General Chemistry CHEM 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Smitham on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1 at University of California - Santa Cruz taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see /class/182240/chem-1-university-of-california-santa-cruz in Chemistry and Biochemistry at University of California - Santa Cruz.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
REVIEW OUTLINE CHEMISTRY 1B Spring 2009 Review Outline Chemistry 1B Spring 2009 Chapter9 1 Energy and Thermodynamic De nitions A Potential and kinetic energy B System and surroundings C Change of energy 1 Heat and work q and w 2 Signs t of heat and work energy transfers State functions First Law of Thermodynamics AEqw E is state function E is conserved Enthalpy HEPV H is state function AHq at constant pressure Hess s Law from H is state function Qnrnu II Calculations w PAV Specific heat and calorimetry Standard states AH AHreacrtion from AHf AH from combination of reactions Hess s Law muowgt Chapter 12 III Experiments and ndings related to origin of quantum mechanics Planck Ehv 7wc DavissonGermer electrons diffract behave as waves DeBroine p7th Photoelectric effect Uncertainty Principle mAu Ax 2 h4n Meaning of the electron wavequot Bohr and Rydberg and hydrogen atom E218 x1018 J 1n2 AEhvhc7t 218 x1018 J 1n21 1n22 n2 gtn1 01gt OTIITIUO IV Quantum mechanics of the hydrogen atom A Wavefunction for an electron 11 probability 1P2 and radial probability 4nr2 P2 B Quantum numbers n Z mZ of allowed orbitals 1 n 123 2 Z O 1 2 n1 s p d f 3 ml Z Z 2Z 1 components values of mg for each Z O Pictures of the orbitals and nodes 1 nZ1 radial nodes 2 Z angular nodes 3 5 px Py pz 0122 dx2 y2y dxy dxz dyz Meaning of the n Z m quantum numbers 1 n energy radial nodes average distance of electron from nucleus U 1 REVIEW OUTLINE CHEMISTRY 1B Spring 2009 2 Z shape of orbital 3 m orientation of orbital V Many electron atoms and ions SternGerlach and electron spin ms 12 T ms 12 l Pauli exclusion principle Zeff and shielding by inner electrons and electrons in same shell E 218 x1043 J z2e n r 0529 x 103910 m n2 ze Zeff of 2s gt Zeffof 2p due to penetration E25 lt E2p E35 lt E3p lt E3d Mnemonic diagram for energy ordering in neutral atoms eg E4s lt E3d ln transition metal cations E3d lt E4s Zeff vs n Aufbau principle Hund s Rule and atomic configurations Ground excited and not allowed configurations 739IQTWUOWgt VI Periodic properties of atoms A Ze increases as one goes across period n increases as one goes down a group E 218 x1043 J z2e n2 r 0529 x 103910 m n2 ze Concepts of ionization energy IE and electron affinity EA lE increases across a period decreases down a group Atomic radius decreases across a period increases down a group EA magnitude increases across a period until inert gasses and decreases down a group H Zeff for positive and negative ions relative size and IE of positive and negative ions Higher ionization energies l IE1 lt IE2 ltIE3 2 big jumps in IEX when removing electrons from next inner shell how to use configurations of ions to rationalize successive lE s J Metals and nonmetals in periodic table ammuow Chapter 13 VII General considerations regarding bonding in molecules A GN Lewis and the origin of the octet argument B Electronegativity and periodic trends in electronegativity C What types of atoms form ionic covalent or metallic compounds D lonic compounds Which elements form ionic compounds 2 Molecular formulas for ionic compounds based on periodic table know polyatomic anions 3 Lattice energy and charge and size distance effects on trends in lattice energy 4 Properties of ionic compounds high boiling and melting crack or fracture conduct electricity in molten liquid or in solution 2 REVIEW OUTLINE CHEMISTRY 1B Spring 2009 E Covalent compounds strong intramolecular bond weaker intermolecular low boiling and melting points poor conductors F Polar bonds and electronegativi G Metallic bonding moderate melting points malleable conduct electricity VIII Classical theories of chemical bonding and geomtery Lewis electron dot structures 1 Octets 2 Lone pairs 3 Multiple bonds 4 Resonance structures 5 Exceptions reason why some atoms can form 10 12 14 electron shells 6 Formal charge from Lewis structures 7 Bond energy calculations B Valence State Electron Pair Repulsion theory VSEPR 1 Basic concepts how electron group arrangement is related to electronic geometry and molecular shape 2 How to determine number of electron groups steric number SN 3 Arrangement of electron groups electronic geometry based on SN 4 Molecular shape ie molecular geometry based on electronic geometry and placement of lone pairs 5 Various molecular shapes and bond angles and effect of lone pairs on bond angles 6 Dipole moments in polyatomic molecules Chapter14 IX Quantum mechanics of covalent bonding A Constructive interference of aos to gives bonding molecular orbital 1 Bonding mo has lower energy than energy of constituent aos 2 Bonding mo gives larger electron density in region between nuclei than would the sum of noninteracting atomic orbitals B Destructive interference of aos gives antibonding molecular orbital 1 Antibonding mo has higher energy than energy of constituent aos 2 Antibonding mo gives smaller electron density in region between nuclei than would the sum of noninteracting atomic orbitals has a node in bonding region C 0 and 11 mos X Molecular orbitals for diatomic molecular orbitals A General rules for when aos combine to for mos 1 AOs must have similar energies 2 AOs must have nonzero overlap must be able to have net constructive or destructive interference 3 Identification of pictures of mos B MOs and energy ordering for 2quotd row homonuclear diatomics Simple scheme 615 615 625 625 62p 712p 712p 62p applies to 02 F2 2 Complex scheme with 2slt gt2p mixing 615 615 625 625 712p 62p 712p 62p applies to Bz C2 N2 3 C D REVIEW OUTLINE CHEMISTRY 1B Spring 2009 Aufbau principle and molecular properties for homonuclear diatomics and ions Write andor identify ground excited impossible molecular orbital configurations Bond order bond energy and stability of molecule Unpaired electrons and paramagnetism or diamagnetism Know how bond order is related to vibrational frequency ewwe Additional considerations for heteronuclear diatomics Same general principles as for homonuclear diatomics see XA above but 1 Differing ao s on two atoms may have similar energies eg H1s and F2p in HF 2 AOs do not contribute equally a Lower energy ao contributes more to bonding mo b Higher energy ao contributes more to antibonding mo c Polar bonds arise from this unequal mixing XI Bonding in polyatomic molecules A B C QTI handout on Energy costs and gains for hybridization Pictures of hybridized orbitals Types of hybrids type number of hybrids geometry number of unhybridized p orbitals 1 sp3 four tetrahedral none 2 sp2 three trigonal planar one 3 sp two linear two For a molecule be able to 1 Identify hybrids or no hybridization for each atom 2 Identify hybrids or aos involved in formation of bonds including double and triple bonds 3 Identify hybrids or aos used for lone pairs 4 Identify geometry andor bond angles around an atom E Cases where atoms in a molecule remain unhybridized eg H28 PH3 Geometric isomers no rotation around a double bond Delocalized molecular orbitals 1 Quantum mechanical best way to describe molecules with several resonance structures 2 Conjugated pielectrons XII Spectroscopy see handout quotquotquotquotU 0 07 Energy order and names of radiation of various wavelengthsfrequencies Type of spectroscopy for each energy region and nature of excitation in atomsmolecules caused by photons of various energies Ordering of bonding and antibonding energy levels in polyatomic molecules 039 n n 11 6 What types of molecules absorb visible wavelengths are colored Information available from IR and NMR spectroscopy Vocabulary 1 Fluorescence
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