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Introduction to Latin American and Latino Studies

by: Gregoria Harris

Introduction to Latin American and Latino Studies LALS 1

Marketplace > University of California - Santa Cruz > Latin American&Latino Studies > LALS 1 > Introduction to Latin American and Latino Studies
Gregoria Harris
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gregoria Harris on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LALS 1 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 298 views. For similar materials see /class/182229/lals-1-university-of-california-santa-cruz in Latin American&Latino Studies at University of California - Santa Cruz.

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Date Created: 09/07/15
LALS l 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez l Latino Politics Chapter 1 0 Many scholars look at Latino immigration and political contribution as solely individual acts This book looks at the economic social and historical standing of the people which Bedolla believes is the biggest in uence Agency is the capacity condition or state of acting or of exerting power It is about how much certain people can accomplish on their own allowing that there are institutional structures hindering their ability to accomplish anything and everything When considering political activity and engagement we must realize that there is a historical background and an institutional context which frame an individual s decisionmaking process Latinos have many different names that they identify with and it basically comes down to simply how the individual person defines themselves as although this book will be using Latino to talk about the group as a whole Latinos are seen as a social group a collective of persons differentiated from others by cultural forms practices special needs or capacities structure of power or privilege pg 4 Latinos are not one race or one ethnicity so they are seen also as an ethnorace This concept combines both ethnic and racial experiences Racial processes are hand in hand with social constructions Issues of race are not because of the background or color or the skin but the social constructions that are tied to the background or skin color Late 1800 s and early 1900 s one must be white in order to become a naturalized citizen The judgment on whether Asian Indians were white went back and forth for years This case allows for people to understand the difficulty the court had with maintaining racial categories in the face of any sort of systematic scrutiny pg 6 This racial hierarchy affects Latinos today by still in uencing the playing eld upon which their community sits today pg 7 Jose Vasconcelos called Latin Americans la raza cosmica the cosmic race 7 one made up ofthe blood of all the world s races US didn t know how to categorize Latinos they were not black white or Asian Early 20Lh century Immigrants choose to be part of the United States and therefore must overcome important structural hurdles before they can even consider engaging politically pg 9 US relations with Latin America have been affected by the Manifest Destiny and the Monroe Doctrine The Manifest Destiny stated that Divine Providence God s direct wishes wanted North America to be all one language one religion and political system Basically that the US control all of North America The Monroe Doctrine which was overturned in 1934 said that if any Latin American country they were showing chronic wrongdoing or an impotence which results in a general loosening of the ties of a civilized society the US could interfere and exercise their international police power pg 11 Although the Monroe Doctrine was overturned the US has in many cases intervened in Latin America The US s economic interests played a central role in the development of Latin American banking infrastructure and industry pg 12 The US and Latin American s economies are often tied together One affects the other US involvement economically is also a huge contributing factor to migration into the United States Chapter 2 LALS 1 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez 2 Latinos make up 15 of the total US population and are the nation s largest minority group pg 4 Twothirds of the US Latino population is made up of MexicanAmericans the nexthighest group is Puerto Ricans followed by Central Americans South Americans and Cubans pg 15 The Latino population is signi cantly younger than the US population overall pg 15 Although Latinos earn significantly less than other Americans the gender gap among Latinos is much less prevalent pg 15 The poverty rate among Latinos is almost double that of the general population due partly to the fact that Latinos have larger households to support pg 15 Latino educational attainment is below the national average As a result of the demographics of Latinos education and poverty are generally the topics that hold the highest priority among the group politically pg 15 Because of the differences in incomes age nativity and education Latinos are not a politically uni ed group making it harder for them to have a political voice pg 167 Latino participation isn t usually predictable by the normal standards of income occupation and education but rather by feelings of efficacy trust in government and civic duty pg 18 Latinos have lower voter registration rates than whites or blacks and about 40 percent of the community are noncitizens meaning they don t have a say in politics pg 19 Because the US political system is a majority rules system instead of a proportional representation system Latinos have a very difficult time gathering a majority in elections to have their voices heard they must often make compromises with other groups to gain votes and even then they are lucky to get a few of their policies passedcandidates elected pg 22 As a result of gerrymandering Latinos don t always have the ability to band together even on a small scale but it can sometimes work in their favor if only at the local level pg 234 Even if Latinos can secure an office such as in the Senate of House of Representatives they still need a majority to support their vote which is difficult to obtain because of how few Latinos hold Congressional seats compared to the number of seats available pg 28 Party loyalty is a key factor in Latino politics if they remain loyal to the party they might be rewarded with a highlysought committee assignment or with supporting votes from other party members if they aren t loyal however the rest of the party can choose not to support the Latino goals or the party can re lse to fund a Latino candidate pg 289 Because Latinos tend to be more liberal their proposals tend to be seen as more extreme than what the party wants to support when aiming to be allinclusive meaning their ideas may get left out of or drastically modified when included in party proposals pg 2930 The high cost of running for any office hinders minority groups especially those typically at the poverty level from being able to attain a position even at the local or state level pg 334 Latinos remain significantly underrepresented at all levels of government in relation to their population pg 35 Chapter 3 o The Mexican American War brought great perish to what was once considered Mexico The Mexican American war that ended in 1848 with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo This treat made allowed Mexico to hand over California Nevada Utah and parts of Arizona New Mexico and Wyoming But Mexican gained 15 Million pg 36 LALS l 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez 3 Mexico and United States share a border in which divides them It is a 2000mile long border that separates them This is the only border that separates a developing country and an industrialized one pg 36 o The MexicoWar for independence was the war Mexico fought to get free from the hold Spain had on it It was between 18101821 pg 37 After the war Mexico was in terrible shape Economically because of war and the people in power Power was split between liberals and conservatives But one of the hugest sources of power came from the Catholic Church pg 37 Newly Found Mexico was built on 3 main rules pg 37 l The establishment of one religion Roman Catholicism 2 The proclamation of Mexico as an independent nation 3 Having social equality for all groups within the new nation After the war Mexico began to sell parts of their Northern Territories To get land a person did not have to be Mexican but simply be committed to live in the territories learn Spanish convert to Catholicism and abide my Mexico laws Americans took advantage of this and bought a lot of land However these Americans broke a law which was not having slaves This started the Texas Revolution of 1835 This involved with the annexation under Polk s presidency pg 38 Polk sent soldiers to the Rio Grande and to Nueces River This in time leads to the cause of the MexicanAmerican War pg 39 The way for Mexicans to get citizenship depended on Pg4l 1 Where they are located 2 Class Status 3 Phenotype 0 After Annexation most Mexicans were left without the privilege to vote Most annexed territories adopted voting rules similar to other states This at the time meaning a person could only vote if white and not if they were African Asian or Indian Pg4243 Laws for Mexicans a er annexation were not so protected The govemment s way of providing related closely to their citizenship but Mexicans were not so highly treated inthe area However Mexicans wanted two equal ways of law protection Pg 43 0 Right to testify in court against a White person pg 43 I Meaning that Mexicans wanted to be able to ght against a crime that a White person has brought against them Meaning if Mexicans could not bring a white person to trial then a white person could do anything to a Mexican and they could do nothing in return 0 Right to serve on ajury pg 43 o If Mexicans were not allowed on a jury then there were no equal juries for Mexicans Thus Mexicans wanted the chance to be treated fairly in a court case 0 In 1890 Most Mexicans had lost the land they once owned there were two main reasons for this pg 4445 1 Becoming a part of United States the Mexicans had to face new tax systems against their farms and most of the farmers could not afford it so they lost their farms pg 44 Before getting their land Mexicans had to prove their land claims in court So while they waited for their claim to clear they lost their land and people Squatters would come and ruin their lands Most cases for land claims took years and so farmers had to deal with these people for all those years N LALS 1 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez 4 Throughout the years Mexicans still had to pay taxes deal with Squatters and deal with natural disasters So to pay for all the damage many farmers had to take out shortterm mortgages and sell portions of their land So by the end of all this madness only a few people still owned their farm General Por riato Diaz took power and make changes to the way Mexico worked Diaz strongly believed in foreign investment This leading to the creation of many railroads The railroads were used for three important things mining export agriculture and oil production However because America funded this it seems they were the ones running Mexico pg 47 These railroads caused a move from Southern to Northern Mexico this move has been seen as the beginning to the huge immigration to United States At the beginning United States held nothing against the immigration process Mexicans provided cheap labor and did the work that they were physically better suited for pg 4751 United States thought the Mexicans would return to Mexico a er they had nished their jobs homing pigeons However they did not and this lead to the beginning of the scapegoating During the Great Depression Mexican Immigrants were blamed and this started the process of deportation pg 5152 Maquiladora Program was brought to power which created jobs for people in Mexico This was a way to create cheap labor because United States sent un nished work to Mexico and Mexico would nish it for a low price pg 5254 In 1965 United States formed The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 which was the rst set limit of how many immigrants were able to come in to the US and a number of other rules pg 54 Mexicans a er annexation were seen as nonwhite so they fell victim to segregation that was going on at the time The laws that were put against African Americans also hit Mexicans pg 55 57 Laws did not protect Mexicans in Texas They were o en victims of lynching deportations and many other harassment ways This is a way Mexicans were not llly protected by law Later in Los Angeles in the 1940 s Mexicans were also target and beat down by soldiers return for war Cops did not do much to protect them and most ofthe times 5760 Chapter 4 0 Puerto Ricans are of European indigenous and African descent The indigenous were called Tainos Until the mid 19Lh century the Puerto Rican economy was based on sugar production The Puerto Rican independence movement began in 1868 with the Revolt of Lares In 1897 Spain passed the Autonomy Charter which granted Puerto Rico political and administrative autonomy Foraker Act 1900 established a civil government and free commerce between Puerto Rico and the US 1902 Puerto Rico became US territory Jones act of 1917 Puerto Ricans became US citizens It also made English the of cial language of Puerto Rico The Puerto Rican independence movement continues a er US occupation and gained strength in the 1930 s and 40 s The movement was led by the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party Pedro Albizu Campos was the leader in 1930 The US appointed governor of Puerto Rico Blanton Winship shows hostility towards nationalist party members and their supporters In response to violence leaders of independence movements move more towards advocating commonwealth rather than independence Through negotiations with the Truman administration Puerto Ricans gained the right to elect their own governor However LALS 1 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez 5 some thought this was not enough so the Jayuyas rebelled and held the town for three days US government responded with bombers and destroyed the city In 1952 Puerto Rico established its own constitution However US congress is still capable of intervening with internal matters of Puerto Rico Puerto Rican nationalists continued to struggle for independence In 1954 Lolita Lebron led an attack on the US house of representatives Although their attack resulted in no victims they were all sentenced to life in prison and some were later pardoned Since World War II Puerto Rico transformed from an agrarian based economy to an industrialized one Up until the 1970s the US government sent 600 million dollars a year to Puerto Rico in order to support manufacturing on the island 7 1947 Industrial incentive act operation Bootstrap was the idea that if the US gave PR money they would become industrialized The transformation from agrarian to industrial led to a mass migration to the US Since the industrialization employment rates have also lowered Puerto Ricans require no immigration documentation or visas in order to migrate to the US Puerto Ricans were unwelcomed in many of their new homes in New York and Brooklyn Racism continually affected the immigrants This led to organizations which could protect and help their community ie the Liga Puertorriquena By 1918 PR community began to establish political clubs Their politics did not ourish In 1937 the first PR elected in the US Oscar Garcia Rivera was elected to the NY state assembly Marcantonio was an Italian who helped the PR cause American Labor Party is credited with the large scale mobilization of the Puerto Rican vote In the 30 s and 40 s politics on the island were connected with politics in New York City Organizations such as the Puerto Rican Day Parade Committee the Congress of Puerto Rican Hometowns and a group called Aspira were organized in order to address problems of poverty housing nutrition education and health care issues faced by the Puerto Rican community Young Lords were a gang which strived for latino empowerment They became the Young Lords Organization and started up community programs Women s rights were also a key concern The group s strategy would be to use social service provisions as a means of offering political education Their organization would be strongest from 1969 to 1972 The Puerto Rican Student Union was the most important Puerto Rican student group of the 70 s Through Puerto Rican activism they developed their culture and empowered themselves However the concern of the island and where it stands politically will always play a role in Puerto Rican politics Chapter 5 0 Cuba was one of Spain s last colonies and in the 1860s Cuban revolutionaries fought the Spanish for independence Though failing they achieved limited autonomy from Spain Fighting between the Spanish and the Cubans continued and many Americans and the US government took interest in Cuba for economic reasons 0 By 1897 America had economic military and political interest in Cuba America became heavily involved with Cuba and advocated their independence from Spain In 1898 the US declared war on Spain and took arms with Cuban rebels Months later the war was over and Cuba became independent The US took the chance to set rules upon the Cuban nation and there was talk of annexation which most Cubans opposed LALS 1 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez 6 In 1901 the draft of the constitution of the Republic of Cuba was published This gave the US to intervene in Cuban affairs and limited Cuban foreign policy The Platt Amendment put Cuban independence on hold and in February they created a declaration of independence which demanded full independence and no US occupation By 1903 Cuba was an independent nation However in the following decades US policy still had a hand in Cuba s intemal affairs For instance by 1928 the US still controlled three quarters of the Cuban sugar crop In 1906 the new nation was already facing heavy internal problems Armed rebels would challenge the regime of President Estrada The US would intervene 3 times in 1909 1912 and 1917 in order to quell the situation The US military stayed in Cuba until 1922 Up until the 1940s Cuba witnessed a series of failed governments and by 1958 Batista was set for dictatorship The US government would provide him with 1 million dollars in military aid Cubans such as Fidel Castro Che Guevara and Camilo Cienfuegos would lead revolutions against the dictator ship forcing Batista to ee In 1958 the US recognized Cuba as an independent nation 500 former police and army officers from Batistas regime were executed On May 17th Cuba enacted its Agrarian Reform Law which allowed for only Cuban ownership of land This stirred up landowners from the US as well as other countries Cuba successfully negotiated terms with landowners from all countries except for the US The CIA became distrustful with Castro s regime and by 1960 began planning an invasion on Cuba They would train Cuban exiles and would need their help in order to have a provisional government The invasion known as the Bay of Figs was unsuccessful due to lack of US military support Despite the failure Kennedy continued to fund the Cuban Revolutionary Council Castro continued to remain in power despite 638 assassination attempts Cuban exiles had a great migration to Miami where their community would grow Full of diverse ideologies the exiles united under a common enemy Fidel Castro A new identity would form from life in Miami and Cuban concentrated areas forming the identity of Cuban Americans Cuban exile groups would continue to face problems with Cuban homeland and their new home on the mainland However US government would continually help the exiles Between 1959 and 1962 215323 Cubans migrated to the US mainly Miami The Cuban American vote became in uential in Florida marking their presence in American politics In 2008 Fidel Castro s younger brother Raul Castro was elected president the first elected president seen in Cuba since 1959 LALS 1 7 Midterm Review Fall 2011 Fernandez 7 Open Veins Introduction This chapter of Open Veins gives insight to readers how Latin America is poor at the cost of other countries being rich such as the Us Latin America is a resource for oil iron copper meat fruit coffee raw materials and foods consumed globally and the taxes on these foods are sometimes higher than the prices received by the sellers The underdevelopment of Latin America is due to the integral part of the history of the world capitalist development For example Potosi Zacatecas and Ouro Preto became empty tunnels due to the precious metals that were taken Around the middle of the last century rich countries had 50 higher living standard than the poor Richard Nixon told OAS in 1969 US per capita income was 15 times higher than that of Latin Americas A US citizen s average income was 7 times that of a Latin American and grows 10 times faster Argentina Brazil and Mexico consume less than France and West Germany but the combined population exceeds that of any European country Now Latin America produces less food then it did before WWII and has a 3 fold decline in per capita exports since the 1929 crisis This book is will explain how current mechanisms of plunder operate conquistadors technocrats dividends of slave trade and pro ts of central motors Chapter 1 Christopher Columbus found America in 1492 The Catholic rulers of Spain Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile funded Columbus Bemal del Castillo comrade of Hernan Cortez wanted to take over America The New Vlbrld The Myth of El Dorado was amyth that said that there was a place that everything was made out of gold and that the Indians knew where it was Montezuma the ruler of the Indians thought that Hernan Cortez was his old God Quetzalcoatl so he gave them gold Hernan Cortez found Potosi which became the wealth of the world They exploited all the silver out of it They brought slaves from Africa and also used Indians to work the mind some Indians claimed they where mestizos so they wouldn t have to work Many got sick and died because of the mercury used to extract the silver Tupac Amaru was a mestizo chief he created a revolution but was captured because one of his own men turned him in Chapter 2 Brazil and Mexico are the 43911 and 5Lh largest cotton producing countries Cotton was a good crop at the time and thus many slaves were imported into Brazil Technology and land in the US though made cotton producing easier and faster and quickly surpassed cotton producing in Brazil Only during the civil war did Brazil s cotton production increase again but shortly after the Us came in with surpluses and prices fell again US surpluses cause fat subsidies to producers leading to lower prices across the board At the beginning of the 1950 s Latin America supplied fourfifths of the world s coffee Although this would help the workers in 1962 only 5 percent of the price yielded by coffee from the tree to US consumers was used for the wages of the workers who produced it Coffee prices dropped from 1955 to 1964 the Brazil missed out on 200 million dollars they could have made if prices stayed the same


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