Psychology 101 (5/19-5/23)
Psychology 101 (5/19-5/23)
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This 8 page Reader was uploaded by Jomay Notetaker on Monday May 26, 2014. The Reader belongs to a course at University of Washington taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 71 views.
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Date Created: 05/26/14
May 22 2014 Personality Each of us is o Like all other people o Like some other people o Like on other people Personality o Distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking feeling and acting that characterizes a person39s responses to life situation Freud39s psychoanalytic theory 0 Studied hysteria with Jean Charcot I Believed that symptoms were related to repressed memories and feelings I Used free association and dream interpretation 0 Psychic energy and mental events I Instinctual drives generate psychic energy which constantly seeks release III Mental events may be 9 Conscious 9 Preconscious 9 Unconscious 0 Structure of personality I Three independent interacting and often conflicting systems El Id 9 The innermost core of the personality 0 Present at birth 0 Source of all psychic energy 0 Exists totally within the unconscious mind 0 Operated according to the pleasure principle III Ego 9 Has direct contact with reality 0 Develops second after id 0 Exists primarily at the conscious level 0 Operated according to the reality principle 0 quotexecutive of personalityquot III Superego 9 Moral arm of personality 0 Last to develop 0 Traditional values and ideals of family and society 0 Strives to control the impulses of the id 0 Blind quest for moral perfection 0 Psychodynamic perspective I Conscious 1 Immediate awareness of current environment I Preconscious III Available to awareness III names of friends I Unconscious III Unavailable to awareness III infantile memories repressed wishes and conflicts Psych 101 Page 1 o Defense mechanisms Unconscious mental operations that minimize anxiety by denying or distorting reality El El D Repression 9 Denial 0 Reject thought or feeling 0 Might seek second opinion push out 0 Arguing against yourself etc Displacement 0 take out the impulsiveness you have on less threatening target 9 Slam door because you can39t punch the person Projection 0 We place unacceptable impulsiveness on someone else 9 Project your own feelings on someone else Reaction formation 0 Take opposite belief to an extreme Rationalization 9 Supply logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason Sublimation 0 Act out unacceptable impulses in a social acceptable way Psych 101 Page 2 May 202014 Obedience 0 Factors that influence obedience I Remoteness of the victim I Closeness and legitimacy of the authority figure I Diffusion of responsibility III Obedience increases when someone else does the dirty work I Not personal characteristics Attribution 0 Attributions I Judgments about the causes of ur won and other people39s behavior III Person internal attributions III Situational external attributions 0 Sef serving bias I The tendency to make personal attributions for successes and situation attributions for failures Fundamentals attribution error 0 FAE is reduced when people have time to reflect on theirjudgments or are highly motivated to be careful 0 FAE does not apply to our own behavior Impressions 0 Primacy effect I Our tendency to attach more importance to initial information 0 Mental set I A readiness to perceive the world in a particular way 0 Schemas I A mental framework 0 Self fulfilling prophecy I Our expectations affect our behavior toward a person I Person then behaves in a way that confirms our expectations Attitudes 0 Attitudes I Positive or negative evaluative ice reaction toward a stimulus I Have greater influence on behavior when we are of them or when are stongly held I General attitudes best predict general classes of behavior specific attitude best predict specific behavior s 0 Cognitive dissonance Feininger 1957 I People strive for consistency in their cognitions III Dissonance 9 When two or more conditions contradict one another Implicit Bias Psychoogy39s implicit revolution 0 Understanding of the mind brain works 0 Slow system m I Pre1990 Psych 101 Page 1 I Rational I Deliberate I Conscious I Explicit I sow0 I in I fast 0 Implicit bias I Attitudes or serotypes that affect our understanding decisionmaking and behavior without even realizing it Measurement of implicit bias 0 Implicit association test IAT I Measurement of associate knowledgeof links that Cause one concept to activate another I If tow categories are associated it is east to give the same response 0 Affective misattribution procedure AMP Psych 101 Page 2 May 23 2014 F if cl o Defense mechanisms I Unconscious mental operations that minimize anxiety by denying or distorting reality III Repression 9 III Denial 0 Reject thought or feeling 0 Might seek second opinion push out 0 Arguing against yourself etc III Displacement 0 take out the impulsive you have on less threatening target 0 Slam door because you can39t punch the person 3 Projection 0 We place unacceptable impulsiveness on someone else 0 Project your own feelings on someone else D Reaction formation 0 Take opposite belief to an extreme III Rationalization 9 Supply logical or rational reason as opposed to the real reason D Sublimation 0 Act out unacceptable impulses in a social acceptable way o Psychosexual stages I Periods of development III d39s pleasure seeking tendencies are focused on specific pleasuresensitive areas of the body I Erogenous zones D Personality formed by age 6 through these crucial experiences I Fixation III a state of arrested psychosexual development 0 Instincts are focused on a particular stage I Oral stage III Infancy 018 months D Erotogenic zone Mouth I Anal stage D Toddle 23 El Erotogenic zone anusurethra El Satisfaction from elimination toilet training I Phallic stage 45 years D Erotogenic zone penisclitoris D Children develop erotic feelings for opposite sex parent III Causes hostility toward the samesex pa rent 0 Boys castration anxiety 9 Girls penis envy I Phallic stage continued D Oedipus complex 0 Love for the mother and hostility toward the father III Electra complex 0 Female counterpart of the Oedipus complex Psych 101 Page 1 I Latency 612 1 Dormant sexual interest III Focus is on school and peer activities I Genital stage 12 years aduthoodO III Focus is on normal healthy and adult sexuality Nonanalytic approaches I Psychoanalysts who disagreed with certain aspects of Freud39s thinking I Two major criticism III Too much emphasis on infantile sexuality III Too much emphasis on the events of childhood as determinants of adult personality I Alfred aldler III Humans are motivated by social interest III Striving for superiority 9 People are driven to compensate for real or imagined defects in themselves 9 Inferiority complex I Carl Jung 1 Personal unconscious 0 Based on individual life experiences III Collective unconscious 9 Memories accumulated throughout the entire history of the human race Object relations theories Mental representations that people form of themselves and other people as a result of early expe ences Attachment theory Bowlby III Early attachment experiences can be related to later adult relationships 9 Secure 9 Avoidant 9 Anxious ambivaent Evaluation Difficult to study psychoanalytic contempt39s in a controlled laboratory setting Little empirical support Difficult to disprove Research has supported Freud39s belief in the unconscious Psych 101 Page 2 May 19 2014 Children39s Environmental and Moral conception of protecting an endangered animal Biocentrism 0 Moral view that the natural world has inherit value I Nature had value independent of its value to humans 0 Cross cultural research reveals very little biocentrism in children39s reasoning Animals in childhood 0 Children experience animals as subjective beings I Autonomous intention sef directed I Can experience harm Washington gray wolf o Endangered local species 0 Familiar and charismatic 0 Cultural significance 0 Center of conservation discourse Moral obligations 0 Prescriptively considered right or wrong 0 Generalization they apply to similar situation 0 Rule of contingency not contingent on conventions laws or rules 0 Supported by concerns for welfare justice or rights Human centered reasoning 0 Nature has moral standing due to the import nature has in human lives Bio centric reasoning o Bio centric reasoning I Nature has moral standing independent of its value to humans Humans cause harm 5 1012 year Aliens cause harm 90 7 years old Questions involving animals Welfare Justice I Nature has rights Methods 0 35 minute interview 0 3 sections I Initial environmental profile I Moral obligatory reasoning I Animals rights Sectional I initia environmental profile 0 Value oriented question Section II moral obligatory criterion questions 0 Moralobligatoryjudgments 0 Prescripitivity 0 Rule contingency O Generalizability Methodological checks Coding manual development 0 Coding manual OOOOO Psych 101 Page 1 I Random selection of half of th interview data o Evaluation coding 0 Justification coding Results 0 83 stated that it was not alright to kill he gray would even if the law allowed it Discussion 0 Isomorphic reasoning I Humans and animals are 3939similar39 0 Trans orphic reasoning I Human and animals are different yet similar Psych 101 Page 2
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