Galactic and Extragalactic Stellar Systems
Galactic and Extragalactic Stellar Systems ASTR 240
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S M Faber Fall 2005 ASTRONOMY 240A SYLLABUS AND READING ASSIGNMENTS Lecture 1 INTRODUCTION Aims of course Syllabus Requirements Overview of the Milky Way and external galaxies Galaxies as quotcrossroads of the Universequot Galaxies exhibit regularities gt clues to their formation Two kinds of matter baryonic and dark Two components spheroids and disks Why Gravitational instability picture Gravitational collapse Merging hierarchy Dissipation lnteracting galaxies vs undisturbed galaxies Galaxies are quotevolving structuresquot not static Lecture 2 BASIC CONCEPTS IN STELLAR ASTRONOMY Stellar spectra Photometric systems Abundance determinations accuracies and results Stellar evolution in the HR diagram Overview of the disk population HR diagram of the solar nbhd Local luminosity function Overview of the spheroid population Stellar evolution of lowmass stars Metallicity and its effects in the HR diagram Modelling old stellar populations BM Chapter 1 212 25 312 Background material nice review for quals BM Chapter 23 337 skim from Read carefully Eq 322 to 356 51 6115 Lecture 3 MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES OF GALAXIES Aims of a classification scheme HubbleSandagede Vaucouleurs types Other types The origin of SO galaxies quotnature vs nurturequot debate Merging and interacting galaxies clues to spheroid formation Arp Atlas Merging galaxies Starburst galaxies CAS and GiniMZO systems for peculiarmerging galaxies Star streams in the M31 halo Structural peculiarities of E galaxies Lowsurface brightness galaxies Global properties vs Hubble type The Hubble sequence as a mass sequence BM Chapter 4112 414 4612 Scan pictures and text in the REVISED SHAPLEYAMES CATALOG by A R Sandage pp 98127 Lecture 4 LUMlNOSlTlES AND SPECTRA OF GALAXIES Spectra and colors of galaxies Broadband colors color bimodality Spectral energy distributions Emissionline spectra of spheroid and disk galaxies H II region spectra chemical compositions AGN spectra Stellar masses derived from colors and spectra Bell and de Jong Kauffmann et al Schechter luminosity function Number density of dwarf galaxies LF vs Hubble types in Virgo Cluster LFs of blue vs red galaxies Mass vs Hubble type Mass functions of blue vs red galaxies Critical transition mass Chemical composition based on H II region spectra Stellar population models Introduction to models Observed line strength trends in earlytype galaxies Inferred chemical compositions BM Chapter 413 Mihalas and Binney Chapter 54 readings binder Kennicutt R C ApJ 388 310 1992 Lecture 5 STELLAR DYNAMICS l The gravitational potential in a stellar system Starstar relaxation and relaxation time Collisionless Boltzmann equation Liouville39s theorem Phase space density in merging galaxies Jeans equations moments of the CBE Analog between collisional and collisionless systems Analog to thermal pressure This reading assignment covers both this lecture and most of the next It is long start early BT Chapter 2021 ad 4042 BM Chapter 1044 an alternate treatment of pp 199202 of BT with more recent comparison to data and different conclusions Lecture 6 STELLAR DYNAMICS ll Applications of the secondmoment Jeans equations An introduction to asymmetrical drift Vertical disk density structure and the mass density in the solar nbhd Spherical systems the radial mass distribution in E galaxies See above for reading assignment Lecture 7 STELLAR DYNAMICS III Tensor and scalar virial theormes Rotation and isotropy of E galaxies Boxy vs disky elliptcals Jeans39 theorem and model density distribution functions for spherically symmetric galaxies The isothermal sphere King models Black holes E galaxy cores The ubiquity of BHs in spheroids The MBHsigA4 and MBHL relations Cosmic mass density of local BHs compared to cosmic integrated AGN luminosity BT Chapter 43441 2 and 3abc Lecture 8 STRUCTURAL LAWS FOR DISKS AND SPHEROIDS The exponential disk Spheroid laws de Vaucouleurs Hubble others Formation of spheroid laws in mergers Bulgedisk decomposition Pseudobulges the Sersic law Bulgedisk ratio along the Hubble Sequence TullyFisher and FaberJackson laws Fundamental plane for E galaxies Hubble types in kappa space BM Chapter 423 441 4 Faber et al 1986 in Nearly Normal Galaxies Stuctural Scaling Laws for E Galaxies readings binder Lecture 9 MODELING STELLAR EVOLUTION IN GALAXIES Introduction to population synthesis Luminosity function initial mass function and stellar birthrate functions The IMF in the solar nbhd and elsewhere Hess diagram Quadratic programming models Simple population models TinsleySearleSargentBagunolo exponential models BruzualCharlot models Worthey models for age and Z AgeZ degeneracy Luminosity and color vs time Nucleosynthesis Synthesis sites of important elements Chemical evolution models Closedbox model The G dwarf problem Generalizations of the closedbox model Leakybox galactic winds Accretingbox infall Possible solutions to the G dwarf problem Prior enrichment in the halo Slow infall IMF enriched in massive stars Abundance ratios and their interpretation BM524 1072 Lecture 10 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MlLKY WAY I Introduction Stellar composition and kinematics as clues to how galaxies formed Composition as an age tracer Abundance gradients as tracers The disk Composition and motions of local disk stars Asymmetrical drift The local velocity ellipsoid Velocity dispersion vs age Composition vs age Radial structure of the disk Spiral tracers Vertical structure of the disk Scale heights vs age The thick disk Disk heating mechanisms Collisional heating Diffusion equation Heating by a bar Heating by stochastically forming spiral structure Heating by satellite accretion BM Chapter 101 1034 the Oort constants 1033 are classic questions for prelims but we will not get to them in class MB Chapter 71 readings binder Lecture 1 1 STRUCTURAL COMPONENTS OF THE MILKY WAY II The nuclear bulge Baade39s window Surface photometry and star counts Kinematics of bulge stars Ages and metallicities of bulge stars Abundance gradient in the bulge The nuclear bulge bar or true spheroid The halo Composition and motions of field halo stars Kinematics of field halo stars Highvelocity stars Bottlinger diagrams Eggen LyndenBell and Sandage Composition of field halo stars The globular cluster system Diskhalo globular subsystems Metallicity vs radius in the spheroid Oxygen abundances of globular clusters Globular cluster ages Differences between halo field stars and globular cluster stars The combined bulgehalo spheroid Spheroid density profile Faber39s best guess Spheroid abundance gradient Combined models of the Milky Way BahcallSoneira model OstrikerCaldwell model Faber39s bestguess model Milky Way mass models BM Chapter 102 105 MB Chapter 72 readings binder Lecture 12 ROTATION OF DISK GALAXIES Rotation velocity at the solar radius Rotation curve of the Milky Way Rotation curves of external galaxies Simplified mass modelling Dark matter halos Rotation curve evidence Bar instability argument Minimummaximum disk models BM Chapter 824 911 912 skim 923 106 Lecture 13 STAR FORMATION AND THE ISM IN DISK GALAXIES Global H and H2 measures Radial gas profiles Starforming indicators radio FIR Ha 0 ll UV Gas composition and gradients H and H2 in the Milky Way Empirical starformation laws in disk galaxies The initial mass function and its variations BM Chapter 81 Background material nice review for prelims BM Chapter 8203 826 828 Read carefully 9212 9246 quot quot Kennicutt RC 1998 Ann Rev quot quot 36 189 1998 Kennicutt ApJ 344 685 1989 quot quot Lecture 14 CLASSICAL DISSIPATIVE COLLAPSE MODELS FOR GALAXY FORMATION Dissipative vs stellar collapse Hierarchical vs coherent collapse Larson collapse models for E galaxies LarsonTinsley collapse models for disk galaxies Larson R B MNRAS 166585 1974 Tinsley B M and Larson R B ApJ 221 554 1978 Lecture 15 STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF E GALAXIES The central issue when did the stars form Monolithic collapse models E39s as very old SSPs Hierarchical clustering models Quenched spirals spirals merge and are then quenched Bursts first the quenching most stars formed in starbursts triggered by mergers later quenched Interstellar medium of nearby E39s Xray properties H II regions Galactic winds Cool ISM dust clouds IRAS emission Quenching mechanisms Orbitalenergy heating Feedback from starbursts Feedback from AGNs Stripping of outer gas by cluster environment Prevention of coldgas accretion by cluster environment Stellar populations in local E galaxies Breaking the ageZ degeneracy Ages and 239s of local E39s Radial age and Z gradients Abundance ratios Local field vs cluster E39s Lookback observations of E galaxies Bimodality at high 2 Number densities of redsequence galaxies Luminosity and surface brightness evolution Harker quenching model BM Chapter 83 BT Chapter 93 Lecture X SPIRAL STRUCTURE AND OTHER MODES OF SECULAR DISK EVOLUTION optional lecture if time and demand warrant The winding problem Kinematic density waves Resonances Local stability criterion Swingarm amplification Spiralarm morphology along the Hubble sequence Secular evolution of disks radial redistribution of matter BT Chapter 613 This reading is exceptionally hard Lecture 16 GALAXIES AND THEIR ENVIRONMENT Overview of galaxy clustering Types of clusters The Dressler effect Evolutionary process affecting group and cluster galaxies White S D M Saas Fe Lecture Notes 1982 quantitative derivations for many of White39s formulae may be found in BT Chapter 7 readings binder Lecture 17 MASS MEASUREMENTS AND DARK MATTER Total mass of the Milky Way External galaxy rotation curves ML vs Hubble type Binary galaxies Xray halos of E galaxies Small groups radial velocities and Xrays Large clusters radial velocities and Xrays Peculiar motions of galaxies Dark matter cold hot or both Baryonic and DM budgets of the Universe BT Chapter 101102 Lecture 18 COSMIC EVOLUTION OF DENSITY INHOMOGENEITIES Basic cosmology Evolution of spherical tophat perturbations Scaling laws for collapsed objects Angular momentum White S D M Les Houches Lecture Notes on Galaxy Formation 1993 Sections 1 21 all 221 readings binder Lecture 19 GALAXY FORMATION BASED ON THE SPHERICAL TOPHAT MODEL Inputs and assumptions Fluctuation spectra for CDM HDM and CHDM Tophat results Cooling and baryonic dissipation nT diagram Mv diagram Luminosity function Baryonic dynamics for collapse within a dark halo NFW profile for dark matter Adiabatic contraction Disk galaxy formation Flat rotation curves Disk radii Central densities of disk galaxies Faber S M in First ESOCern Conference on Galaxy Formation and Particle Physics quotGalaxy Formation with Cold Dark Matterquot read this first readings binder Blumenthal et al Nature 311 517 1984 readings binder Navarro et al A Universal Density Profile from Hierarchical Clustering ApJ 490 493 1997 Blumenthal et al Contraction of Dark Matter Halos due to Baryonic lnfall ApJ 301 27 Lectures 20 HIERARCHICAL MODELS FOR GALAXY FORMATION and 21 Hierarchical clustering PressSchechter theory of halo quottreesquot Semianalytic models based on PressSchechter theory Physical assumptions and approximations Comparison to data HOD models Hydrodynamic models White S D M Les Houches Lecture Notes on Galaxy Formation 1993 Sections 23 3 4 readings binder Somerville Primack and Faber The Nature of HighRedshift Galaxies MN 320 504 2001 Berlind et al The Halo Occupation Distribution and the Physics of Galaxy Formation ApJ 593 l 2003 Lectures 22 PROPERTIES OF GALAXIES TO 2 14 and 23 Color bimodality back in time Morphologies at 2 1 Early type galaxies Disks Mergerspeculiars DlFRGs Evolution in the luminosity functions of red and blue galaxies Scaling relations Disk galaxies Spheroidal galaxies Massmetallicity relation evolution Starformation histories of disk galaxies Madau diagram Quiescent vs mergerdriven SFR Modified exponential models quotDownsizingquot Spectral evolution of spheroidal galaxies Emission lines Absorption lines Evolutionary models Closedbox models for disk galaxies Quenched models for spheroidals Cluster galaxies The ButcherOemler effect Morphologies Cluster ellipticals at moderate redshift S0 frequencies Clustering vs color and spectral type Galaxy properties versus environment Open questions concerning adolescent galaxies Weiner et al The DEEP Groth Strip Survey III Redshift Catalog and Galaxy Properties ApJ 620 595 Faber et al Galaxy Luminosity Functions to 2 1 Implications for Red Galaxy Formation Astroph 506044 Glazebrook et al A High Abundance of Massive Galaxies 36 Gyr after the Big Bang Nature 430 181 Astroph 0401037 McIntosh D H et al The Evolution of Earlytype Red Galaxies with the GEMS Survey I LuminosityRadius and MassRadius Relations Astroph 041 1772 Bell et al Dry Mergers in GEMS Astroph 0506425 Madau et al The StarFormation History of Field Galaxies ApJ 498 106 Bell et al Toward an Understanding of the Rapid Decline in the Cosmic Star Formation Rate ApJ 625 23 Lecture 24 PROPERTIES OF GALAXIES BEYOND z 14 Lymanbreak galaxies Observations Starburst models Submm galaxies Red galaxies at z gt 2 Properties of the most distant galaxies yet discovered Early galactic winds Open questions concerning infant galaxies Steidel et al Spectroscopic Confirmation of a Population of Normal StarForming Galaxies at 2 3 ApJ 462 L17 1996 Franx et al A Significant Population of Red IRSelected HighRedshift Galaxies ApJ 587 L79 Blain et al the History of Star Formation in Dusty Galaxies MN 302 632 1999