Week 2 - PHCL 2600 Notes
Week 2 - PHCL 2600 Notes PHCL2600
Popular in Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I
Popular in Pharmaceutical Sciences
This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Notetaker on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHCL2600 at University of Toledo taught by Williams,F in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see Funct Anat and Pathophysiol I in Pharmaceutical Sciences at University of Toledo.
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What is Karma?
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Date Created: 09/07/15
in 46 nrn wide l Solid structures long in No membrane Hr awaits quot owl 34gt MICPOIiilAMEN39lS F W 39 l Made up of actin contractile protein Important in muscle cell contraction Provides support at cell junctions e Part of cytoslkeleton Ia gravitation 39 Polo mer ox 06va Lin muscles no l whatJog solroi quot dowe have hote in m canter 9suurround he perimeter 09 Hm gall 314 nm wide Provide strength at cell junctions Found in many but not all mews H HtlIEHVS cells in munimam lmI39m i thin laments that link 39 cytoskeletal elements together and holds tree ribosomes attach at both membranes made of a variety of proteins st C9 Perime ter Ced e 0 EU 21 MoVe FMdams 9 ALL PilMehds in H18 CWC WVZ OleOWS Coho thins 0 Wavel VOi cell qureeHomlk Com rolled 2 short hollow cylinders arranged at right angles is Made up of microtubules 9 sets of three Allows for chromosome movement during mitosis Duplicate at the start of cell divisionalnd migrate 39 to either pole of cell Lrjui al m gt 0l se 043 micrombuues ch cud side edges eVi mPOr i W in mH oSlS amelosis HEMkl mld o l ic remen ion 15 Cancer 2 l Important target for drugs 7 m external membrane of the Pal I l important target for drugs a external membrane of the cell selective in letting some things through and excluding others a Helps recognize substances outside the cell 1 signal transduction m Thin e 510 nm thick m Similar in structure to intracellular membranes was 410 OLdo is 16 hlOLA3K Ilows lne cell 0 comprehend thcl s occts ldc Ol39 hc mam 5 Essential hocl we mderSd ard CM bC Composition of cell membrane i Approximately 50 60 protein 40 lipid 510 carbohydrates 3 These percentages are averages and vary considerably between membranes oilLL33 Peecl H 2 cell babes0V 39 Wbohodrod39es acre LASLLQIN odd m6 do ha PVCreins in he MCInioth quoth lamp will acluoacxis lac more Protein quotHkOLlx lipid quot We vol always lac a small amounti ch cowlrs a Dependcnb on call Pc iLipids in membranes a Major membrane lipids include phosphoticlylcholine PhDSPhotidylethanolamine has two fatty acids D and a phosphate group attached to glycerol e polar at on end not at other holesterol 3 sixmembered rln s and a veamembered ring a cholesterol has OH group which makes it slightly polar at one end glycerol attached to three fatty acids hydrophobic and lipophilic PMS PMR gt Pdocr nonpolaur dlBFeience h0c l determines gt oLCHVHxhe lc 5 to mam laved Vin s we veir SHFF noi a lot 06 mOVeHmVariolpii CstuFFehs mam brmegt Phospholipids in Clothespin shaped molecules 5 phosphate and nitrogen containing group serine choline ethanolamine this group is re hydrocarbon chains of varying lengths these groups are quot 7 hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions i Phosholipids cholesterol and glycolipid s have lbotlh aoddveal 0 Carbohydrates V3h quotl 00 04 OH D n rnnr Illh l F quotI m this way Reasons why i Hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic tails Hydrogen bonding between the polar groups in the hydrophilic head group and water Van der Waals forces a Attraction between negatively charged electron cloud and positively charged nuCIEUS of anothEr atom have to be 03nm Denim apart Weak bond compared to covalent bond n Phospholipids can move and are not the rigid structures you see on paper I Diffuse laterally up to 2pm in less than 1 second Spin along their axes o Move laterally or wave i Can ip flopquot bebneen halves of the lipid bilayer in the membrane a slow MacePS Win s in Covrcc l lemmaHow lt9 commie level DYNAMicJ husc uure is rho QuePic h r i l F44 7 7 HU V N 39 Partially amphipathic therefore 0H always faces toward outside of membrane either intracellular or extracellular uid Rigid structure a OH group can form H bond with plhospholipid C20 group Inserts into lipid bilayer and stabilizes a portion of it Ratio of choiesterolphospholipid varies and is inversely proportional to the fluidity of the membrane more choiesterol more rigid gt l voi always lax me 173 H10 more cholesterole movc ri id less Plaid less cholcscrol less rxaxd more iucid Important phospholipids Derived from glycerol Phosphotidylcholine 39 Phospho spmh pid qul lipid olemxcdive lPhosphoticlylserine Phosphoti dylethanolamine LLloio uHoqs 0 m 3 IT Phosphotidylinositol 2 amp SMM Coho uo Prodcth Types of membra actively i transmembrane protein that gates ion flow in and out of the cell i binds molecules in the ECF or iiCF and carries them into a cell a binds to molecules and initiates related activity in the cell a catalyze reactions at the membrane a identify cells blood and tissue antigens ne proteins gure 33 a s storm cellular backbone transport substances through membrane 9 Cad oszinS proteins LYCOKGF oes 306W 9 sown dovC39l have CL Inna0h Fatwah Cor a vex4 small Fumeb3 llave sugars attached to the Nater minal or C t ermnal Side Of the Drotei quot Arranged so that the sugars face the ECF Are often integral membrane proteins such as 5 receptors 39Tq DiCC N has a Mo or Whoh w Prolens 9 MUS l have 0k 39i o nd 2 Fl hO Ohl NOVKS 25 79 OF m Hma More hquO phlllc Am Very hydrophobicjamong the most Add U ids tom anchors m gaggglgfggacg the Integral proterns of vrogm 30 mgr E at we Also called Cari act as receptor proteins therefore race the ECF Membrane proteins Some intrinsic membrane proteins will move through the membrane as the lipids do Some proteins can not move this way because they are anchored to a cell structure called a tight junction a L 3 cc of bordevg Plasma membrane composition of lipids and proteins an ere 90 OK Fe C q c wagon will be different from the organelle membranes r g Different cells will have different lipid and protein compositions as well I Intrinsic and extrinsic proteins are unevenly distributed between the two halves of the lipid bilayer in most alll cells iiIembranes and transport a TWo basic types of membrane transport I I r I Tquot i i random molecular motion from one place to another Brownian motion4 8 a Governed by Fick39s Law humuri Lineruminating quot 39 39 39 39 39 infv quot how drugs 6 into he ca 3066 m weak OP his cahc o an wreck ow conc w r i I A Area oficlifftlsim a D 2 diffusion coefficient r clcclx driving force or concentration gradient quot eonHnucs 0 aweuer Mil ihi5 CaruUHlolicxm No nei Change Controllln 9 factors of diffusion 39 c an Wj i trm Calm l s g a a o 0 gag mine 7 7 fun L39 0 a 393939Ivilt3 39 l vinai u i r iv iiiE o a l r a 7 u 7 r a V n r 7 l l a concentration of chemical in solution will setup a gradient where molecules will move from higher concentrations to llower concentrations rnolecules can move in the opposite direction however net movement of the solute is to the lower concentration movemehl does not 0 in one divcch 9 w 03 in loo x directh Ne t moVemcn l is in one direcHon bisger oUF Ferencc n smdicnl QaSA er diGFusion Controlling factors of diffusion U a r 39 D 9 r i I I r i 1 r i r i I a 6 GI a g i r I i r 39 39 39 if one area is more a M Angler gall nan LL an nun L clcorim ohmic 0d graddeh C00 39 m gepoqrocted io0ded 9 They worm adhesive etcmacau 5 mammoq Sraaxervrs can 39 i 192 gepwac i ed i o0ltied gt They work Ganeshahi positively charged than another area the positively Charged ions will move towards the more negative area a The bigger the difference in the gradient the faster diffusion will occor Thaie wi H 9H m movemcnv across a Net movement of molecules ends when m memmmche no nee 3 system reaches 9 if you put thern together in Chemical gradient and electrical gradient together form an Diffusion across solvent can occur in a beaker however diffusion can occur across a semipermeable membrane a some addusrmcr s have tgt lea mack membrane is in he wow XDhoormmco bibleHes is based on diFFusion gt from we Khom is drug gets mume 1 WPltgtampG 2 30 Diffusionacross a membrane r May occur slower than in a beaker u Membrane must be permeable to solute yquot anagram bung d 53950 V 1d for any diffusion to occur x 39 dru5 in Permeability coefficient is a unit that WWCC HA9 H e Souk ta can be used to compare rates of 5 0 65 OW mg m movement of solute through a membrane f 7 Adaptation of lFick s law I 39 HC39 U3 Prcd lt61 WVULVC d FFUkSHDK J uxi 77 wk so P permeability coef cient This coefficient varies with different solutes and different membranes A area of diffusion C1 and t2 concentrations on either side of the membrane Have some hydrophobic vmw es gtlt o39l39heYs Wiil skill c i hro h castquot permeabc Needs Onne aouusrmcrris lineup Too oi 7 00 Pourec WC lem aha ions Hnoct39 don ae b quott39hro m What corn or can39t cross membranes Membrane is slab of oily protein Barrier to large charged or uncharged polar molemles glucose practically implormeable to intracellular protein and organic ions glucose 6 phosphate Lipids and small nonpolar molecules can cross readily fatty acids steroidspurea ethanol 02 Ni and C02 They can do this by associating with the liatty acids in the membrane and diffusing across called C 9 don H metal 1 Whom S i croiolsltrc aceWM rtheme w coll gt Must act 0 o 0 he 0 60 Harmo k 9 Have o Find a Nool 0 Wahsvcmr l39 lo 0 incl LOlhCV Jrth 5 h tcracl N outside 0 mem olo Cah c hrouah What can and can t get across membranes akakak n The permeability of a cell membrane to small nonpolar solutes isquot i to to the lipid solubility of the solute 939 Wish OLA03939f acH cr diffusion DIIIDII lltlUlllJUlDl DUIULCD I 39 v e e lto to the lipid solubility of the solute l The permeability of cell membranes to polar solutes iswtoa 0 e g d 99 the molecular size of the solute r3 Po quot N or gm Therefore 9 l Small highly lipid soluble substances have greatest chance of simple diffusion e However small charged ions may cross the membrane as well a Nat PG and Cl can diffuse across a membrane in their charged form Pt and PCl 50 1de lPNaf l How does this occur Differences in diffusion e The fact that Na diffuses slower than K and Cl is probably not by accident e Each of these is hydrated that is they are surrounded by water molecules When Naf is hydrated its diameter the size 7 of the ion surrounded by water is at least 30 O 39 3 Aron s ruqe 400A bigger than K or Cl39 Lh ld fod ed be Mtg mmecwe39 mudquot This could explain the slower diffusion rate Wequot Clnahhels inch diF uslon of War large motccudes mean ramseom 1 Also tallemor vl diffusion because a protein is used a Usually will only passage of certain ions CC 3Ne gshod WheH er mopehownol S i They will only carry 45 certain ions 3 l in Examples would be COncenlratlon i quot 39 gradient Na channels Kt l channells or KitNa D 39339 a i l 1 i 39 7 n a Channels i Not all cells have all 3335 achannal kinds of channels some we epcclFic 2 cartwin cell W5 9 There will 9H we on low Two kinds of avors chemical binds to protein and changes its shape allowing the ion to move across the membrane change in 39 charge distribution around the membrane changes the shape of the protein allowing for ion transport across membrane ENCSlim ill Gm Mn s will cor llinue Lml ll Mnemlam is removed Water diffusion H30 is 4406 mo or sclvcn l in cells in Water can diffuse across a membrane quite gt salven ln oca dieeuses easily yet it is a small polar molecule Di liftlses through the lipid region possibly H 9 0 crosses mam bme 3 W 0N S doing this by associating with fatty acids B i 56 Also crosses through in channels Na K WWM h 101th S because these are hydrated when they cross the membrane so water goes through as well i GUS quot POFCS m srnall channels just for water gt osmo ric PVCSSKAlCak aim LPGNCVW Nm6V mism s 39H is Nah quot35 fjx x Ej Hao moves solud e does no 1 gt 3085 From leas l 0lue 0 mosl l TV m3 0 zeach 5539 Mill brimm The diffusion of water across a membrane More specifically diffusion of a solvent across a membrane into an area of a higher concentration of solute Membrane needs to be relatively impervious Concer Vocl iom 0 an area 04 low to solute therefore no net movement of H30 commas gen solute across membrane iOKIet s review 9 We are interested in DSl lleSiS across a cell membrane so remember 2 fluid compartments separated by a cell membrane ICF all fluid inside cell a ECF all fluid outside cell oes JPrawn an arm 0F high H30 iComposition of fluids ICF E mostly K some lMng PO43 proteins and organic ions ECF mostly Clquot Nan some Ca2land urn a Hillel n nn rnlain ICF gl ECF are composed cgtF Vtfo diF Fereh l ComoOheVYl39S Composition of flluids n ICF mostly K some lMgzt PO43quot proteins and organic ions ECF mostly Clquot Nan some Cazand H COj little or no protein i All molecules contribute to the total solute concentration this is referred to as Molarity differs as it it the weight of solute dissolved where osmolarity is based on the number of molecules 1 molar solution of lNaCl is actually 2 osmolar because there are two atoms when NaCl dissociates 39 OSm does hO t chm Contribution to Osmolarity a Total concentration of all solutes independent of Chemical nature is what drives osmosis of water across a membrane this is assuming ideal conditions l Osmolarity of is approximately i Osmolarity 031 equilibrium is also approximately i l gt i osmolari l u is 00 ln39 com PO hem a undCYSt ahd he dtkremcc low molmrH q 3k 35 mmcln gt Mus tea 0Ja vuli cell WQHN Nl CCU ICF 2 ECF are composed on V6fo diF Feren hi 5 h on one Side wooher win Fououo he side w imam somere con CL 1C0Lh have auras Hg e fccds on ccits l Most solutes outside of cell ECF are 3 and Cly membrane is effectively impermeable ta these quotquot MW mcab 6 It means hO c Most solute inside the cell ICF is K the is ho l Ox large ne change 5V6 membrane is effectively impermeable to this hou5h chcm icoAs S HH Mexc a How Even though they do freely cross the gt Does no mean hoc39 we ions do membrane by diffusion through channels or 0 move CL 1 3 carriers theczelll has proteins in the membrane that pump them bacllt to where r they came from thus effective irnpermeahility Tonic anyone a a solution which has the same osmolarity as the lE ClF and contains solutes that effectively do not cross the membrane gt w 300 m Osm a a solution has greater than the cell39s 300 mOsm osmolarity result is the water within the cell will leave for the outside Q and crush or the cell Sh rm lt S u a solution has less than the cell s 300 rnOsm osmolarity results in water rushing into cell and cell explodes or 39 skmi agriA l 0 osmolaVi I i selution solulilon la Nome b lFi BC undergoes loll REC undergoes REC shape hemolysis cremation y you were in a hospital u ant hypertonic hypotonic luids given to you intravenousllyg isotonic luids must be given intravenously in order to minimize any damage to red blood cells iLlK mini quiz time 1 HI made a solution of 175 millimoiar NaCl and 30 millimolar urea what kind of solution do we have u A isotonic I C a hypertonic ii 1 hypertonic also hyperosmotic YEP i Two kinds required depen ent on i chernical gradient for di usion it continues until equilibrium is 39 reached protein mediating transport will bind molecule with u V u Q equal af nity at either side of MN Q membrane Example glucose into tissues adipose muscle mm mm wvrittmll H 39 quot Iri mi39mw gummy Carrier mediated transport cont u Two kinds U i transport occurs against a 395quot a gradient concentration ormmw electrical thus the cell Wm lv must expend energy to do this quot Ex fyucose irYlo Hes Utes C adipose mu gas Electrical thus the cell Wm must expend energy to H do this In 9 j 313 thrown W W mu ammd won ACTIVE PASSIVE THANSPGHT TRANSPORT kilocalories energy minor m o o I i Example of active transport system a Because lila ancl K can diffuse through channels in the membrane one would expect that they could and would eventually reach equilibrium same concentration on both sides of the membrane however this isn39t the case Ehlemc a m WDPOVCV Ccil uses his i o ea i 3 ace kid 0 Wings gt Tamers Win55 oum usin 439 L90 Evi S wih s in using MoC L3 quot9 AT mooh39GiE S PVDTEEH l VUkC l UJc atKi ATPase pump cont a The typicaicell has 5li K in the EGF 39 That concentration is closer to 15Dmhl in the ICF producing quite a gradient Similarly Ma has a concentration of IEDmM in the ECF and ISmM in the ICF Iagome l 7 I39m i 39 Indium 39 i inn i d I i I l r 39 v VII D N3llt ATPase pump cont i The reason that this does not happen equilibrium is simple recall that the It is also relatively negative in nature proteins and organic anions The passive diffusion of lift into the cell down an electrical gradient is almost equal to that out of the cell down a concentration gradient active transport maintains the gradient as is a Same with Naquot active transport out is roughly equal to di l usion into the cell down the concentration and electrical gradients In rats as a model of all mammals there are about 150000 sodium pumps per small intestinal enterocvte which oollectively allow each cell to transport about 45 billion sodium ions out of each cell per minute J Merntir Biol 53119128 198D quot The pump itself example 01 aucLlcrnaix shrugsum The pump itself A cluster of 2 rotein subunits in the membrane Pump acts as a carrier transporting Nat and K but also acts as an enzyme which cleaves ATP to ADP Pump accounts tor about 3000 of energy used by the average cell maybe onionn in neurons a Transport of Na is to W o 3 Na move out oi the cell for every 2 Kt that move into the cell a Creates a charge Creates a negative charge inside the Cell j wcxomnple OF qoka CV Haix Stmc i Ucve 39jCoUuden Poem P W rl m39 gainI rm I 39 39 quot WWJ M 39 gin nun ATP binds to ATPase site on ICF side at same time as 3 iNa bind ATP is hydrolyzed to ADP by ATPase and pump is phosphorylated a OCCUHI S 3 Na moved to ECF side and released 2 Kit hind on ECF side and dephosphorylation of pump occurs to previous conformation 2 W are released into ICF BNa ouch RKquot in Secondary active transport handymxwoimmr A 39 39 39 39 7quotquot7 imjmnl n Symport or antiport n One solute moves down a gradient at the same 1 time as another 4 r 2 same direction different direction B Energy for one molecules transport is generated by the other39s movement no ATP is directly required but ATPase maintains the gradient quotPM 0 whxi Acetwo acidic axadieth is CVcacd her Active Processes m n i to eat a cell large external particle is taken in engulfed by a portion of plasma membrane Ii 9 to drink a bell similar to phagocytosis except particle is often just a solute n salamil6 process substance bind to receptor and W PalmFe PQHK ar col pits are formed to drag contents in