Introduction to Sociology
Introduction to Sociology SOCY 1
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Myriam Ruecker on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCY 1 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Francesca Guerra in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/182203/socy-1-university-of-california-santa-cruz in Sociology at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Introduction to Sociology Lecture Notes Intro on Being Sociolog39cal text has a contemporary world focus others have global focus 7 histories of sociological theories were global main goal demonstrate the form and context of sociological analysis and argumentation through discussions of institutions and sociological concepts carefully de ne be specific definitions and empirical data the practice of being sociological is a process and a perspective social theory is also a construction contemporary sociologists use evidence to see and understand social arrangements and to critique social arrangements I 7 I I 7 G G 7 l G 7G Individuals I and Groups G the social is produced in and through humans doing things collectively mobs riots social movements peer pressure the structural social forces enables us and constrains institutional and behavioral dimensions of society are seen as social processes being sociological means looking at the world in a particular way a sociological way of seeing sociological imagination from C Wright Mills sociological knowledge will teach us that things are not necessarily as they appear challenge the status quo Berger and things don t have to be as they are Calvino sociology is a critical discipline it often reveals things that are hidden and sometimes repressed Bourdieu it speaks truth to the power sociology is a discipline that makes trouble Bourdieu Ghosts and Silences Avery Gordon UCSB Professor theory of memory as haunting developed largely from Toni Morrison s Beloved novel based on slave women Margaret Garner and the slave ancestors of African Americans and Luisa Valenzuela s The Lizards Tail a novel about the disappeared of Argentina the powers relations that characterize historically embedded society are never seen as clear as the names we give the imply labels terms classi cations naming euphuisms sociology must also seek to detect how conditions in the past banished certain individuals things or ideasHow circumstances rendered them marginal excluded or repressed sociology must preoccupy itself with what has been lost the past always haunts the present sociology does not well attend then to the living traces the memories of the lost and the disappeared or the things behind the things Haunting is a constituent element of modern social life To study social life one must confront the ghostly aspects of it This confrontation requires or produces a fundamental change in the way we know and make knowledge in our mode of production Gordon l9977 The Haunting Theme exposes the sanitized violence of modernity and the mechanisms of its forms of domination How do the threads run Consciousness and Connections I have kept asking myself what the invisible connections that determine our lives and how the threads run WG Sebald What are the unseen connections that determine our lives How do the threads run Important questions for contemporary sociologists Modernity Sociology came about in part to describeunderstand modemists what was termed the shift from traditional to modern life Includes a series of shits 1 Cognitive and political authority from religion to science 2 Church to state nations 3 Monarchy to a democracy Public Deference 4 Making citizens of subjects French Revolution 5 Economic reorganization from eld to factory guild to vocation 6 Kind unity to bureaucracy and 7 In location of social activity from country to city region to nation leisure activities Modernity was is still largely seen through nouns of action 7 industrialization urbanization bureaucratization rationalization democratization secularization fragmentation Worrying for World Ethics and Social Theory historically American Sociology social theories tried to mimic the natural sciences Comte s Social Physics and often silenced the voice of nonwhite men and all women eX WEB Dubois social theories are always under construction we create social theories to try to understand the word better Becker Doing Research Sociological inquiry consists largely of quantitive Qualative research methods you chose your research methods based on your research problems and questions and your goals plans use it Quantitive Deductive Reasoning theorytesting theorydata often uses surveys and questionnaires statistical analysis usually a large number of cases few variables flxed framing numbers used to condenses summarize data aggregated Qualative Inductive Reasoning datatheory analysis often uses observation participant observation fieldwork interviews logs journals photos videos focuses on few singular cases and many variables think words uid framing words or writing images are used to describe detail most sociological research really uses both deductive and inductive reasoning try to see usefulnessvalue in both quantitive and Qualative research not eitheror Governing Power Radicalizing power is an abstract notion amp can be defined as the ability to do or act political or social ascendancy or control authorization delegated authority works through socially structured amp culturally defined patterns of stratification think race ethnicity class gender sexual identity often understood as the legitimate right to govern linked to access to resources manifested through its effects MarX power relies on labor processes amp is repressive Weber power is related to the economic function of the market Mills power elites are institutionally constituted Foucault s notion of capillary power 7 power is everywhere power is produced in and through social relations 3 Theoretical Approaches 3 l Quantifiable powerHow muchassumes that there is a limited or finite amount of power amp it will be unequally distributed through socially constructed forms of stratification ex slavery ex Jim Crow laws in the US 7 see Week SiSmithsom39an National Museum ofAmerz39can History Separate is Not Equal Brown V Board of Education click Segregated America and view White Only Jim Crow in America and Jim Crow Laws ex global exploitation and inequalityi see Week 37NPR Documenting the Stories of Bracero Guest Workers 2 Legitimate powerWho Govems Created through authorization or delegated authority power as a capacity to be exercised over others ex Weber s notion of J 39 quot 7 the r 39 39 quotquot that a A with a given speci c content will be obeyed by a given group of persons Weber s 3 kinds of legitimate powerleadership l charismatic 2 traditional 3 rationallegal Seeknow Table 8 Pluralist power or elite power Ex pluralist power optimistic view of a democratic society diversity amp differentiation are supposedly embraced but somewhat controlled by the state ie radicals are often seen as a threat to democracy ex Mills s concept of the power elite 7 argues that power is concentrated in the hands of a relatively small number of very rich people power directly linked with the statei corporate political amp military interlocked networks amp often include shared boards of directors ex prisonindustrial complex ex militaryindustrial complex Legitimacy and globalized power ex Castells s network society and the network state i global ows of capital goods services technology communication amp information undermine state control amp can challenge national identities globally linked organized crime creates international shadow powers or shadow networks capable of effectingshaping world economies amp policies lines between legitimate amp illegitimate power are often blurred 3 Power everywhere Capillary Power Foucaulti power as a strategy that is productive 7 power produces reality it produces domains of objects amp rituals of truth powerknowledgei the role of knowledge in the reproduction of relations of dominance ithe historical production of truth power is neither a quantifiable resource nor does it exist through legitimacy of its claimsiit is a network of relations Ex disciplinary powers range of techniques of power ways of controlling amp training bodiesi technologies of the body The examination amp the normalizing gaze practices of observation measuring amp recording filesrecordkeeping rejects the idea that power is a possession recognize that where power there is must be resistance Early and Classic Sociological Theorists Augusta Comte French 17981857 He termed social physics to identify the laws that govern human behavior promoted a scienti c study of society to identify the scienti c laws that govern human behavior problems functionalist Harriet Martineau 18021876 translated Comte s work into English wrote the rst research methods book for sociologists studied families and poverty criticized sociology theories for assuming that women were inferior Karl Marx 18181883 his work is referred to as Marxism or Marxist theory an ideological alternative to capitalism His theory historical materialism con icts between classes drove social change throughout history class struggles social strati cation eyewitness to changes brought on by the Industrial Revolution owners of capital few vs exploited workers laborersworkers no longer control the means of their production alienation emphasis on con ict class divisions power amp ideology The class which has the means of material production at its disposal has control at the same time over the means of mental production so that thereby generally speaking the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it the economic base of society is seen as determining everything else in the superstructure including social political amp intellectual consciousness dominant ideology in society is the ideology of the dominant class function of dominant ideology to produce false consciousness in the workingclasses had a utopian vision that societies would become communist meaning that they would abolish private property and a new economy would be created from each according to hisher abilities to each according to hisher needs Max Weber 18641920 criticized Marx for his emphasis on the economy known as historical materialism focused on broader ideas culture economic politics and religious beliefs argued that the Protestant Reformation laid the groundwork for modern capitalism Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of C apitalism believed that a new ideologybelief interpreted wealth and riches as divine providence especially for Calvinists Interpretive sociology brought the concept of verstehen understanding in German to research methods must understand the meanings people attach to their actions Emile Durkheim 18581917 argued that the division of labor in society not only affected work and the economy but also had social and moral consequences in terms of different groups social solidarity individual acts are largely conditioned by social forces and whether or not we feel integrated into groups andor routines think anomie sense of normlessness resulting from drastic changes ex suicide to become scienti c sociology must study social facts aspects of life that shape our actions George Simmel 18581918 established early social network analysis formal sociology studied groups how people formed groups joined groups were excluded from groups etc created early formal de nitions to describe members of inout of groups Early 20Lh Century American Sociology established at the University of Chicago Chicago School which at that time was surrounded by ethnic and immigrant communities focused on communitybased studies urban life poverty crime how the social environment shapes individuals Remember some early Anglo sociologists were in uenced by and or part of the Eugenics Movement and constructed racebased theories and promoted ideas of assimilation WI Thomas If menwomen de ne situations as real they are real in their consequences think social construction of reality George Herbert Mead social psychologist and philosopher at Univ of Chicago known for theory of the self the perception of consciousness as an object develops and the generalized other to be covered in the chapter on childhood socialization Also known for theory Symbolic Interactionism Jane Addams Chicago founder of the Settlement House the Hull House built a vast community educationresource center and worked closely with poor immigrant communities in her neighborhood initiated community organization movements to improve their lives and helped establish new city and state bureaus and laws to improve people s lives a humanitarian promoted education and provided food childcare and job training classes fought for women s rights equality worked closely with the sociologists at the Univ of Chicago WEB DuBois 18681963 most important African American sociologist of the time first African American to be granted a PhD from Harvard focused on race relations The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the colorline 1903 developed concept of double consciousness argued that the experiences of slavery and continued prejudice and discrimination systematically kept blacks from economic and social equality self amp one s identity are in uenced by historical experiences amp social circumstances he was marginalized by white sociologists Working historical labor markets Europeearly capitalists create free wage workers by forcing peasants off the land enclosure movement end of the commons capitalism transformed work and the time spent working importance of paid work on production shift from feudalism to capitalism 7 Marx Engels driver of capitalist society Inverse relationship by the way wages and profits leads to class struggle Bourgeoisie 7 class of capitalists owners of the means of production Proletariats 7 class of wage laborers workers need to sell their labor power law of demand and supply of commodities is controlled by capitalists great demand means higher price Exchange Bar and Grill Diamonds New Restaurant in Manhattan where prices for food and beverages will uctuate like stock prices in increments according to the demand Blue Diamondsexpensive more than white so controls how much are out diamonds before 1947 were not used as engagement rings De Beurs opened diamond mining in the country of South Africa to mine diamonds controlled how much they put out for sale Blood Diamondspeople forced to mine in slave like conditions paid work production great innovator Working Continued work is central to society contradictions of capitalism control managerial efforts to get the most out of workers for pro t and eliminate the disobedient uncooperative workers Five elements productivity ef ciency compliance subordination tactics workers exibility historically process of increased surveillance and deskilling Panopticon Building TaylorismFrederick Taylor 186 51915 principles of scienti c managements and shop management scienti c management claims to science ef ciency Fordism assembly production line highly specialized machines standardized products surveillance McDonaldization of Society Ritzier 1970 s 7 present principles of fast food service work and consumption are dominating sectors of society deskilling 5 Processes of Deskilling 1 Separation of mental and manual work 2 Objective goal is scienti c management 3 Removes the skills knowledge from the labor process workers to management 4 Allows disposal of labor process across sites and time decomposition across time and place 5 Increases the exploitation of workers and reduces their resistance some argue increasing disenchantment of both workers and consumers is reenchantment possible contemporary societies shift from a work ethic to an ethic of consumption re ects our consumer society tension between managerial control and workers resistance problem of controlling the recalcitrant worker informal 7 short cuts illegal practices threats etc formal 7 Work manuals procedures protocols documented contracts rates of pay bonus schedules union bargaining and negotiations Controlling Gazegs and Recalcitrant Identities A1tie Hochild emotional labor 1983 employers management demand emotional labor from their employees central element of much work especially service wprk often predetermined scripts ex historically demands put on ight attendants Disney workers emotions arecan be manufactured or managed as part of a job starbucks and I am Sam scene Important to acknowledge the subjective realm and de nition of the situation Du Gay s 1996 term La Perruque 7 the work of appearing to work the workers own work disguised as work such as screensavers busy Recalcitrant Identitiescan be examined through material and symbolic contestsresistance clothes worn to work private lives time Marx Engels 7 alienation of work disenchantment and exploitation can lead to revolution to overthrow capitalism communism as a utopia Problems with Marx view of utopia Work Ethic II Aesthetic Consumptions Webers thesis in the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism German 1904 puritan ethics and ideas in uenced the development of capitalism business success wealth could be interpreted as a sign of eternal salvation Ex Ian Shapirds Work EthicWhat is Work April 4 2010 Millennial Generationabout 50 million people ages 1829only age group in the nation that does not cite the work ethic as one of its principal claims to distinctiveness Millennials are on course to become the most educated generation in American history Consuming survival aspects Hunter gatherer mentality symbolic aspects Individiaul and collect identity social cohesion advertising industry 7 stress positive aspects of products notion of choice and or tell in what wrong creates desires pleasures Ex Vebens 1893 7 conspicuous consumption Ex Bourdieu 1984 7 consumption is about social distinction buying things for social class models celebrities sex sells branding products in TV shows and lms concept of retail therapy 7 consumption as rewards for the degradations of work af uenza joke term for too much consumption disparities in the ability to consume and widening gap between the rich and the poor vertically between different social classes horizontally between different countries recall Mill s sociological imagination Bauman 7 a privileged achieved by some at somebody else s expense on the condition of unequal exchange with other sectors of global society Consumer societies 7 ones in which choice and credit are readily available in which social value is de ned in terms of purchasing power Giddens ritual of doing coffee Ex symbolic geographical ad historical components of consumption Theory of Fashion has succeeded in shaping society as a whole in its own image desire seduction diversity and redundancy structure mass production consumption money abstracts things inducing personal relations born into brothels McJ ob an unstimulating low paid job with few prospects especially one created by the expansion of the service creator 1985 20h century marked by forced migration mass tourism primary of image increased mediazation Late 20Lh century 7 early 21St century marked by some resistance Adbusters spoof reverse hopping recycling and reusing green products green movement Trading trading products and slave exploited labor of people Ex European transatlantic slave trade Ex Bracero Guest Program 19421964 a social relation between persons becomes an objective relation between things Marx impersonal markets 7 primary mechanisms of exchange alienation of labor risk issues concerns increased exploitation of people and natural resources increased global poverty and inequality increased wars increased Americanization with both US military power and dominating corporations globalized globalization increases uncertainties free markets are not really free or fair at all markets and economic arrangements are socially constructed from different histories institutional arrangements etc ex post colonial countries such as Haiti often taught Adam Smiths 1776 idea of perfectly competitive markets
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