from spinal punctures Conventional treatments did not help She found that 30 of the 31 pa tients experienced complete and permanent relief 7 after one to ve acupuncture treatments b One of the leading causes of death in the United States is coronary artery disease in which the main arteries to the heart break down The conventional treatment for this disease as of the late 1960s involved drugs and special diets to reduce the patients blood pressure and eliminate fatty deposits in the arteries Several good studies involving a few hundred patients had reported by 1970 that about 68 of patients getting this treatment survived for three years or more In 1972 a medical researcher named Daniel Ullyot and his associates introduced a radical new treatment in which the diseased arteries were replaced by veins trans planted from the patients own legs this procedure is called a coronary artery bypass graft CABG and hundreds of thousands of OABGs are now done in the US every year On December 9 1975 the San Francisco Chronicle reported preliminary re sults of Dr Ullyot7s research about 100 patients specially chosen by him had been treated in the new way by then and 98 survived three years or more The Chronicle described these results as spectacular 5 Overheard at a coffee shop Person 1 17m convinced that eating cottage cheese makes people fat Person 2 What makes you say that Person 1 Have you looked at the people who eat it Discuss this argument from the point of view of valid conclusion of cause and effect 6 The requirement that human subjects must give their informed consent to participate in an experiment can greatly reduce the number of available subjects In randomized controlled trials of treatments for cancer for example patients must agree to be randomly assigned to the standard therapy or to an experimental therapy The patients who do not wish their treatment to be decided by randomization are dropped from the experiment and given standard therapy Why is it not correct to keep these patients in the experiment as part of the control group since the control group also receives the standard therapy Explain brie y 7 Zar 1999 raises the question of whether the mean left hindleg length of adult deer is larger than the mean left foreleg length something which we could try to address by taking a sample of deer at the UOSO campus Here are two possible experimental designs for answering this question suppose that l7ve worked out that I can afford to collect data on n 80 deer and that this is enough data to answer the question to the accuracy I need 0 Design 1 1 sample 80 adult deer and measure the left foreleg on 40 of them at random and the left hindleg on the other 40