Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes BIOL 1030-003
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexa Rosenfeld on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1030-003 at Clemson University taught by Kristi J. Whitehead in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 248 views. For similar materials see General Biology I in Biology at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
922015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 CHAPTER 4 A Tour of the Cell SECTIONS 41422 Sections 4144 Introduction to the Cell The cellular level is the first level where we see life have all 7 characteristics Cells are SMALL Cannot be seen with a naked eye There is ALWAYS and exception to the rule 0 There are some bacteria that you could see Microscopes 0 Light microscopes 0 Light that travels through an object then bent by a glass lens then projected to the eye at a magnification 0 1000K magnification 0 Electron microscopes Can see much smaller things Increase resolution and magnification greatly 100000X magnification Scanning I External structures 0 Transmission I Through an object to look at internal structures I Not all of the object with be stained equally 0 Differential Interference Contrast Microscope I 3D 0 Magnification 0 How much does the microscope make the object look bigger than it actually is 0 Resolution 0 Ability to show you that two distinct objects really are two objects 0 Ability to see clearly 0 What limits a microscope from magnifying as much as we wanted 0000 Cell Size 0 The need to fit everything inside of a cell is why a cell is the size that it is I Smaller objects have a larger surface area to volume ratio 0 The upper size limit for a cell is set because of the surface are to volume ratio 0 The amount of what is inside to the amount of contact the cell has with the outside world Control of what goes in and out 0 More space to uptake nutrients O 922015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 More space to discard waste More opportunities to exchange things Rates of diffusion Increase the likelihood that things will run into each other 0000 Plasma Membrane 0 Boundary between a cell and the external environment 0 All cells have a membrane 0 Thin and exible I It is a phospholipid bilayer 0 Head glycerol hydrophilic 0 Tail fatty acids hydrophobic I Contains proteins 0 Attached 0 Embedded Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes 0 Prokaryotes tell what a cell is not and not what it actually is 0 BOTH 0 Are cells or are made up of cells 0 Plasma membrane 0 Phospholipid bilayer 0 Chromosomes at least one I Large piece of DNA 0 Ribosomes I To make proteins I Prokaryotic slightly different than in eukaryotic 0 Cytosolcytoplasm I Fluid 0 Prokaryotes 0 DNA is not within a nucleus 0 Nucleoidnothing more than the space within the cell in which you find the DNA I Like the nucleus without a membrane 0 Still capable of everything a Eukaryotic cell can do just in a different way 0 No mitochondria but can still go through cellular respiration 0 Eukaryotes 0 Membranebound organelles 0 Membranebound nucleus 0 Bacterial Cells not all bacteria cells have these things 0 Cell wall I rigid 0 Capsule outside of cell wall I Stickysurfaces amp other cells 922015 Dr Whitehead I Cause infections because they stick around 0 Fimbriae I Helps With attachment 0 Flagella I Longer attachments I Helps move through the environment Eukaryotes I Nucleus and Ribosomes O Gives genetic control of the cell 0 DNA 0 Portions of RNA is made in the nucleus 0 All of the instructions 0 Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Lysosomes Vacuoles and Peroxisomes 0 Make distribute and destruct molecules in the cell 0 Lysosomesdestruct 0 Mitochondria and Chloroplasts 0 All cells have mitochondria for cellular respiration 0 Plant cells have chloroplasts in addition to help With photosynthesis 0 Energy process I Cytoskeleton Plasma Membrane and Cell Wall 0 Structural support 0 Movement 0 Communication 0 Animal Cell 0 Plant Cell Sections 4546 The Nucleus and Ribosomes Nucleus 0 DNA is also known as chromosomes 0 Associated With proteins 0 When a cell is dividing the DNA uses chromatin 0 Spread out and diffused 0 Not close to being ready to divide 0 3 types of RNA 0 mRNA I carries the message from the nucleic acid to the proteins 0 tRNA I transfer to amino acids 0 rRNA I never translated I structural component BIOL 1030 922015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 O surrounded by a double membrane 0 each is a phospholipid bilayer 0 nuclear envelope 0 What goes into and out of the nucleus 0 Nucleolus 0 Place Where rRNA is made 0 Structural component of the ribosomes 0 Pores control What goes in and out of the cell Ribosomes 0 Carries out translation 0 Made of protein and rRNA 0 Both Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes have ribosomes 0 Eukaryotes free amp bound 0 Free make proteins to be used in the cytoplasm chemical reactions in the cytoplasm 0 Bound attached to ER or nuclear envelope 39 Usually not going to have the proteins they make function right Where they are made they need to be transported somewhere else in the cell for them to begin working 0 Bound can become free and free can become bound the location is What matters not structure Sections 47 412 The Endomembrane System 0 Direct contact With each other s membrane 0 Vesicles connectvesicle transport indirect The Endomembrane System 0 Includes 0 Nuclear envelopeER ERGolgi Golgi to Lysosomes LysosomesVacuoles VacuolesPlasma Membrane Vesicle transport OOOOO Endoplasmic Reticulum 0 Two regions that differ in structure and function 0 Smooth lacking bound ribosomes I Steroids lipids oils phospholipids I Detoxifying things that get into the body drugs 0 Rough has ribosomes bound to it 922015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 I Involved in the production of proteins that will be used somewhere else 39 Can make more of itself 0 Connected to the outer nuclear envelope Golgi apparatus 0 Accepts finishesalters sorts and sends off what comes from the ER 0 Set up to where there is a receiving side and a shipping side Lysosomes 0 Break things down inside the cell 0 Waste 0 Foreign objects bacterial invaders 0 Contain enzymes that eat organic compounds 0 Low pH 0 The enzymes and membrane are made in the ER and are shipped to the golgi where the lysosome is put together 0 Can destroy almost anything inside a Eukaryotic cell 0 Membrane compartmentalizes the lysosome 0 Digestive center 0 Breaks down vacuoles to send out to the cytoplasm 0 Recycling Center 0 Reused Vacuoles 0 Contractile vacuoles 0 Twist and squeeze to help protists from getting too full of water 0 Plant 0 Hold pigments 0 Poisons to protect the plant Sections 413415 EnergyConverting Organelles Cells receive energy in one form and convert it into a usable form Mitochondria O in all animal and plant cells 0 carry out cellular respiration 0 when you get energy in the form of food the cell cannot use this energy directly so the cell has to break down and distribute ATP smaller pieces so that the cell can then use this energy 0 structure and function go together 0 Has two membranes 922015 Dr Whitehead 0 Phospholipid bilayers I Inner membrane 0 Folds cristae 0 Increase surface area 0 ATP is generated here I Outer membrane 0 Spaces within the membranes 0 Inter membrane space I Space between two membranes 0 Mitochondrial matrix I Inside folded membrane I DNA is found specific to mitochondria I Ribosomes specific to mitochondria I Enzymes involved in cellular respiration Chloroplasts I Only found in photosynthetic organisms 0 Responsible for photosynthesis 0 Location for energy conversion 0 Structure supports function 0 Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy 0 Two membranes 0 Outer membrane 0 Inner membrane I Thick uid called stroma 0 Same things as in mitochondrial matrix 0 DNA specific to chloroplast 0 Ribosomes specific to chloroplast 0 Enzymes necessary for photosynthesis 0 Thylakoid and thylakoid stacks O Membrane bound 0 Stacksgranum 0 Has inner membrane space Endosymbiont Theory Evolution of mitochondria and chloroplast I Own DNA and own Ribosomes 0 DNA is in a somewhat bacteria form circular 0 Ribosomes are similar to prokaryotic ribosomes 0 Reproduce in the same way that bacteria does 0 Genetic informationdivision is very similar with bacteria BIOL 1030 922015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 0 Phylogenetic tree I Bacteria 0 Mitochondria I Chloroplast I Archaea I Eukarya 0 Multiple hypotheses that contribute 0 Free living prokaryotic organisms 0 Larger cell that swallowed the mitochondrion and chloroplast became dependent on each other due to the benefits of protection and relationships of energy production 0 They can no longer live separately from each other I Organelles are not living so if they are taken from the cell they are no longer living Sections 416422 The Cytoskeleton and Cell Surfaces Provides support communicate and move Cytoskeleton 0 The part of the cell that have various types of protein fibers within the cytoplasm that provides support and has structural support inside of the cell that holds organelles in place inside the cell 0 Allows for motility 0 Interactions with motor proteins 0 Mircofilament I Protein fibers I help cell maintain shape I motility I actin subunit 0 Inter I Hold organelles in place I Fibrous subunits 0 Microtubule I Tubulin subunits I Rigidity to the structure I Provides tracks for organelle movement Cilia and Flagella 0 Eukaryotic cells 0 Movement motility 0 Both have similar structure and mechanism of movement I Cilia 0 Short hairlike structure work like oars on a boat moving in the same direction 0 Move mucus up and out 922015 Dr Whitehead 0 Flagella 0 Longer one or a few per cell 0 Whiplike motion wavelike 0 Structure 0 Both have a 92 0 2 in center 0 9 on the outside 0 Motor proteins allow to bend and move Extracellular Matrix 0 Animals 0 Two functions 0 Hold cells together to form a tissue 0 Help protect the plasma membrane 0 Mainly composed of glycoproteins O Cologen 0 Integrin 0 Communication outside of the cell and inside Cell Junctions 0 Connection points between cells 0 Animal cells 0 Communication 0 3 types 0 Tight Junctions I Prevent things from getting through a layer of cells I In between the cells seal at the top of a Ziploc bag I Nothing can get from the inside of gut to blood stream 0 Anchoring Junctions I Help hold cells together 0 Gap Junctions I Like straws I There so things can pass from cell to cell not through cells I Communication Cell Walls 0 Plant cells 0 Similar to extracellular matrix 0 Protect and provides structural support I Composed of cellulose 0 Can t break down 0 Cell junction BIOL 1030 922015 Dr Whitehead BIOL 1030 0 Plasmodesmata I Movement of food and water
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