Notes for Week 1 and 2
Notes for Week 1 and 2 HST 103 - 002
Popular in Introduction to Global History 1500-1848
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by HannahhWardd on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HST 103 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Eva M Mehl in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 226 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Global History 1500-1848 in History at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Introduction to Global History Lecture Notes Week 1 and 2 Interregional Conquests amp Exchanges 12001500 0 Marco Polo travels 12711295 Ibn Battuta travels 13251353 0 Marco Polo experiences China 0 Battuta traveled through Africa and some of Asia 0 Both traveled and made it home safely 0 Both needed wealth knowledge trades and protection Mongol Empire 12061368 0 Importance of transregional empires Helped with trades and security with Europe 0 Silk roads commerce was revived Important for Asia and Europe lm used for preserving foods medicine potions and perfumes Europe was used for wine silk and olive oil 0 Protection for overland caravan trading Travel in groups never alone 0 Problems Mongol Empire collapsed in 1368 1 Excessively large to control 2 Fragmented into four different areas 3 Nomadic lifeways The Ottoman Empire 12991922 Turkic nomadic group Central Asia 1453 Conquest of Constantinople better known as Istanbul Byzantine Empire Eastern Remains of Roman Empire Christian Empire 0 Italian merchants lost dominance in Eastern Mediterranean Long lasting empire F1eXible enough but also stern enough Safavid Empire 15001722 0 Shiism as the of cial religion Too strict religious diversity was not tolerated Mughal Empire 15261857 0 India eluded Mongol control 0 Turkish Prince Babur creates Mughal dynasty in 1526 Muslim Empires in Asia ca 1500 Military and religious rules Land based empires army Trade was over land A shared Islamic culture exchanges Indian Ocean System Maritime network centered on the Indian Ocean Due to monsoons trade was a positive outcome bc it allowed merchants to get a certain product Predominance after Mongol decline Muslim Traders The Americas 12001500 Diversity Ethnic religious and social Isolated empires from other continents Different resources but military conquests religious rituals long distance trade By 1500 overexpansion and internal tensions Key Points Expansion of empires spurred commercial cultural and human exchanges World was not yet wholly connected the Americas and Oceania remained mostly isolated Nothing seemed to indicate that Europe would lead worldwide exploration Repositioning of pieces in Central Asia Expansion of empire Ottoman Fall of Mongal Trade in Indian Ocean Crisis amp Recovery in Eurm 1300 s1500 s The Black Death 13201348 1320 when first began Yunan China 1348 when appeared in Europe Mode of transmission was the same Spread through trade routes Bubonic plague Bacillus infected rodents 60 mortality Recurrent outbreaks China After the Black Death Mongol rule overthrown in 1368 Ming Dynasty 13 68 1644 0 Return to traditional Chinese society and culture NeoConfucianism Centralization of authority Economic Recovery in China Promotion of manufacturers silk porcelain Indian Ocean Trade ZengHe Expeditions 14051433 7 sponsored voyages Ming Dynasty was paying for Goals To obtain tribute Trade Reputation for China 63 ships 28000 sailors soldiers and officials Expensive Expeditions Economically not paying off 1433 abrupt halt Shift to internal trade and defense of northern frontier Signi cance Statebuilding in Europe 14001500 1300s plague gtagricultural decline gtloss of revenue gtpeasant revolts Legitimacy of feudal order undermined Hundred Years War 13371453 Between states like France and England Lessons learned Armies Taxes Bureaucracy National Identity Political Unification in Spain No Spain but fragmented kingdoms 711 Muslim Invasion Conquest of Granada 1492 End of Reconquista reconquest Religious Unification expulsion of Jews and Muslims The moment of Christopher Columbus Portugal s Reconquista ended in 1249 Italy s Economic Transformation 1500 s Renaissance 1300 s1500 s man center of the world new attitude optimism Christian values urban and commercial aspirations Revival of urban life and trade Shift to banking funding of forays into the Atlantic Key Points o Preconditions Obstacles intermediaries in traditional trade routes to Asia China s retreat Crisis Recovery Renaissance Spain and Portugal leaders of European expansion Exploration Trade and Encounters 14701550 Spanish and Portuguese Exploration 0 Motives for exploration NeW routes to Asian and African The Technology of Exploration 0 Caravels hybrid vessel 0 Navigational Equipment 0 Sailing Techniques patterns of Winds and currents northsouth equator The Portuguese in Africa Goals Trade Sugar production in Atlantic Islands Madeira 1420 Azores 1430 Cape Verde 1460 Sao Tome and Principe 1480 Madeira Azores and Cape Verde weren t inhabitants so in order to produce sugar they needed workers 0 Slave trade since 1440 s Portuguese raised intensity The Portuguese in Indian Ocean Vasco de Gama 1498 Calicut Goal accomplished mastered route 0 Control of important parts Mozambique Mombasa Aden Muscat Hormuz Goa Malaka Macqo No territorial conquests Portuguese inserted themselves into commercial circuits Use of military force to Impose duties on traders taxes Introduce Portuguese goods Conclusions 0 Territorial models Atlantic Islands 0 Trading models Indian Ocean 0 Africa and Asia center of European trade until 1540 s
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