SUNY ESF EFB 320: Week 1
SUNY ESF EFB 320: Week 1 EFB 320
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Donnelly on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EFB 320 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Tom Horton in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 165 views. For similar materials see General Ecology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
September 1 2015 Introduction 0 First Earthrise viewed 071669 Biosphere II example attempt to recreate the Earth and its different systemsbiosphere 0 Located north of Tucson 0 Experiment had problems including low oxygen levels creating a dangerous environment for its inhabitants Evolution ltgt Ecology both can be related back to one another 0 quotNothing in Biology makes sense except the light of evolutionquot Theodosius Dobzhansky evolutionary biologist and Orthodox Christian 0 quotNothing in Evolution makes sense except in light of ecologyquot Holt 2005 The Old View 0 Earth is the center of the universe 0 Nature is pristine all of nature is not in uenced by humans 0 Nature is static all species have always existed on Earth evolution is not a factor 0 Balance of nature Earth is one giant organism that remains at homeostasis with feedback mechanisms 0 Species do not change evolution does not occur rejected due to Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace evidence Humans are not a part of nature we do not follow the same evolutionary processes as other organisms The Current View Nature is NOT static Variation in nature is how we progress All species evolve some evolve fast some evolve slow Humans ARE involved in nature we are a species we hybridize Humans have an in uence over EVERYTHING can nd evidence of humans in every environment we are invasive De nitions Naturalist someone like Charles Darwin who does extensive eld research to obtain a greater understanding of nature Environmentalist someone who has a great concern for nature that can have a mentality of quotEarth rstquot and be linked with extremist views Ecologist a more hard science approach to studying nature that involves statistics and collecting data in experiments 0 Spatial scale vs temporal scale we know the most about smaller organisms environmental issues etc but the relevance is greater in larger organisms environmental issues etc Things that occur at a global levelscale are harder to understand or study Hypothesis testing 0 Carl Popper 1968 suggested that ecology that does not explicitly test a hypothesis does not advance our knowledge of science 0 In this type of testing it is important to avoid wrong conclusions from bias of the observer or poorly made observations Being an ecologist Ecologists use the scienti c method Observepredict hypothesis test reject accept remaining hypothesis Achieving good data 0 Use controls when possible Replicate your tests more than 3 times sample more ponds not different locations at the same pond Use random sampling 0 Use a large sample size 1030 samples Manipulate the system and observe ex add water to a soil to see how it reacts Scale sampling to the system Fig 114 Manipulation experiment Null hypothesis differences in Douglas r survival in Arctostaphylos and Adenostoma patches is no greater than expected by chance 0 Dr Horton planted Douglas r seeds in both areas of vegetation He then recorded germination survival 0 Alternative hypothesis conditions in Arctostaphylos patches are better than Adenostoma for Douglas r establishment o How could they differ How much water they take up shade cover micro invertebrates competition different pH soils soil composition nutrients available endothermic vs ectothermic mycorrhizae This was a descriptive study 0 Study ended with 2 explanations of water taken up and symbiotic fungi Take home message Ecology is a scienti c endeavor o Helps to inform work for conservationsustainabiIitypreservationrestoration effortsgtspanning scales from minute to global Ecological concepts and terms are subjective Ecological systems are constantly evolving species populations and ecosystems Humans are a part of the global system Microbes are poorly studied but have a much larger role than most of us aknowledge September 3 2015 Descriptive statistics 0 Mean median mode 0 Measures of spread range variance variation around the mean standard deviation standard error of mean Central Tendency Mean average x bar gtsum of individual values divided by number of data sum of xin In a normal distribution mean median and mode values will be close to one another Distributions can be quotskewedquot either left higher values concentrated on the right side or right higher values concentrated on the left side Spread Rangehighest valuelowest value Standard deviation variation of each point Variance s2 0 Standard error of mean ssqrtn Null hypothesis Allows a test of statistical differences between groups 0 Ex The difference between samples from Group A and Group B is no greater than expected by chance alone 0 Ex Alternative hypothesis Students that are engaged in class will earn a better grade than those who are not Null hypothesis The difference in nal grade of those that were engaged in the class and those that were not is no greater than expected by chance Testing the null Student39s ttest parametric test that uses the parameters mean standard deviation 0 Compares data from the sample groups stated in the null hypothesis mathematically in the same equation 0 Chi square nonparametric and uses frequency data Pvalue calculated by a computer and reported as calculated from data p032 p53 0 Sometimes superimposed on the gure plt05 plt01 plt001 0 Round up when p0345964 to plt05 Correlation vs Causation Just because 2 things look related does not mean one causes the other 0 Ex Why is it so hot this summer Because the number of pirates is decreasinggtgtjust because the number of pirates is decreasing at the same time that temperature is increasing does not mean they are related Pitfalls of hypothesis testing 0 Many hypotheses cannot be tested directly by experimental methods because 0 True replication is impossible volcanic eruptions re 0 The temporal or spatial scale is too large 0 Causal factors cannot be tested 0 Solutions create microcosms gtgtuse soil from the locations 0 Mathematical modelsgtgtpredatorprey interactions 0 Disease spread re regimes global climate change Physical world Carbon source of energy for life form on this planet 0 Other important elements H C N O Si P S and Na Mg K Ca and Fe Ca Ni Cu Zn Al Many inorganic nutrients are dissolved in H20 Fresh H20 Ca2 HCO3 504 2 Salt water Ca2 Na Cl Mg2 504 2 Oceanic water saturated with respect to Ca2 but continue to accumulate Na Thermal vents emitting sulfur compounds H hydrogen atoms 0 Extremely reactive Dissolve minerals in rocks Harmful for most life at high concentration 0 OH hydroxyl ions also harmful at high concentration 0 C and O are intimately involved in energy transformations quotthere39s energy in the chemical bondsquot 0 Energy transformations proceeded by oxidation and reduction involving C as well as N S Fe Autotrophs and heterotrophs Autotroph energy from inorganic sources 0 Chemoautotrophs obtain energy from chemical bondsgtgtenergy from oxidation of inorganic compounds such as H25 and NH4 o Photoautotrophs obtain energy from light Heterotroph energy consuming organic biological sources ex Indian pipe Bacteria nitrogen xing nodules 0 Carbon xing chloroplast 0 Energy converting mitochondria 0 Fig 32 PAR photosynthetic active radiation
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