EPSS 101 - Lectures 13 & 14
EPSS 101 - Lectures 13 & 14
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lLeclure l3 Energy Storage ond Hydrogen tl39tT39LA EP33 it i EI3939Jl 39l39 l l3939 Er1er39gy lD irninishinvg iossiil resrzlurces and piro5r3ects l oro sustoinolole f39ut urer Flrotessorl lm icl llbolgie Jig e l3939lt39ll 3 392 luL liquotquotEfU l ftkldi u it Q 39l39l t x L l af I CL 3amp3 Ii thlquotIquotE E ti i K p if5 I kv 3 393 quotL39fquotJ J ix Lx 391 W Lquot Tcf39 ski G G kQ Grid Power Storage Because the demand for electric power is not constant electric utilities have the opu cgtn of storing eegiyofor periods of o g 7 at demand without having to build additional power plants Viable large scele energy storage options include Pumped Hydroelectric Power T y discussed in Lecture 13 i Fm n 0 n 1 Compressed Air Energy Storage llCAESl 1llquot39Iii l it at Tl l i i P 3 fl E19 lil51r f1 k k 3 71 1 is w ir i 39lifW 39i quot E limit it til Qol n t it E l I it E rix o in ii i Energy storage is required for stationary end users to balance power supply and demand overtime i Energy storage is also required llor mobile end users Energy storage is one of society39s most pressing technological problems The goal of this lecture is to present the current state of the art in energy storage and discuss prospects for the future Intelligent Grids United States transrnission grid Sanon FENA Transporting electrical power is en more econor iggl than storing it The key is to use high voltage transmission lines to rninimize resistive losses Ohms Law V 2 IR P lVl9FtVquotR The US Electrical grid consists of 300000 km of transmission lines maintained by 500 companies H Transmission and distribution losses were estimated to be l65 in 2007 l Signi cant vulnerabilities to miscommunication ineptitude and sabotage exist it Hi lH39l 3939lE39lquot39 iiit rtujE T l ll 39l Iquot39l ll lii39 55 quot 0 lwi Ugllquotioi titllquot my rot is vriirquotlli739l ij l l39ile i ii cw n to UHE Cl S 39Z3939t tl ii ti39t T Ligjtdl E E A39l39 ttttlf3 WW1 I CL g Wet igriirttl tquot3 V 1 t LwlIl39t39l39L quotit I Supergrids and Hypergrids Mobile Energy Storage 3951l E Energy Dcnscin In the mid 197039s R Buclcminster Fuller proposed linking the world s electrical w TW grids to even out daynight demand across longitudes y N K cT llli quott p1 t The creation of a worldwide grid is now iJnderlvv l ya analogous to the internet W T T T T Watt it is now economical to transmit electrical power over distances of more than F quot W3quot39 soon trim T T TT T 5 g qot J W39 L The next generation of 765 Kvolt lransmissliron inTves Klvlilll leinablle costeffective T transcontinental power transmiissiioin 39 D13 Longrange supercoindticting electrical transrnission may be on tlhe horizon Mqtu t Hm ts 39quotltquotquotquotquot rquot r p 8 t 3939 jU M 239 quot 6 quot 39quot 3 1 Z as PoF p if Gofes ir r czrxllo l P T tlE t ttltt 5 T T 7 T g a lLampnlti oaqu i M M ii Mama 391remfrv tLn 7491 gig l iivliiaf an i I1ns1TniI39uI py nmp r mi ii 5 2 if an g III 39 Energy sto e for moms apptrci1tionsis the reitum challen edue to the need to maaernure energy storage E power art eiency an ise 39 an rtttnimiztemass vcliumo and poTlu hon Proposed US supergrid to transmit wind P39 P9 TT T T T energy Tm W ii W 0 Wquot H f39gEiEt at lrl er Hitrr ttrritjr Mt 51 Tilt DHit Tb E FHLHE Ir Th TlIN E lit I1 IT IIIr ha 1 l Penguins vs Hummingbirds Birds that don39t have to y can store energy in the form of fat This enables them to survive in harsh situations where food is only available duning part of the year Hummingbirds are on the move constantly and need to eat constantly Top conserve energy at night a hiimmingsbirclquots body can decrease to 65F which is barely warm enough to sustain life I There is no perllect mobile energy storage system and all the existing systems have tradaofls There may he fundementall limits imposed by the tyranny DI the pencdic table that rnay never be ovarcorrta science ttcltcrir not withstanding Evotutton hes providecli animals wirlm one all the best energy storage systems avariatzilu how ever you don39t want to store too much energy or else you l tarssome fat l l i mt 39l 1 i iiilrii39li it i i ii 1quotquotliCll39l l3939k piiti t quotI quotilEl39Tl39 l5ttTlquot3t tquotE ItrlIii39iimi3E ttlwkj quot3 lt lilFigiJ Z 39I lM1 FE lrtn2it39t39tliquot1 QgEttl 39lll t39lj E N irii iii 99 wt Tainan Ba enes 9 I I Co erZinc Cell Batteries store electTricTal erier in gmm 9 9 pp the form of chemical energy 9 9 H They consist of a nulmber of T voltaic cells wmcnii1 m Each cell consists ol two halite quotquot39 quotquot 39 cells connected by a oonduictive mania F5 electrolyte T T7quot One half cell is th r L1 negative electrode where positive T T I tons migrate 3 2 ff The other halfcell is X mm Y If or pcsitjiively Charged cell here z k y T r quotii P 0KW an 1 L 139ir 5 quot39 39 negative ions migrate p y bvtmm ZI ISI39 lnhram if i ii Cu139irai2u Guts nquot I I L ifquot ais 0Z W 3 Iquotl l7llhliil tit3939 I quotLl rS39WlH r between z 393939quotquotai3quot Zns gt Zn3aql 2 e Ol3l4lV Cus gt Cuaq l 2e 076 V The voltagie of a battery is determined by the dlifferenc 39 quot T r eTleTctrornotilve force a the two halfecells Electrical current can ow through the battery to an external load The batte can be charred b a 1 4 forcingia current at a higher voltage CH2 aq Zn J Cum Znz aq 139W in the opposite direction 397 ff tmE tj quottquotI1t l39quottif l liquot39rEEZ in T voltage from a slingle battery cell In practice not all possible battery chemistries are reversible i And not all possible battery ohemistries are practicai due to the physical states of materials and undesirable secondaryl reactions that ultimately kill batteries 1 Wt l ltil39i cit U f t393rtlrlP l W The overall performaince of practical Battery Chemistry The elements are classi ed as E natiing elsctroris or t izing aQT5EP g lQQtTOnSJ l n mg on the configuration of their valence electrons Lithium and sodium are highly redilcirig whereas Chloitrte is highly oxidizing The maximum differences between the standard potentials for Q5 39 battery lhaIf reactions i y This is the maximurn possible n Alas at 1 5 or 6 volts C1mM asar E 4iitun E tarwu HE A i 931 i M 13 an G I39 1WI lll5 f Auiru hutd IquotllB393II39I39 l liIVi39RVi 51 11 KUquot l39gIlquotI 39uZ E Eaullil F 39I IiSJl 71 I39quotl tilttili t l iLH 39 i r an 3 Q Battery Performance liatterles is limited by a number of factors Structure electrolytes electrodes are typically man tirnes the mass of the eiectirochemically active materials There are signi cant i net cientcies built in to t promssi wlhich iplaces limits on the optimal charge and discharge rates selfdischarge rates The overall efficiency of a battery chargedischarge cycle is 71i l at best 39 Secondary reactions ultimately limit the number of lifetime chairgeldischarge cycles gust is a siignificarit factor for high performarice batteries 0D H0ivLi ifiil D D E E B it i gt tlt39wi E1 irir L5 lt li U tie W5 x rambratfl ii ii tlclwt P 4 39r3939 t we 2 mi 4 ii s o1 Nicltel y 3 Hydrogen t2 39 Batteries Ancient Batteries The Baghdad Battery from Iraq is ohe of the oldest confiirmed batteries believed to be about 2000 years old T t consists of a clay lair with a stopper made of asphalt Sticking through the asphalt is an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder When lled with vinegar or at t g 1 e lectrolytic solution the jar produces abo 1l1 volts The battery was probably used for electroplating gold and silver Egyptian deities presenting llather with an electric lump bai ery and cable High Tech Batteries i The Tesla Roadster electric vehicle uses commodity 1865tJ iormtfactor Baton cells in series to generatnd up to 20i0lltW of power Using lots of little cells improves the thermal pertormance of the battery system to provide awesome acceleration Orbiting spacecraft use nicltelahydrogen batteries that can handle more than 2l0iOiDO chargedischarge cycles without signi cant degradation Tesla Boadister l xi 6 1Iquot1i3KD3C39 I397i quotS Ho ttTiCtlt Cn is 39 t i tCii39l 8r i i EH Ti 51 quot3 Kquot I IiJ1I3939tquott 3 lttlicj 0 5 i3quotquot t tc391 LWquott it 11 ft ii l iL I C wt D it r 1 I i i t39 ll 391 lquotl 0 l t i My Favorite Electric Vehicle The Yuneec lntl e430 is the world s first commercially produce electric lig ht aircm ft v lDesigned and rnalnufactured in China this nearly silent viilbratienafree 80K twoseat plane has a ying time of 3 hrs and a charging time of 3 hours 5 energy cost per ight and has only 2 moving parts in its motor It has a top speed of 80 mph and has been demonstrated in the US and is currently undergoing FAA certi cation Video ht tpwww n39tefeediacomtwatch 201 888017 Yuneec lntl e430 I lll39t hr trgttl quot in L v39llquot quot quot V pU t f ttltlW Qt mMquot1k quot t tTllll139l tiquotn p L ll B K Lique ed Gas Products Cryogenic lique ed gas products require l I000 the volume T Lique ed natural gas LNG is a viable medium for airgesslcile gas storage and transgortation hlatulral gas mostly mietnalne llique es at l 62C 39 g at l atm Hydrogen gas lique es at 252C at tl am LNG Tank Disadvantages incllude Signi cant energy lrequired to liquet y Evaporatlve loss of gas Evaperative loss of gas contributes to greenhouse effect Enormous energy density is a safety concern LNG Tanker 5 39 Compressed Gas Energy Storage Compressed gas natural gas CNG er hydrogen fuels are viable for motor vehicles Advantages Very low pollution Reduced maintenance Similar performance Similar cost l Disadvantages Gas must be highly compressed 3600 psi for CNG and 5000 psi for hydrogen to achieve adequate energy density Compressing the as t L quotese 7 pressures requires20 of the e erg it contains 0W Tank weight and tank bulk are signi cant Minor concerns about safety Vehicle range can be limited Refueling infrastructure is limited s best utilizedi in v el1icteTf ts T CNG UClA BUS Fleet Hydrogen An Alternative for Mobile Energy Storage 3 Elattenes are currently the dominant norlfossilif Z Em pgm X Emg fuel mobile ener stora e te ology Elaine 3933939iquot39I39l39t i31 t3939Til39 c apaci ors and ywheels are of potential value T 0 5 for some applications FT Hydrogen appears to be the only available quot technology that can effectively compete with fossil fuels y 911 llydrogen Reaction ti 0 F O D FI t39 39f Ir 5quot E f I39llquotI ll Eil I2E Yip 39 IIsaipi an P1u39gwil I arequot if L3H J non A l 4 2tI2 02 2tl20 9 Forward reactinn is combustion reverse ire c oln rs hydrg yg g Fteal world speci c energy and power storage colmparisdns including packaging and storage mass Advantages Speci c energy 142 l lJfkg Minimum hydrolysis voltage 124V No carbon Yay No other emissions except for water and some leaked hydrogen Disald valntagles Volumetnic Energy 1218 MJlmr3 for gas tallo free hydrogen on Earth Hydrogen is 0 a Wot 3 net energy Wtlhere 0 go IEO nd A Of U SOUTCG 1 trl71 I r PW Jr r yin tat if ursslri cm Hydrogen Contibtistion 5000 psi autornotiye hydrogen fueli tanlk iLle Cells F 1 N lt Til E 139i 39 Jquot 0 Hydrogen combustion in heat engines is so biect to the same tlherrnodynannic efficiency Iirnitations as other es of combustion typically ilt20 emciencyi Fuel cells w to work like batteries but irnport fresh Hi2 and O2 and expel H20 on a continuous basis can rovide The cost ot current technology is currently very high due to the englineering required the cost of the catalysts and the proton exchain ge membrane Hydrogen Fuel Cells I937 Hindenburgs Disaster 35 out of 97 on board died H Li it iiquot ifsquot1 5 tn l 3 lg to irlri in ft ilgit C 2 i 39 r in hid t 391 39 PE E 39 i 1 39oL aj quotE39i 0 I L i L W G I mtijL LiC 7 Making Hydrogen 39Eutrr Hydrogen can be produced from 39quotquot quot quotquot quot39 k um i tiossil fuels through steam tionnation I 39 W s rt 1139 1 with methane 5 P quot quot r T I 3 i l cH l H3O CO as It However the CO quickly H2 0 39 reacts to torin atnnos lteric CO I 39 Electrolysis uses electric I L I 1 I current to dissociate H20 to form v 39 cm H2 end 02 gas i i I Best accomplished in strong quot39 W eiectroiyte solution to yield 39 i Z 390 i stoichiometric proportions of H2 S if i i sk 5iyA 3 is397 and D2 J The end to endi energy i i efficiency of most hydrogen electrolysis processes is 50 i it E r139139tT quoti39Iquot xii 3 39igi M1 M1 quothi 39 quot39 a K Fuel Cell Vehicles are limited by the need to sloighydrog en which either must he quot corrlpressed or adsorbed onto high surface area rnaterials Both processes r Ulillie si ni cant energy and do not have the convenience of gasoline Our Former Governor We are Stardust 9 I I i I I I I I 1 1 t 7 ltT 0 int mic ii I 5 e quotflquot I J I J YE 6 H I I 5 2 ll I 2 39 E E 1 El E st 3 quot l i 7 i 7 H I I I I l I I I L 53 NH quot Q LE1 0 Sn Ami I39 39G quotI A I AME Schemeleic diagram of the oesrnie etaundaitces oi the elements highlightiitg the nucleosyrttneltle oreseesee responsible for forming difierent groupie er rioeiitdes Forrnstitzn oi the i39lLlf ll iiEE Ey rtd CEIl quotlE39iC11 extract energy thus these nuaiidee are rnacie by ei39ciolherttnic premzetesee often in the 1jEi39 Iii39lHi39lFJIE S of stars U p i t tilCI i xiquot 0 Wt in trquoti 3939 I i quoti T39I 39139 Ikjquot39394RI f i 71 Chain reaction mu can spontalneouslly fission although the rate is Wei slow much slower than spontaneous I1deea the minor isotope o Uranium 23511 can be inducted t fission with addition of a neultronl 33 U mil 1M 3133 at the present time ti P R 17 7 n fesslu 4 235 I39 95539 2 tum j Q V 7 W I lI lI Iithe Cm fl 0 1 I gt5 we 3939 13939 o wt quot39quot I quotIr TI239lIr acne 3939 g 0 7 39 II useIqauuiul ntglkm 39 3 p 39 H 5 L quot 39 39uneI II e39Inpi IIanmu In 39 I I p uailmu run It T 9 C S page J ingr4 atIIIn F av Iv 11159I 51 VFa39sItais nleultron yield from 335M fissizen 243 9935 p romlp t 065 are dlellayedl total energy released in nuclear fission of one mu 200 Mev in quotam Iit it mii ext 11 I itquot 1 it rt i ti lit limmi IJI 3 A M Periodic Table 0u we we in vIA via D I2 U of the Elements in in o I 3 II W3 VB WE WIH VI IE3 WE um Fgumpl l H 19 Ji quot I39 24 It I Ga L Se l d E 7 5 Q In Sn7 T jl 7 l liel an am Hi if i lfl Px E Len iaiiide I Series Lanthanides and Aetiriides have outer shell electron con gurations and tchemioa proiperties similair to Lanthanum and Actinium respectively All the lantlhanides are Rare Eanh squot found in nature Of the Actinides only Uranium and Thorium are found in rrtore than trace quantities in natu X llA3939I I Pct H it If Chain resections 133lUcan spontaneously ssion although the rate is very slow much slower than spontaneotis obdteoay the minor isotope of Uralniurni WU can be irIduced to S1SiOIquoti with ad7giition of a neutron nl 235U a 36U lwxe 955i Zn IIrxIIr4mI I 1 quotII l Lul39Ir name LT megwuiuai IIuinutl U 1F InnLuIlI ml ungI rmulranr II E A h quot39k 39l l39uI Ill mrar 0 O 1III4 lquot I gt 391 39i VItl VIIrY39l39i gas Ivy Ml nnIui iiq zqrh 51 rieuitronl yield lirom mu ssion 243 9935 pI39omptquot 0 are delayed total enelrgly relleasecl in nuclear fission of one 35U JI200 ililev Neuliori capture quotcross sectionquot reaction probability mu will ssion at gquot V fx all energies of the gr 0 l absor l n r n g 1 la itiselFissiiE 3 l W p 9f T quot39 2 r material 3 1 W811 1390 iquotci mi 1 0j WU has a I WHI threshold for ssion at a 1 neutron energy of 1MeV Eiraauizaelmn burn it i C Lift cl if if i ft 3 l l39r ilE ljl 0 DU Hgl 7 tlilUlI iquot i F ii H13 Vi V l 3 a 139quot ill 1 L E ii J V 5 Hi i j 39 V 1 txfbgih quotxiquot i W U 2 rquot l quot39 Nuclear Reactors Fuel Usually pellets of uranium oxide U02 arranged in tubes to fonn fuel rods The rods are arranged into fuel 1 I i assemblies in the reactor core Tubes comm are covered with cladding usually Zirconium alloys y Moderator This is matenal in the core which slows dawn the neutrons released from ssion so that they cause more ssion It is usually water but may be heavy water or graphite Pressure E N39 l I VESSBI Control rods made with neutron alJsorbling material such as cadrnium Uranium hallniurn or boron and are lnserltecl or 39 e quot d39 3 wilhdrawln from the oore to control the or to halt it 39 t 9la ECl riemrorzs are ll quoti lQC f iE39Ji39l7 to in M rd l reeo ii iiilliplifetdiquoti tame iCl393 i V waF H20 is an effective Coolant A llC lJld OI Q33 circulating rngderagar and through the core so as to transfer the Coolant heat from it thquott5r iii quotE U V 1 lt it i t n F ms T 1 i it o Pi o lquotL U il l Jliii W 1 P rl39quotK3 quot p illiWa5 quotl Steam or hot water out FIGUFIE 7T2 Neutron ca rum quotcross sectionquot reaction roeatrr lir i P P i The i ssion neutron energy speetru rn peaks at around ll Mlev Hrnimbtutr new i i E 5 4 E a a Haulrun energy He Implications Lll i39l i ii oi it we quoth 139I ltL ii39i ii39iiquot u viW ii i lrquotimi 5 iii W3 ii i riir li u t39r iquot iriliii ieitir in oil f 7 i Steam E 0 i 39 quotW Generator Elecwcw 1 out l H 39 ll 1quot39 quot quotquot Reactor l 0 x H quot39 Clare l gt I a p l Condenser 5 Wler writor and WiJSl 2 l lQ zl GUI a waierin Pressure 39 39 vessel 5 f 0 Ky Cooling I N V tower i39 39s E 39 l 39 I S a boilingwater reactor 2 j Energy Emironmenli and Climate Copyright r gtWw Norton amp Company 2003 CANDU Heavy Water Reactor Canadian DeuteriumUranium Other Reactor Designs An Advanced Gascooled Reactor AGR is second generation of Uses natural Uranium 07 mu Oxide as fuel hence needs 3 British gas oooed reactors using graphite moderator and carbon dioxide more efficient moderator in this case heavy water D20 as Cgmam 39 m Vi the moderator is enriched rather than the fuel a cost tradeoff Cmenn mi 5 utu39e V 39 Z3939 mu ii A Li shtrira ter ra hitemoderated reactor RBHE1 is a Soviet design a developed from plutonium production reactors Uses long vertical F pressure tubes running through graphite moderator and is cooled by water which is allowed to boil in the core at 290 C much as in a BWR Moderation is largely due to the fixed graphite so excess boiling simply reduces the cooling and neutron absorption without inhibiting the ssion reaction and a positive lleedbaclt problem can arise Also graphite is arnrriaole T A blreedler reactor is a nuclear reactor that generates new fissile material at at greater rate than it consumes such material Produce and tree Pllutolniom as a ssile material w W l eligmn lWI A Fast Reactor has no rnoderrator and conseizruently has a much srnaller core x I 1 elm tr 139I gmcnuthg plml internaetinrrni 11 tel 1ziwnsior Diablo Canyon 12 mi WSW of San Louis Obispo