Business Information Systems
Business Information Systems ISM 50
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by June Dickinson on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ISM 50 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by John Musacchio in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see /class/182167/ism-50-university-of-california-santa-cruz in Information Systems Management at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
ISM 50 Business Information Systems Lecture 10 Instructor John Musacchio UC Santa Cruz October 282008 lClOSS announcements Midterm Tuesday a Study guide to be posted soon l Student Presentation Jimmy Chen l Networked Computing in direct Procurement History predates Internet EEC 39OIIC Dafa Infercrame EDI u Exchan e order information between firms involved in direct procure en a Usually large firms who could who afford proprietary communication link a Initially order and invoice u Existed since 39 I FI39IIanca EDIFEDI later added EFT payment capability l Networked Computing in direct Procurement XML Extensible Markup Language is another data interchange format making an impact on inter enterprise commerc We will talk more about this later in the quarter lIndirect Procurement Sporadic purchase of goods and services to support organizational objectives a Example Office Furniture l DaTa and informaTion David G MesserschmiTT l CopyrighT noTice CopyrighT David 6 MesserschmiTT 2000 This maTerial may be used copied and disTribuTed freely for educaTional I ur oses as long as This co ri hT noTice remains aTTached IT cannoT be used for any commercial purpose wiThouT The wriTTen permission of The auThor l Key concepT The key commodiTy manipulaTed by informaTion Technology is informaTion To be manipulaTed in a compuTingneTworking environmenT informaTion musT be represenTed by daTa What is information lInformaTion From a user human perspecTive recognizable paTTerns ThaT influence you in some w y perspecTive undersTanding behavior In The compuTing infrasTrucTure informaTion has a somewhaT differenT connoTaTion as sTrucTure and inTerpreTaTion added To daTa l DaTa A biT is quotOquot or 1quot The aTom of The informaTion economy DaTa is a collecTion of biTs like u 0101110111010110 n quot0000011quot u 111011101011010110101111011011010quot NoTe The Terms daTa and informaTion are noT always used consisTenlel l RepresenTaTion Take The place of The original EquivalenT To in The sense ThaT The original can be reconsTrucTed from iTs represenTaTion OfTen The original can only be approximaTely reconsTrucTed alThough iT may be indisTinguishable To The user a eg audio or video kn mum Nuts that hrs representahun is m mmnm nut mm m mum hrs unehappenstu be astandzrd quot ANSI X3 11mm lt1 mo nlmmm Inta39pretahun svmemre A picture Thxs premre ennveys mfurmatmn ans mformauon 15 represented m the computer buthov lRepr esenfafion of picture image Expandmga small pumun nfune premre we see that n rs represented by squarepxxels Structure Interpretanun with a range ufZS mtensmes perpnrel mm tall by znn wrde An appmxlma un mu znn 8 bus e Amman bus but r can be cumpressed Color picture A culur premre can be represmted by three unuchrume rrnages Anne Expense ufthree times asmzny we lTerminoIogy Data Represmtatmn prunessmg Cnrnrnnnrcm an n amthznlsexmmgamza mn Represenfafion needs 1390 be sfandar dize he represenraunn Ifr A nut standarduzed he mfmmahun As garbled Cnmmumca e am a amtl39lznlsummgamza mn lRegeneraTion l ReplicaTion of informaTion Make a precise copy of The daTa copy biT b biT If you know The represenTaTionThi is equivalenT To making a precise copy of The informaTion Each such precise copy is called a neraTi process is called regeneraTion I Analog informaTion cannoT be regeneraTed l DiscreTe informaTion can be regeneraTed We Will never knuw Regeneratmn is pussbl fur the ngmal u f ms Rembrandt lu uked like lReplicaTion of informaTion requires knowledge of represenTaTion lImpIicaTions DigiTaIIy represenTed informaTion can be pr eserve over Time or disTance in iTs precise original form by occasional alsopxesnmzsknnmedgeof Vegan 0quot usxepzesenlnnon Replicanon M1an preserves Th2 inlegmy uent ReplicaTion of daTa is easy and cheap lImplicaTions con39T ReplicaTion of informaTion requires knowledge of The sTrucTure and inTerpreTaTion u Standardization or so e oTher eans EXTreme supply economies of scale I You can give away or sell and sTill reTain UnauThorized replicaTion or piracy relaTively easy Ar39chiTecTur39e by David G MesserschmiTT l CopyrighT noTice This maTerial may be used copied and disTribuTed freely for educaTional I ur oses as long as This co lriJhT noTice remains aTTached IT cannoT be used for any commercial purpose wiThouT The wriTTen permission of The auThor CopyrighT David 6 MesserschmiTT ZOOO Slide adapled 1mm slides 1m Undersianalru NeoxvorkedAppranons y Dm G Messevschmm ouwgm mun See cupyn hl quotum l WhaT is ArchiTecTur e How do you archiTecT a souTion l SysTem inTegr39aTion ArchiTecTure gtsubsysTem implemenTaTion gt sysTem inTegraTion Bring TogeTher subsysTems and make Them cooperaTe properly To achieve desired sysTem funcTionaliTy u Always requires TesTing a May require modificaTions To archiTecTure andor subsysTem implemenTaTion l Emergence SubsysTems are more specialized and simpler funcTionaliTy Higher level sysTem funcTionaliTy arises from The inTeracTion of subsysTems Emergence includes capabiliTies ThaT arise purely from ThaT inTeracTion desired or noT u eg airplane flies buT subsysTems can39T ISM 50 Lecture 9 April 25 2005 Instructor John Musacchio Class Announcements 0 Business Paper Proposals Due Today 0 Midterm Wednesday 7 Study Guide available on Web 0 Office Hours Changed this week only 7 Tu 1112 1152 7 Th 1112 1152 Student Presentations 0 Amrita Kaur Singh 0 Bao Ngoc Tran Chapter 6 by David G Messerschmitt Goal 0 Appreciate the importance of complexity management in networked computing 0 Understand better the role of architecture in complexity management 0 Examine infrastructure layering in more depth Complexity 0 A system that cannot be understood in all its detail by a single person or small group of people is complex The intricacy of the logic embodied in software 7 suffers no physical limitations 7 complexity is a primary limitation 7 advances allow us to extend that complexity 6 Some sources of complexity Problem domain is complex Topdown design as opposed to independent actors in the economy So ware is not adaptable like people Large team efforts required Integration ofheterogeneous suppliers Caution The applications considered in this course are relatively simple We have addressed 7 only the top ofthe hierarehy 7 ignored details 7 but this is the essence ofhierarchical design make that whichis complex appear simple Some solutions to complexity Modularity properties 5 separabon o eoneern Modularity A system is modular when it is divided into Allows amanager to fueus on highrlevel ubjeetzves oeiegaong luwrlevel oetau subsystems called modules with good 7 reuse properties Interoperability through interfaces Modules haw dimn func39ioml gmupings do 7 Hierarchy supports views at different 7 eneapsuiao39on g 1 quotd 5quot 7 Separation ofconcems among modules 7 Reusability ofsome modules 9 In Hierarchy Hierarchy in hardware archite cture Computer subsystem 39i Organization l 39 Buard subsystem integateo erreurt subsystem lZ Separation of concerns I The assignment of functionality to different modules should allow them to be designed and implemented as independently as possible I The leVel of interaction 7 may be intemally high 7 should be externally low They can then be assigned to different groups or companies for design 7 minimum coordination costs 13 Phy sical world example Customer service Credit checking Poor modularity Loan department Physical plant modularity Infrastructure example oor nd n modularity Switchtoswltch Host Network modularity Parts of a module T n Module Interface Implementation what other What only the modules see implementer sees Interface vs decomposition 0 At the interface you see the only what a module does to benefit other modules 0 Internally the functionality required to realize actions promised at the interface is decomposed into interacting modules 0 These are different but related views Example automobile user interface View mermg Accelerator Brake wheel Tumgright Gogfaster Gogslower Tumglelt This is an interface View ofthe application it aggregates all the functionality made available by allmodules in the automobile 18 Example automobile internal architecture I Front wheels turnsiower Interfaces 0 Focus of module interaction and interoperability 0 Two purposes 7 Informs other modules how to interact 7 Informs implementer about What has been promised to other modules Possible software interface action1 Menu of action2 actions action3 What are some other examples oftypes of interaction at interfaces Module interaction through interfaces Data customizing an action and dis 1o in 39 action parameter Both subsystems are affected by the interaction Client sewer Protocol 0 In addition to atomic actions an interface may define protocols 7 Protocol nite sequence of actions required to achieve a higher level function 7 One action can be shared by multiple protocols 7 Multiple modules may participate in a protocol 0 A protocol can also be thought of as a distributed algorithm Automatic teller machine ATM b it Steps Interface building blocks 0 Define available actions I Message on screen or printed 7 Menu of actions or returns from an action 0 Define for each higher level function a 7 Touch selection ofwion protocol Keypad 7 Single action or a nite sequence of actions 7 Input parameters to an action I Card reader 7 Authentication input palameters I Money output slot 7 Retums money Action authentication Action authentication 0 Parameters 39 Parameters 7 Identity card in slot 7 Institution card in slot Returns 7 PIN typed on keypad I Internally it contacts institution and matches against its database institution noted for all subsequent actions example of state I Returns 7 Screen message Invalid PIN or menu of available tions 0 Internal functionality 28 Action specifyaccount Action specifyaccount 0 Parameters 0 Parameters 0 Internal functionality 7 Account touch screen from menu of choices Returns 0 Internally choice noted for all subsequent actions another example of state 0 Returns 7 None 29 30 Action amount I Parameters 7 Dollarsiandicenw typed on keypad I Internally amount noted another example of state I Returns 7 Success or failure state dependent for example for a withdraw failure when dollarsiandicents exceeds balance Protocol cashwithdrawal I What is the sequence of actions Protocol cashwithdrawal failure other objectives no accounts balance exceeded Hardware interface I Physical connection I Electrical properties I Formam of data passing through the interface structure and interpretation Data types Data passing an interface is o en speci ed in terms of a limited number of standard data types I Data type range of Values and allowable manipulation Data type does not presume a speci c representation to allow heterogeneous platforms 7 Representation must be known when data passes a speci c module interface Example data types I Integer 7 natural number between 32767 and 32768 7 Could be represented in many ways by 16 bits since 2 65536 I Float 7 number ofthe form m10 3 2768 where m is in the range 32767 to 3 2768 and n is in the range 255 to i 7 Could be represented by 168 24 bits 36 More data types 0 Character 7 Values assuming az and AZ plus space and punctuation marks cou1d be represented by 7 or 8 bits 0 Character string 7 collection of n characters Where n is customizable cou1d be represented by 7 bits 37 Compound data types 0 Programmerdefined composition of basic data types 0 Example Employee String name String address Integeryeariofbinh Protocols 0 A defined sequence of actions betweenamong two or more subsystems required to achieve some higherlevel functionality Interface specification focuses on actions including formats of parameters and returns and protocols Example protocol deposit getibalance add deposit Bank amount account setibalance Anatomy of an action invocation gt0lt Decides itneeds Invokesme to invoke an action action by name t Passes parameter 5 Processes data to the serv er Parameters m accordance with the specified action gen tes ocessthe return values values to complete 3 Passes the retumyaluesback to the chent Client modu1e server modu1e More on layering by David G Messerschmitt Go als Understand better 7 haw 1ye g 15 u m the In nmcture e h n emmns em lax e haw n eeemmtes suppliers 1 nllaws new cnpnblhues m be ndded Incranentn y Interaction of layers Layer ems e a then a we eyewew i i i em eye wees emcee m we eye ems by mm we emcee a we eye bemwaneaeemg Enemy 2 i i 2 Layer new as as a sewer m we eye ems 44 Layering 8 8 8 I Leyenng buxldg espemmy incrementally by addmg e what elem Three types of software em gemees eemmumeeeen sturagev tummy PreSentanun em Part of Microsoft Vs DOJ dispute Maj or layers Middleware Operating system Network Open layer interfaces M iddleware Open interfaces Network Data and information Application Deals with information Assumes structure and interpretation Ignores structure and interpretation Infrastructure Deals with data Data and information in layers I The infrastructure should deal with data or at most minimal structure and interpretation of data suitable for a wide range 0 applications The application adds additional structure and interpretation I This yields a separation of concerns Package file message I In the simplest case the infrastructure deals with a package of data nonstandard terminology 7 collection ofbits a speci ed number and ordering I The objective of the infrastructure is to store and communicate packages While maintaining data integrity I File for storage message for communication 53 52 Data integrity I Retain the 7 Values 7 order 7 number of bits in a package Example Web sewer Application Operating system File system Network Fragmentation Assembly Information in the infrastructure 0 Sometimes it is appropriate for the infrastructure to assume structure and interpretation for data 7 to add capabilities Widely useful to applications 7 to help applications deal with heterogeneous platforms Where representations differ 0 At most data types Data and information Application Deals with information Assumes structure and interpretation Assumes standard data pes Infrastructure Deals with datatypes Storage lication App Deals with information Assumes standard data types and SQL structured query language Database management system DBMS The infmm cmre e sys39e quot can provide data management functions Communication plication Deals with information Assumes standard datatypes and performs conversions The Distributed object management infrastructure can Network aren l conve representations across platforms Idea behind remote action invocation Client Server invokeiactlon actlon act 1011 name Daramete rs Mlddleware layer returns Using a common intermediate form ManS ManS Windows Windows UNIX UNIX Mam ame Mam ame Perform all COnV erSlOnS Convert tofrom common representation 61 intorrnation is data Witn kn wn and Tommi consistent structure and interpretation a in tne context ortne current layer Layer above Layerbelow R presentation is a coding Representation information o atc e manipulated by a lowerlaye results rernain rneaningmi at tn layer r ne e nigner Question 0 What advantages and disadvantages do you see for the information appliance Information Infomaxion Representation Structure and a a interpretation processing Data Data 62 Information appliances Horizontal structure in layers Windows NT TCP Network 1 Network 2 CICISS announcements ISM 50 Bus ness Informat on Systems Database Deadline Extended to Tues 66 Lecture 18 Reading for Tues 66 u Messerschrnitt Ch 10 293321 Instructor John Musacchio UC Sumnerquot Student Presentations Tuesday 66 u Business Paper quot2139200 Patrick McCuer American Airhnes u Business Paper I Jessica Li 7 Ch aries Schwab I Student Presentations lTransport Protocols u Business Paper Cathy Hua Starbuc s u Busi Ai I The Internet is unr 39 k ness Paper Michael Klassen Southwest rlines 3 ob will make a best effortquot to get your packet to its destination MM Wallslion u kouting problems 5 mnsoon pityen i lTran smission Control Protocol 7TCP IUDP Q mm uf packets r and then ketransrnit mechanism for reiia ility u Receiver 3 ends acknuwiedgeme s in sende u If a packet is iasi suurce faiis in get ACK retransmits For some applications packet retransmissions are not worthvilnile u Why 5 quot925 wquot 5 quot 39 For those applications we use D foungestiun perceived byiusi packets UDP is a transport Protocol Hm u Suurce reduces its send rate WM 5 u Dues nut aa ransmissi ns n ius sender reauees send rate by haif OtherWise siuwiy inereas rei u Dues nut au cungestiun eunirui l NeTwor39k congesTion I Traffic can overload links a Failure of sTaTisTical mulTiplexing I CongesTion musT be limiTed in some fashion Carried Mme Congestlon mstablllty Network capacity Increasing portion of network tm ic is resent ackets Offered traf c optimum l CongesTion ConTr39ol I When neTworks are congesTed cerTain sessions SourcedesTinaTion pairs should reduce offered aTes a Today all TCP sessions slow down when They deTecT packeT losses a UDP sessions do noT slow down I WhaT are some alTernaTive sTraTegies a Have Those whose applications aren39T as sensiTive slow down more I How would we know which are less sensitive l QualiTy of Service Q05 meTr ics PM I LaTency the time it Takes a packeT to travel from a sender to receiver Throughput the rate of the connection in bps Loss the fraction of packeTs that geT losT Jitter How much the laTency varies over time l Achieving Q05 I Increase The capaciTy of The neTwor k a loT I TDMA insTead of sTaTisTical mulTiplexing a ThaT way Traffic from one connecTion does noT effecT The qualiTy of anoTher a BLIT we lose The benefiTs of sTaTisTical mulTiplexing I PrioriTy Scheduling a Analogy firsT class checkin vs coach checkin l Flow cam ro vs CongesTion ConTr ol C on sum er eam ofmessages Flow control Receiver has to have a my to tell producer to slow down Flow control is when the sender adjusts his send rate so as not to overwhelm the receiver l Pricing Today End User I FlaT RaTe mosT common ll pays an ISP a flaT raTe per monTh ll does noT depend on use l Pricing AlTernoTives I Usage based pricing ll Charge some amounT per megabiT senT ll Those ThaT use more Thus pay more ll This is done Today for The phone neTwork as well as daTa connecTions over cell phones ll AdvanTages l Pricing AlTernoTives I QoS based pricing a Pay a high price for guaranTeed QoS euaranteed throughput low loss and laTency a Pay a lesser price for noTguararrTeed besT efforT service a Advantages Qos cosTs provider more so user should pay more Mi ht improve provider revenue Benefits users who need Qos guarantees ages Complexity l Pricing AlTernoTives CongesTion Pricing l Idea sTudied a loT in research communiTy a Pay more when links are congesTed n This gives an incenTive To reduce usage a If fined grained enough congesTion prices could be an alTernaTive To TCP congesTion conTrol u Some proposed schemes allow users wiTh greaTer needs To ouTbid Those wiTh less need l CongesTion Pricing AdvanTages I More revenue for provider I Allows users wiTh sensiTive applicaTions To pay more To geT The service They require DisadvanTages I ComplexiTy ll This is why iT has noT caughT on CosT based Pricing WhaT are The difficulTies wiTh This Large Fixed CosTs Small marginal cosTs I Pricing within the Internet Flat Rate ur Simple usage has e Peerlng Relationship s 39 quot 39 Customer pays an 15 a often F at Rate per month 15 pays a backbone As a Often just flat rate dependent on access link speed a omet mes use on totulusu e Backbone NSPs peer with each other a g tfefn for free if they exchange comparable amounts of Flat Rate n I O verull a Internet billing today is much more course gra ned than telephone billing l Domain Names IP addresses are inconvenient for people in 32 bits hard to remember in 128 bits very hard to remember Domain names in eg arguseecsberkeleyedu il Easier to remember than IP addresses in However we need some way of mapping domain names to IP addresses l Domain Name System DNS Root Berkeley UCSC Name Server Name Server SoE Name Server I Hierarchy in Addresses vs Names Addresses hierarchical in topology in Maximize wild cardsquot and distribute address administration Names hierarchical in administration in Single administered organizations often distributed topologically eg ibmcom l Transport Protocols l The Internet is unreliable in It will make a best effortquot to get your packet to its destination I Packets can be lost because of la Congestion in Link errors in Routing problems l OSI Layers lnternet Explorer Outlook Em ail Real Player TCP UDP Internet Protocol IP Ethernet WiFi SDNNET Modulation Schemes QAM DFDM etc l Some Typical Topologies Home Network nSLMndun m Mme annul 0mm lSmallMedium Business Wen sne Sewer l Web Caching I Speed up web page loading by sforing previously seen componenfs locally War mm wawmcsmedu sum i LE1 mumquot in clulnnmn I Akamai Case I Solutions I Expand Bandwidth u Being one I Mirroring web cites a Put exact copy of same web page to multiple servers u Tricky to duplicate content I Cach39ng a Problem Stale Content a Problem Hard to count click throughsquot I Content Distribution Networks I Freeflow I Deployed in 1999 I Akamai Infrastructure in 13000 servers in 954 networks by 2001 I Customers in Large Commercial Websites I Revenue model 2000 per mbps served in For comparison normal Internet access cost 500 mbps at time IInternet Bottlenecks I First Mile Server Capacity 70 of website performance problems according to one study I Backbone Plentiful but some shortage within metropolitan areas I Peering Exchange of traffic between NSPs I Last Mile to home a 56 K modems are slow a Shared LAN limitations I 2000 Financials I 90 million revenue I 42 million cost of rev dep bw rent in Hope was depreciation would decline in future I 152 million GampA in selling general and administrative u largely sales force cost l Competition I Hosting firms substitute in Exodus I Other CDNs ii Sandpiper Adero Mirror Image I Content Alliances ii Akamai39s competitors banded together to share networks l 2001 Market Changes Bad I Dotcoms bust I Customers leave in churn rate goes to 22 per quarterquot Good I Hosting firms go bust exodus I Some CDN competitors go bust I Competing CDN alliances mired in problems Akamai EdgeSuite Large Company Construct Page l EdgeSuite I Assemble dynamic pages at edges rather t unjust serve heavy o J39ects I Value proposition in Performance improvement in Cost and complexity reduction in Scalability in Security I Pricing higher than old service I Soon edge suite dominated revenue l Technology Dynamic CDN technology ESI edge sides includes Develop as open standard why Akamai not big and credible enough to force a defacto standard on market l Marketing I Difference in selling old vs new products a Old product Geared toward speeding up websites kevenues of their cl ents depended on speed Easier to get sale a New Product Simplify company IT function I Cost vs revenue center I Harder sell More data driven a gonsequently new product needs more professional sales orce I Channels a Distribution Partners IBM credibility a Direct Sales Force too l Recent Performance lChapter 9 l Build vs Buy Purchase off the Shelf iessr rne and cost news of using a standard solution rmustmold orgtu app 7 no potential for competitive advantage Outsource aeveigpersngras iliarwithorgaswu rngre opportunity for customizing than gmne snev e contractor may snare knowledge wn egrnpemgrs e contractor may have ma much parga ning power quotwas customizable of 3 was en n rationbetweenconceptualizmion and development needed rmoxt rt ky sorg may lack competency m up n l Application Lifecycle I It is important to think beyond acquiring an application a How do we come with the idea a How do we architect it D How do we implement a How do we extend and maintain it For this reason the software engineering communit 39 u ck Modal l Application Lifecycle Stages 1 Conceptualization 2 nalysls 3 Architecture Design 4 Development Evolution 5 Testing and Evaluation 6 Deployment 7 Operations Maintenance and Upgrade l 1 Conceptualization What is the vision D What are the ubJeclwes D What is the business case p EXAMPLE HHC m infurm flight allendanlswhich passengers are luw ana high value I Present di ram in FA S HHC eusmrner mfu updated wirelessty av gate Alsu nas repurt ng functiun fur misbehav ng passengers p Business Case Inerease repeat business frum high value eusmrners Applications and the Organization l 1 Conceptualization Example l 2 Analysis I Describe what the application will do I Enough info to allow quotstakeholdersquot to review idea I Don39t make highly detailed specifications I Describe scenarios in which it is used u Use Cases l2 Analysis Example I Example Scenarios u NORMAL FUNCTION when at gate WiFi AP sends pass data of next flight to HHC HHC displays info on color coded seat map 1r FA clicks on seat she gets more info about passenger a REPORTING FUNCTION FA wants to report that passenger n 13F is bad FA cl cks report pewsquot button followed by 13f I HHC finds from its data that Joe Schmoe is in 13f I When HHC is n radio ange of WiFi AP HHC tells server that Joe Schmoe is bad l3 Architecture Design I Decompose the application into subsystems B Hardware softwa u Try use commercial off the shelf subsystems u Try to use standard infrastructure layers Operatingsystem network middlewure etc l Architecture AlrllrlE Dataserver l HHC Architecture HHC APPIIcatlon Amman wnh HHc server User Interface Data Management Palm os Neilvanlma infra 51m mure Design a hierarchical architecture I HHC Server HHC Server Applicatio erldDWs os NEMDrklng lntrastrueture Agaln We see layerlng andhlerarchy Between each module We speclfy an interface Standard Database uerles SQL in d infrastructure I Data server Standard Database querles SOL tram HHC Server Database Our archltecture makes use at the Existing lnterface thhe airline database sa WE dan tneed ta redeslgn itl I 3 Architecture Continued D Define the functionality interaction and interfaces of subsystems D While doing this consider I Scalability a How easily can we increase the number of users and maintain performance Extensibility a How easily can we add new features in the future Administration a How much work will it take by humans to keep this running properl a kemember siin tli n vs fat client discussion l4 Development Evolution I Develop the details D Developprogram custom subsystems D Have contractor build outsourced pieces D Put together with offtheshelf components I Incremental D Start with simplest implementation and get it rkin D Later add more features I 5 Testing I A must I If architected well we can test subsystems independently l Alpha test offline test of prototype I Beta test test in intended environment with cooperative users D Example give hhc to initial group of FA39s l 6 Deployment I Convert from previous processes if necessary D Example CISCO ERP all at once D Or you could do incrementally I Train users D Example FritoLay HHC I Data importation D if necessary ISM 50 Business Informa rion Sys rems Lec rur39e 5 Ins rr39uc ror39 John Musacchio UC San ra Cr39uz Oc rober39 9 2008 FriTo Lay Mar39ke r Sal ry Snacks 1 Who owns Fr39i ro Lay Compe ri ror39s a P amp G Pr39ingles a Anheuser39 Busch Eagle Snacks 1 Borden Wise Chips 1 Small Regionals Sales Force a 10000 people 1 Drive around in rr39ucks sell and deliver39 snacks FriTo Lay I GPOWTh a In The 70s double digi rquot 1 Mid 80s slowed To single digiT a Foreign Expansion NOT for Fri roLay division because PepsiCo has a separa re in rerna rional snacks div I Good 1 Several Top brands I Bad 1 MonoliThic na rional approach l FriTo Lay Segmen ra rion a SupermarkeTs u updown s rree rquot Regionalized MicroMarke ring u Targe red smaller brands To regional cus romers Hand Held Compu rer a Small compuTer for each salesperson To cary around 1 Log sale Transac rion daTa l FriTo Lay 3 s ra red objec rives 1 Replace op rical scanner sysTem used now I IBM will s ro su I or rind i r soon a hour per day per driver paperwork reduc rion u Marke ring effecTiveness De railed sales da ra El will help make regional marke ring decisions El Nego ria re wi rh s rores for more shelf space
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