Management of Technology Seminar
Management of Technology Seminar ISM 101
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Date Created: 09/07/15
7 0E 7 fat m f a m 0 of 4 K German J Kubby J Chen J Diehl K Feinberg P Guvin L Her 390 Jia P Lin X Liu J Ala J Algiers P N aslronl Y R Wang A PLC and MEMS Waveguide Switch Integration m Outline Why Integrate New technology for a new market 0 Elements of compact affordable integration gt Silicon on Insulator SOI PLC Optics gt Latching MEMS waveguide switches gt PLC and MEMS System Integration gt Component recon guration Example Prototypes ROADM and k Router Next Steps and Extensions gt Infotonics Technology Center gt Hybrid integration and active elements Summary H4 C 0 Acknowledgements XEROXN Wilson Center fur Research and Tecnnnlugy Metro Networks 7 METRO AND DHG HAUL APPLICATXONS Optical Devices 5 0 Affordable enabling components for wavelength services 10 cost reduction 0 Optical AddDrop Multiplexer at each on ramp and off ramp 0 Additional network functions VOA quot UAW UEEI BEquot Em rm gt mm um Wavelength Services 0 provide bandwidth on demand at the wavelength granularity v Democratize bandwidth through affordable provisioning 0 Enables new services SAN PWS GigE using existing WDM infrastructure Wavelength Services Storage Area Networking 39I Im Immmm COMPANY 27 Wilson Center Iur Research and TEL39ImnIagy Elements of compact affordable integration 0739 H W W The Xerox Platform Deka t and T H Wilson Center Iur Research and TEL39ImnIugy SOI Optical Design Space Intrinsic Tradeoffs R1b Wavegulde parameters Insertion LossLength i m i a Cross Talk single mode air nO o Polarization Dependent Loss 2 T a Minimum Bending Radius Si i In 211m 0 Coupling Loss Sioz n2 0 Chip Size EXtrmSlc Factors Single Mode Condition Process unifomlity ab s 03 r1l r2 0 Waveguide Roughness Key Know interactions and optimize to customer requirements The net result is a favorable design space compared to competing integration platforms 39I Ill7 HOCI39MENT compan Wilson Center fur Research and Tecnnnlugy ComEact Planar Light Circuits Slab height 2um Width Sum Typical Silica WG Bending Loss dB at 10000umfnr1he Sum WG Ln 8000 8000 10000 12000 14000 16000 Bending Radius 2000 4000 Silicon waveguides can have bending radii 3 to 4 times smaller than silica waveguides Silicon n 342 absorption 01 dBcm Silica n 145 Wilson Center Iur Research and TEL39ImnIagy aWaveguide fabrication comparison Silica on Silicon Silicon on Insulator More devices and higher yield per wafer SiO2 cladding 2 Total max SIOZGC WG channels I thzcskness SiO2 cladding 1 Si wafer Li ghlwave ZiIicrosystems 6 wafer T0 switches I 5am scs Dry39 reactive wafer ion etch rib WGs in SCS Example 501 ROADM 17cm x 100m chip iIEAIS switches I39IIF UOCI MENT COMPNY XEROX Wilson Center for Research and Technalagy Coupling bers to SOI waveguides Mode matching and adiabatic transformation help minimize losses associated with coupling Vemcar Direction um Ccmpu39edlrarsverse Mode Pro le m0fm531l412 lrrrzonta Erection rpmr Computed SOI WG mode Glass quotlri ula39tor39E Silicon Conflueh m Phatanlcs SOI vertically tapered mode adaptor Measurements on prototypes project 07 dB coupling lossfacet when AR coatings are applied 39l lll llOl39rl39MliN39l39 39mll rtNY XEROXl Wirsun Carrier Iur Research and Technology 7 I 3905 57 343 ESKU 221le S Witch peration Apply latchmg sequence Pulses symmetric wrt voltage common minimizes pulldown and potential difference at latch contact points Latch in Through State 39v n Ir llI Ir 1 J IIquot 1quot quotI quot39I quot3 Hrquot quotHH fr hI 39Iquotrrrr CI 393 39i l I L V Tint lirttttfillntt1t vtTjttIrtsttttt 39 XE ROXQ Wilson center for Research and Tee nal w Latching MEMS Waveguide Switch States AddDrop State Thru State r V V 7 7 g Anchored 5395 waveguides It ReleaSed waveguides 0 Power is required to change state 0 No power is required to hold either state failsafe momme V 1 g A E Wilson Cenler at Research and Tennnulayy Heatuator designs for robust alignment Mechanical bias Vbeams Joule E ll t I i Heating Tensile Stress I 39 J I Variations inbeam 39 39 th am l ltm g39ml I I doping 1 produce I J l Thermal gradients induce predictable displacement direction II thermal gradients I Straight beams I enable stability I under tensile I stress I No mechanical bias straight beams I IIIT nochan COMPANY XE ROXi Wilson Center Iur Research and TEL39ImnIagy ystem Advantages of Heatuator Drive and Latch o Low voltage lt 10 V Small footprint length lt 1mm Good mechanical suspension Lowest natural frequency 30 kHz FEM ANALYSIS suspended components 1St latched mode atched mode lst unlatched mode 2nd unlatched mode 30 kHz 76 kHz 30 kHz 50 kHz THE DOCUMENT COMPANY arbitrary depicted amplitudes Wilsan Center for Reseamll and Technology OLatching waveguide switch in action Life tested to over 17 million changes of state Wilswlenler fur Reseamlvand L39 Xerox Optical MEMS TE Imnlugy 2X2 OEtical Switch Comparison Bookham VOA EOSilicon Broadne TOSilica Di C on FMMEMS Gal ayO r WGMIEMS TOSilica JDS Uniphase MIEMS TOSilica Li ghtwave TOPolysilicon L nx 8 x 8 TOSilica ME MScAP Nanovati on NE 1 x 8 TOSilica PolyScienti c FMMEMS Xerqu prototype MEMS Z enastra TOPolysilicon OnChip IL PDL RL Power Speed Latch Active LC dB dB dB dB mW msec product Integrated proiect No 21 30 04 50 No No 10 30 0 2 45 40 2 No Yes No 08 50 01 50 300 5 Yes Future 16 55 015 55 300 02 Yes No N0 Integratlon No 06 55 007 50 32 mA 4 Yes Yes No 20 30 02 50 400 2 No Alcatel Neo NO 25 35 03 50 3 Restore Photonics No 5 0 40 025 45 15 2 Restore Yes No 15 50 01 45 50 5 No Yes No 24 40 02 40 10 Yes No 30 40 05 40 36 3 No Yes 40 No 10 60 01 40 pulsed 2 Yes Yes 39 39 N 8070 Yes 20 40 pulsed 12 Yes Yes No 30 28 05 50 400 3 No econ gurable OADM Performance 7 MW 15A Mk1 A Mk V 93 W 43 Ram m 3 m 767 an 773 an In Out output spectrum 39I Im DOCUMENT Con1mm Xerox Optical MEMS a Wilson caner Iur Research and Tennnnlagy Recon gurable kRouter Performance Out Pass All Channels All Switches Unlatched Drop Odd Channels Switches 1 3 5 7 Latched Pass Even Channels Switches 2 4 6 8 Unlatchedr 39I Im lmcuMEN39r COMPANY Xerox Optical MEMS a Wilson Genie Iur Research and Tennnnlagy Real time switching of R OADM Xerox Optical MEMS Wilsnn Center fur Research and Tecnnnlugy Examgles of component reuse A Wavelen th B Demultiplexed Optical Rouger Oum WADM Add A D Multiplexed WADM 39I Ill7 HOCI39MFNT JOMPMW Out2 Wilson Center fur Research and TEL39ImnIugy Prototxpe Specs and Product Targets ROADM System Achieved Target Insertion Loss IL 19 dB 12 dB IL Uniformity ILU 4 dB 2 dB Adjacent Cross Talk AXT gt25 dB Adjacent Cross Talk AXT gt30 dB Extinction Ratio 40 dB Return Loss RL 50 dB Polarization PDL 05dB Power mW 800 pulsed 500 pulsed Speed msec 12 10 Latching Yes Lifetime state changes gt17 M Wilson Center fur Research and Tecnnnlugy Fabrication Process m Process developed under the auspice of the NIST Advanced Techology Program ATP Broadly enabling in the area of free space and guided wave MicroOptoElectroMechanical Systems MOEMS Hybrid integration capabilities included for active optical elements Developed in partnership with Coventor Corning IntelliSense Corp and MicroScan Systems Prototypes employed a subset of the full process for quick proof of concept demonstration Wilson Center fur Research and Tecnnnlugy Eybrid SOI Micromachine Process For details see wwwinfotonicsor gt fabrication gt device technologies gt foundation process Start With SDI wnfux implant top surf and anneal to activate derant n 2 quotI I V Extensibilitz to higher levels of integration Process is extensible to hybrid integration techniques such as ip chip bonding NIST ATP gt Photodetectors gt Power ampli ers 0 Silicon enables further monolithic integration gt VOA through charge injection gt On chip electronics controls logic Xerox Optical MEMS 39l39IIF Imm39MmT COM XEROX Wilsnn Center In Research and Teolmnlngy Next Steps C Transfer ATP process to Infotonics Technology Center F abricate prototypes designed using full ATP process and process step improvements Pursue higher levels of integration device optimization recon guration andor packaging pending customer traction Carter of Exmllenca in Photonics 8 Microsystems gt Not for pro t organization V V V GDIHEOTOFHCS 9 l1rlLll0r2 fCEIHFF gt Promote photonics and microsystems gt Cooperative sponsorship of industry academia and government gt MEMS prototype pilot plant packaging capabilities under development 39I Im DOCUMENT Comm a Wilson Center Iur Research and Tennnnlagy Summa On chip integration of SOI MEMS latching optical waveguide switches with PLCs can reduce size and cost of optical network devices Xerox has prototyped and demonstrated the feasibility of this approach to compact affordable integration Switches and PLC components can be recon gured to make many network devices Hybrid integration can further extend the SOI MEMS platform to devices that require active optical components Advances in adiabatic mode coupling technology address issues of low loss ber attachment Performance of prototypes shows no intrinsic barrier to successful commercialization 39I Ill7 HOCI39MENT XERdSZ Wilson Center fur Research and Tecnnnlugy The nnovatorquot s iilemma Revisited X XX Nirvikar Singh xx Professor of Economics k University of California Santa Cruz K Management of Technology Seminar i November 5 2003 Outli e Basics Who what relatianship to course Analytics Why Case studies Other issues Conclusions sics The lnnovator s Dilemma When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail Clayton Christensen HBS Press 1997 The Premise This book is about the failure ofcompanies to stay atop their industries when they confront certain types of market and technological change It s not about they failure of simply any company but of good companies the kinds that many managers have admired and tried to emulate the gt companies known for their abilities to innovate and execute GoodCompanies Sears Digital Equipment Corporation1xX Xerox IBM and so on The Dilemma the logical competent dec39i sions of management that are critical toquot the success of their companies are also the reasons why they lose their positions of leadership Relationshipto Course The development managementand commercialization DMC of technology Dilemma is how to handle all of these tasks in the face of disruptive technologies quot Disruptive technologies may change industries in the long run Conflicts can arise within organizations Across functional departments Across technologies in the firm s portfolio Across market segments Across time short and long run The Key Concept There is a strategically importantquotdistinction between what I call sustainingtechnologies and those that are disruptive These concepts are very different from incrementaIversusradica distinction that has characterized many studies Sustaining Technologies Sustaining technologies foster improved product performance They can be discontinuous or radical or they can be incremental Always improve performance of K established products along dimensions valued by mainstream customers in majorly markets Disruptive Technologies 1 Disruptive technologies resultin worse product performance at least inth near term Emerge occasionally Bring to market a different value proposition than available previously Underperform established products in mainstream markets Have features that fringenew customers value Disruptive Technologies 2 Products based on disruptive technologies are typically cheaper simpler smaller and frequently mor convenient to use Small offroad motorcycles Transistors and transistor radios HMOs l Additional Factors technological progress and often does outstrip what markets need customers and financial structures of successful companies color heavily the sorts of investments that appear to attractive to them relative to certain types of firms Markets and Technologies 1 Sustaining technologies mayaovershoot Disruptive technologies may eventually be good enough Servers vs mainframes WalMart vs Sears Markets anclTecn nologies 2 Sustaining technological progress a Product performance I I I I y a I I I I I I I 39 quot Lowend market 3 quot demand Disrum39 Sustaining innovation technological progress K Time l l Principlesof Disruptive lnnova on Companies depend on customers and investors for resources Small markets don t solve the needs of large companies Markets that don t exist can t be analyzed Technology supply may not equal market demand Resource Dependence 1 companies find it very difficult t oinvest adequate resources in disruptive technologies lowermargin opportunities that their customers don t want until their customers want them And by then it is to late Solution set up an autonomous organizatidn charged with building a new and independent business around the disruptive technology Resource Dependence 2 This is an argument about internal incentives within an organization These incentives play an important role in determining the cost structure which quot Christensen argues differs across high and low margin businesses Think of the airlines and their unions it s not just a question of margins but of being 39 locked into cost structures that cannot be varied across different lines of business within a company especially if those lines arel close l MarketSize First mover advantages in emerging markets Harder for big companies to enter small new markets Growth targets to satisfy investors bias efforts toward large markets So this assumes that firms are not long profit maximizers maybe a key requirement for Christensen s argument to work Market Analysis If markets for disruptive technologies cannot be quantified this biases resourCe allocation away from them There is an implicit assumption here about internal incentives and individual risktakin within an organization In large organizations this may lead to riskquot aversion in decisionmaking The argument may also be couched in termsE of policies and procedures or organizational inertia a kind of lockin perhaps l Ll l l SupplyandDemand Competition leads to oversupplying performance relative to what customers want Leaves room at the low end of the market for products based on disruptive technologies This implicitly assumes that firms cannot simultaneously produce different products ie vertical product differentiation Goes back to internal organizational constraints or to reputational spillovers quot x Ca eXStudies Case Study Drives 1 Sustaining technological changes Grinding ferrite heads finer incremental Smaller more finely dispersed oxid eg particles incremental Innovation in product architecture 14 Winchester drives discontinuous Disruptive innovations series Further shrinking the drives 8 525 35 l ii L i l Case StudyDisk Drives 2 For minicomputer manufacturer s 8 drive was superior to 525 drive Capacity Cost per megabyte Access time For PC makers though 525 drive was Small Lightweight Relatively cheap Case Study Drives 3 Seagate was innovator in 525 drives Seagate personnel showed 35 drives totlcustomers for evaluation Opposition came from marketing and executives who argued that the market wanted higher capacity and lower cost per megabyte Existing customers showed little interest Seagate finally shipped 35 drives three years lately Cannibalization versus new markets Fear of cannibalization can become a selffulfilling prophecy Other Cases Variety and discount retailin g Mechanical and hydraulic excavators Laserjet and inkjet printers Mainframes minicomputers and OtF Texf Issues Value Networks Existing value networks suptlkoo39rtwsustaining innova ons Disruptive technologies get their sta39rt in new value networks There is an implicit argument here abou39ttlock in through irreversible investments upstream Value networks increase lockin but lockint can occur even with internal irreversible investments Downstream the value network involves customers with differing wants Services vsr Products Disruptive innovations can be inwservices as well as products Retailing Airlines In either case a want is being satisfied With the disruptive innovation providing an innovative mix of characteristics Disruptive innovations in services will involve process innovation more so than in products Process innovation may put more strain on existing organizational structures quot Cd hglusions COHCIUSlOl lS Christensen s Dilemma Christensen has a precise notion of disruptive technologies which is often misrepresented and confused with discontinuities Underlying his arguments are some economic issues that need to be lookedat in more detail Internal organizational incentives and attitudes including risk aversion and fairness Assumptions about how capital markets work possibly promoting shorttermism and risk aversion Lockin and irreversibility seem to be key underlying factors in the innovator s dilemma