Earth 20: Week 8 Notes
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Date Created: 05/25/14
Earth 20 Week 8 Notes III IV VI VII VIII IX XI XII Moore Oklahoma part of larger outbreak Urban Areas a Partially the cause more pop means hot ground b Death not due to winds but from storm surge Life Cycle of a Hurricane a Tropical Disturbance low pressure zone draws in storms b Tropical Depression surface winds strengthen and a ow to center develops c Tropical Storm surface winds reach a sustained speed and storm receives a name d Hurricane surface winds about 74mph Do not form along Equator and cannot cross equator once formed No shear relies on the Coriolis force 0 at the equator Energy Transfer a Heat transfer from the warm moist air above tropical seas into the core of hurricane Latent heat is released in staggering amounts upon condensation c Creates about 200x more energy than out ability to generate electricity d Energy released from cloudsrain is 400x greater than hurricane winds energy Hurricane Paths a In uences are trade winds blowing cyclone west Coriolis effect forcing a curved path to the right stronger with distance from equator and location of Bermuda High Hurricane Season 2005 a 28 storms named Iune to November Katrina Category 5 125 mph Flooding most expensive natural disaster in US history Made landfall in SE Louisiana New Orleans i Billions spent on levees which failed ii City built on delta loose mix of sand mud and water deposited from Mississippi River Human Control of Rivers has Impacts a Building levees and diverting the river diminish sediment deposition that creates a protective barrier for New Orleans b Also susceptible to breach during strong storm seasons Typhoon Haiyan a Super typhoon change in vegetation b Winds responsible for change Factors affecting Climate P F793 XIII XIV XV a Extraterrestrial Factors i Solar Output Earth Sun Geometry and Stellar Dust b Ocean Atmosphere and Land Factors i Volcanic Activity Mountain Building Continental Drift Ocean Heat Exchange Surface Albedo Atmospheric Albedo and Atmospheric Chemistry Climate History of the Earth a Timescale in Millions of Years i Climate depends on balance between incoming and outgoing heat ii Earth divided into belts of frigid temperate and torrid lat iii Ice Age 1 Frigid zone expands to larger area 2 Torrid zone shrinks but doesn39t disappear iv Torrid Age 1 Torrid zone expands to larger area 2 Frigid zone shrinks but doesn39t disappear b Atmospheric CO2 declined due to i Photosynthesis ii Dissolution in the oceans iii Precipitation of calcium carbonate shells algae skeletons etc iv Results greenhouse effect and lower global temps c Earth39s Climate Throughout Time i Fluctuates change is normal Tectonics and Climate a Tectonically active periods i Supercontinents break up rapid plate motion ii Divergent zones have increased volcanism iii Volcanoes release large amounts of CO2 iv Sea levels rise b Tectonically quiescent periods i Continental collisions slow plate movement ii Mountain build exposes fresh rock at surface iii Weather of silicate rocks less CO2 iv Sea levels fall c Configuration of continents effects ocean circulation Paleoclimate Records a Oxygen Isotopes i Oquot16 evaporates quicker than Oquot18 ii Organisms use oxygen to make their shells iii Ratio of 8 to 16 records ocean temp and global ice volume iv Big ice caps more 18 in ocean 1 Cold temp less evaporation less snowfall more 16 on the ice caps 2 Less 18 means hot temps more evaporation and more snowfall XVI XVII XVIII XIX XX XXI The Late Paleozoic Ice Age a Large landmasses near poles accumulate snowfall built continental ice sheets i Pangea moved across south polar region b Continents blocking equatorial ocean circulation i Warm tropic water doesn39t build much heat ii Warm water evaporates more easily than cold iii If continents divert warm currents north and south then more water will evaporate to form clouds and snow iv Polar continent allows snow and ice to build Paleocene Torrid Age a General Heating trend b Equatorial zones similar to today pole ward lat much warmer c Absence of strong seasons evenly distributed rainfall warmer and wetter d No ice caps e Dinosaurs roam Antartica Shifting to Warmer Temperatures a Enormous release of lava from opening of Mid Atlantic Ocean sea levels rise b Equatorial zones get covered by oceans 9 more solar absorption i Tethys seaway opens allowing heat to build in tropics c As oceans warm snow melts and albedo lowers i Positive feedback lower albedo means more warming d Warming oceans melts methane hydrates i Positive feedback e All related to breakup of Pangaea tectonics i Separation of Antartica allows circum polar current ii Landmasses move towards poles and accumulate ice iii Tethys Seaway closed iv Himalayan Mountains and Colorado Plateau uplift 1 Disrupted E W atmospheric circulation 2 Caused rock weather uses up CO2 v Formation of Central American Land Bridge Quaternary Glaciation a When permanent ice sheets are established at poles Determining Temp a Tree rings growth rings of corals tax records almanacs grape crops changes in glaciers weeks year of sea ice in Iceland writings and paintings Climate on Timescale a About 10 glacial advances and retreats b Advances last almost 1000000 years retreats are faster few thousand c Caused by cycle s in orbit that affect areas receiving solar energy d Most data from Vostock Ice Core XXII XXIII XXIV III IV e Representative of entire Quaternary Glaciation f Fluctuating temps result in advances slow and retreats fast g Reproducibility the hallmark of good science Milankovitch Theory and Scale a Eccentricity varies from circular to elliptical less solar radiation when elliptical main control of glacial changes b Tilt 215 to 245 degrees off vertical in cycle c Precession of Tilt direction of tilt chances in double cycles d Changes in Earth39s orbit tilt and wobble correlate to changes in amount of Earth39s solar radiation received e Amount of solar radiation at high lat in summer affects snow of winter Complex Climate Systems Feedbacks a Strong Correlation between high CO2 and high sea surface temp global warming Last Glacial Max a AKA the Ice Age glaciers at max extent b We are still in Quaternary Ice Age interglacial period c If all ice melts sea levels rise 65m d Antarctica has 90 of world39s ice Temperature Records Solar Radiation a All sunlight passes through atmosphere but only 51 is used b 4 re ected back to space c 26 scatteredre ected by clouds and atmospheric particles d 19 absorbed by atmospheric gasses and clouds Greenhouse Gases a Begins with absorption of shortwave radiation which is converted into sensible eat at Earth39s surface b Some heat transferred into lower atmosphere convection conduction c Surfaces become radiators d Absorption of this energy adds heat energy to atmosphere and cycles back and forth between ground and atmosphere e Examples CO2 methane Nitrous Oxide Hydro ourocarbon Per ourocarbon Sulpher hexa uoride f Water vapor is most common methane is most potent g People didn39t worry about CO2 before because they thought the ocean absorbed it h We would freeze without them Human s contribution to Greenhouse gases a Cutting burning forests CO2 b Wetland techniques of rice growing methane c Agricultural practices d Changes occur over thousands of years and are relatively minor
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