Chapter 2- The Components of Matter
Chapter 2- The Components of Matter CHM 113
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dareen Abdelfattah on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 113 at Arizona State University taught by Sawyer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see General chemistry 1 in Biochemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
CHAPTER2 CHM 113 The Components of Matter Element the simplest type of substance with unique physical and chemical properties An element consists of only one type of atom It cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by physical or chemical means Molecule a structure that consists of two or more atoms that are chemically bound together and thus behaves as an independent unit Compound a substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined Mixture a group of two or more elements andor compounds that are physically intermingled Law of Mass Conservation The total mass of substances present does not change during a chemical reaction Law of Multiple Proportions If elements A and B react to form two compounds the different masses of B that combine with a fixed mass ofA can be expressed as a ratio of small whole numbers Dalton postulated that 1 All matter consists of atoms tiny indivisible particles of an element that cannot be created or destroyed Atoms of one element cannot be converted into atoms of another element Atoms of an element are identical in mass and other properties and are different from the atoms of any other element 4 Compounds result from the chemical combination of a specific ratio of atoms of different elements Mass number i p nquot Atomic nurnbm l D39 l A Atomic Z Symbol mass of electron mass charge x charge The atom is an electrically neutral spherical entity composed of a positively charged central nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons lsotopes are atoms of an element with the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons lsotopes have the same atomic number but a different mass number Covalent bonds form when elements share electrons which usually occurs between nonmetals Molecule the basic unit of a molecular element or covalent compound consisting of two or more atoms bonded by the sharing of electrons Most covalent substances consist of molecules lon a single atom or covalently bonded group of atoms that has an overall electrical charge There are no molecules in an ionic compound A polyatomic ion consists of two of more atoms covalently bonded together and has an overall charge A chemical formula consists of element symbols with numerical subscripts The chemical formula indicates the type and number of each atom present in the smallest unit of a substance bUpyllglll U IYKAJlaWHII EUUWUUH N1 Hglllb IUBBIVW NU IUplWUCWH UI UlalllWlIUH WIUDWI Uquot quot101 WIIUUII UUIIWHl 0 MCUI GW39HIII COUCdllUH MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS r 1A 1 Metals maingroup Metals transition 1 Metals inner transition Metalloids Nonmetals Atomic number Atomic symbol Atomic mass amu TRANSITION ELEMENTS 23 12 1B 78 BB 11 7 8 9 10 Parlod MAIN GROUP ELEMENTS A 6A 39 16 4A 39 14 3A 13 5A 15 I INNER TRANSITION ELEMENTS T 56 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 66 69 70 71 6 Lanthanides Co Pr Nd Pm 8m Eu Gd 39I39b Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu 1401 1409 1442 145 1504 1520 1573 1569 1625 1649 1673 1669 1731 1750 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 96 99 too 101 102 103 7 Actinides Th F u Np Pu Am cm Bk 01 E Fm Ild No Ll39 2320 231 2380 237 244 243 247 247 251 252 257 258 259 232 uopyngnt U Mcorawrtm ducauon All 9015 reserveo N0 reprooucuon O OISII39IDUUOI39I mmout DE poor wnnen consent 0 MciJfa Hl 2011031100 Attraction increa as charge increa decreew as srze 7A 17 8A Naming Binary Ionic Compounds 0 For all ionic compounds the name and formula lists the cation first and the anion second 39ln a binary ionic compound both the cation and the anion are monatomic 39The name of the cation is the same as the name of the metal Many metal names end in ium 39The anion is named by adding the suffix ide to the root of the nonmetal name Cations ions Charge Formula Name Charge Formula Name 1 H hydrogen 1 H hydride Li lithium F fluoride Na sodium Cl chloride K potassium B bromide Cs cesium l iodide Ag silver 2 Mg2 mag nesiu 2 02 oxide Ca2 m 82 sulfide Sr2 calcium Ba2 strontium Zn2 barium Cd2 zinc cadmium 3 Al3 aluminum 3 N3 nitride M ST KNOW THE COMMON MONATOMIC ONS KNOW THE BOLDED ONES ONLY ON THE TABLE THAT SHOWS SOME METALS THAT FORM MORE THAN ONE MONATOMIC ON Element Ion Formula Systematic Name Common Name Chromium Cr2 chromium chromous Cr3 chromium chromic Cobalt Co2 cobalt C03 cobalt Copper Cu copper cuprous Cu2 copper cupric Iron Fe2 iron ferrous Fe3 iron ferric Lead Pb2 eadll Pb4 eadV Mercury H922 mercury I mercurous H92 mercury ll mercuric Tin Sn2 tinll stannous Sn4 tinV stannic TABLE 110 Prefixes used in Naming Binary Compounds formed between Nonmetals Prefix Meaning Pvitillti 1 Di 2 Tri 3 Tetra 4 Ponta 3 iiexa 6 Hepta 7 Cta Nona 9 Deca 10 Naming Acids 0 Nonoxy acid solutions form when certain gaseous nonoxy compounds dissolve in water For example when gaseous hydrogen chloride HCI dissolves in water it forms a solution called hydrochloric acid Prefix hydro anion nonmetal root suffix ic the word acid hydro chor ic acid hydrochloric acid 0 Oxyacid names are similar to those of the oxyanions except for two suffix changes ate in the anion becomes ic in the acid ite in the anion becomes ous in the acid The oxoanion prefixes hypo and per are retained Thus BrO4 is perbromate and HBrO4 is perbromic acid IQ is iodite and HIO2 is iodous acid Naming Binary Compounds A binary covalent compound is typically formed by the combination of two nonmetals The element that is second is named using the root with the suffix ide Numerical prefixes indicate the number of atoms of each element present Mixtures A heterogeneous mixture has one or more visible boundaries between the components A homogeneous mixture has no visible boundaries because the components are mixed as individual atoms ions andor molecules A homogeneous mixture is also called a solution Solutions in which water is the solvent are called aqueous solutions Seperation Methods Filtration Separates components of a mixture based upon differences in particle size Filtration usually involves separating a precipitate from solution Crystallization Separation is based upon differences in solubility of the components in a mixture Distillation Separation is based upon differences in volatility Extraction Separation is based upon differences in solubility in different solvents major material Chromatography Separation is based upon differences in solubility in a solvent versus a stationary phase