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Matrx Algbra,Probability&Stats

by: Edgar Jacobi

Matrx Algbra,Probability&Stats MATH 111

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Date Created: 09/07/15
Hindawi Publishing Corporation EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems Volume 2006 Article ID 56320 Pages 1719 DOI lot I I SSES200656320 An Overview of Recon gurable Hardware in Embedded Systems Philip Garcia Katherine Compton Michael Schulte Emily Blem and Wenyin Fu Department ofElectrical and Computer Engineering University ofWisconsinrMadison WI 537067169 USA Received 5 January 2006 Revised 7 June 2006 Accepted 19 June 2006 Over the past few years the realm of embedded systems has expanded to include a wide variety of products ranging from digital cameras to sensor networks to medical imaging systems Consequently engineers strive to create ever smaller and faster products many of which have stringent power requirements Coupled with increasing pressure to decrease costs and timeetoemarket the design constraints of embedded systems pose a serious challenge to embedded systems designers Recon gurable hardware can provide a exible and ef cient platform for satisfying the area performance cost and power requirements of many embedded systems This article presents an overview of recon gurable computing in embedded systems in terms of bene ts it can provide how it has already been used design issues and hurdles that have slowed its adoption Copyright 2006 Philip Garcia et al This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original work is properly cited 1 WHY USE RECONFIGURABLE HARDWARE IN EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Recon gurable hardware RH provides a exible medium to implement hardware circuits The RH resources are con gurable and generally recon gurable postefabrication ale lowing a singleebase hardware design to implement a Va riety of circuits The hardware itself is composed of a set of logic and routing resources controlled by con guration memory This memory is frequently implemented as SRAM cells though ash RAM and other technologies are also pos sible Some FPGAs employ antiefuses as a con guration medium 1 2 However because these devices are essen tially oneetime programmable they are not recon gurable and are thus not the focus of this article These memory cells and their stored values in particular affect the functionality of both routing and logic In the routing architecture a cell may control whether or not two wires are electrically con nected or provide a multiplexer select input In logic the cell may control the function of an ALU or implement logic equations in the form of a lookup table LUT which is the most common logic resource in eldeprogrammable gate are rays FPGAs Essentially circuits are decomposed into small subfunce tions implemented in LUTs or other logic resources in the RH and the routing resources are con gured to electrically connect the logic resources to match the structure of the tar get circuit Writing a new set of values into the con guration memory recon gures the hardware to implement a different circuit Complex RH designs may also conmin communicae tion structures and processor cores that may or may not be recon gurable Embedded systems often have stringent performance and power requirements leading designers to incorporate specialepurpose hardware into their designs Hardware based implementations avoid the instruction fetchdecode execute overhead of traditional software execution and use resources spatially to increase parallelism In many embed ded applications such as multimedia encryption wireless communication and others highly repetitive parallel come putations wellesuited to hardware implementation represent a signi cant fraction of the overall computation required by the system 3 4 Unfortunately applicationespeci c integrated circuit ASIC implementation is not feasible or desirable for all cire cuits One key problem is that the nonerecurring engineering costs NREs of ASICs have been increasing dramatically A mask set for an ASIC in the 90 nm process cost about 1M 5 Previously using FPGAs as ASIC substitutes was only costeeffective in lowevolume applications FPGAs have high perfunit costs which are essentially an amortization of the FPGA NREs themselves over all customers for those chips However as ASIC NREs rise and FPGAs sell in higher vole umes the ASIC NREs begin to outweigh the perfunit cost of FPGAs for higherevolume applications shifting the bale ance towards FP GAs 6 Especially considering the exibility Philip Garcia et al RH can also perform compumtions in a capacity be yond simple ASIC replacement By recon guring the hard ware at runtime one or more RH structure can be reused for many different computations over time Figure 1 10 207 22 Since many embedded systems must be both high performance and lowepower yet may also have size or ex ibility constraints preventing xedeASIC implementation RH provides a valuable implementation method Further more computational cores used in many applications are available as predesigned intellectual property 1P simplify ing the design process Softwarede ned radio Telecommunications industries employ consmntly evolving wireless technologies Companies under signi cant pressure to deliver products before their competitors sometimes even release products before standards are nalized Software de ned radios SDR are programmable to implement a va riety of wireless protocols potentially even those not yet in troduced 28735 Custom hardware allows many embed ded systems to meet stringent power and performance re quirements particularly for small batteryepowered mobile devices but in this case the system must also be extremely exible A system with RH can implement parallel DSP opere ations with a higher degree of both performance and power ef ciency than a softwareeonly system plus an RH system can be recon gured for different protocols as needed Medical imaging Recently several RHebased systems and algorithms have been proposed for medical imaging 36 37 The ECAT HRRT PET scanner from CTI PET Systems Inc 36 def tects abnormalities in organ systems helping to nd cane cerous tumors and assisting in monitoring ongoing patient treatment This system can dynamically recon gure itself for setup detection and equipment selfediagnosis modes One project implementing a parallelebeam backprojection for medical computer tomography on RH was able to ace celerate the application 100x over a 1 GHz Pentium by ime plementing a custom design in RH and performing a thore ough biteprecision analysis 37 This system also scales well with additional hardware 4x more hardware leads to 4x bet ter performance Networking RH is commonly used in network processors 38742 which have high performance demands and inherently parallel workloads Furthermore networks can use many different routing protocols and different system administrators may have varying needs at different times RH has been used in network devices to run msks such as packet classi cation 38 dynamic routing protocols 39 40 and intrusion de tection systems 42 among others RH can also accommoe date emerging network protocols through recon guration Encryption Many encryption algorithms are wellesuited to hardware ime plementation Operations are generally highly parallel and repetitive with the same series of operations performed on each piece of data Furthermore these algorithms fre quently use exclusiveeor operations which do not require the area and delay overhead of a complete ALU As en cryption research continues to evolve RH can be recon ge ured to implement new standards For these reasons encrype tion algorithms are a popular choice for RH implemenmtion 9 43 44 Scienti c data acquisition and analysis Scienti c dataeacquisition systems receive and preprocess vast quantities of dam before archiving or sending the data off for further processing These systems may be remote or inace cessible operating on battery or solar power yet requiring extremely high performance to handle the required volume of data These systems are increasingly using RH to provide this performance in a exible medium that can be changed as new approaches to data aggregation and preprocessing are researched RH has been used in systems proposed or created for weather radar 45 seismic exploration 46 and adap tive cameras for solar study 47 RH is also used to compress the massive volume of data prior to transmission 48 Spacecraft RH s lowevolume costeffectiveness and hardware exibile ity make it particularly applicable to space applications where it has been used for several missions including Mars Path nder and Surveyor 49 50 These devices can be re con gured to add functionality for updated mission objece tives or x design errors without requiring a space mis sion for repair Spacecraft require special radiationehardened devices that are not produced in the same volume due to higher cost and lower demand as standard microchips leading designers to incorporate the functionality of many different discrete components into one or a few radiation hardened FPGAs Faultetolerance issues are discussed in more depth in Section 42 More experimenml research ex amines the use of genetic algorithms to design evolvable RH that can automatically adapt to needed msks 51 Robotics Robotic control systems often consist of a mix of hardware and software solutions to meet strict size and power de mands One military system prototype uses RH to control unmanned aerial vehicles 46 These vehicles cannot sup port large payloads and must execute heavyeduty image pro cessing algorithms Other research focuses more generally on developing algorithms and hardware cores for robotic con trol and vision 46 52 53 An overview of RH in robotic applications appears in 53 EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems Automotive The automotive industry has embraced RH because it can implement the functionality of many different parts reduce ing repair inventories Its programmable nature also simplii es product recalls Furthermore FPGAs are wellisuited to the increasingly complex informational and enterminment systems in newer automobiles 54 55 IP companies such as Drivven provide cores for many engine control systems such as fuel injection required by modern automobiles 56 which can be implemented in one of several FPGAs rated for automotive use Image and video Digiml cameras often need to implement many different imageiprocessing operations that must operate quickly with out consuming much battery power With RH the hardware can be recon gured to implement whichever operation is needed 57 58 For systems requiring secure image trans mission the RH can also be recon gured to perform encrypi tion and network interfaces 57 Some systems can also be con gured to accelerate image display 57 58 video play back 35 59 and 5D rendering 59761 3 WHAT DO THESE SYSTEMS LOOK LIKEl This section discusses the RH design and systemilevel inte7 gration examining different design aspects and how they re late to embedded systems design These topics are covered more generally in several FPGA and recon gurable compute ing survey articles 10 1772 Finally the end of this section presents several speci c embedded systems with RH 31 Recon gurable logic Although commercial RH tends to contain LUTibased or sumiofeproducts compute structures these are not neces7 sarily ideal for many embedded systems Each con guration point in these structures contributes some level of area def lay and power overhead and signi cant exibility of these structures may not be required if computations are limited to a particular domain In these cases a more specialized recon gurable fabric can provide the necessary level of exibility with lower overhead than a neigrained bitilevel logic struc7 ture 62766 However some applications including ceri min encryption algorithms cyclic redundancy check Reed Solomon encodersdecoders and convolution encoders do require bitilevel manipulations A number of recon gurable architectures combine ne and coarseigrained compute structures to accommodate both computation styles 677 69 Most frequently this involves embedding coarseegrained structures such as multipliers and memory blocks into a conventional neigrained fabric 70 or designing the ne grained fabric speci cally to support coarseigrained compui mtions 63 71 To implement a needed circuit in RH a CAD ow trans forms its descriptions into an RH con guration First the circuit is synthesized converting the circuit schematic or hardware design language HDL description into a struc7 tural circuit netlist Then a technology mapper further def composes that netlist into components matching the capai bilities of the RH s basic blocks LUTs ALUs etc Next the placer determines which netlist components should be as signed to which physical hardware blocks and a router def cides how to best use the RH s routing fabric to connect those blocks to form the needed circuit Finally the CAD ow def termines the speci c binary values to load into the con gura7 tion bits for the determined implemenmtion More details on generic CAD issues for RH can be found elsewhere 21 72 Like xed hardware design the CAD ow can mrget diff ferent areadelaypower tradeoffs through resource selection resource sharing pipelining loop unrolling wordlength ope timization precision estimation and others 73781 CAD issues particularly applicable to embedded systems however include heterogenous CAD topics 82784 CAD tools for nonsquare RH designs incorporated into SoCs 25 power aware CAD 8491 discussed further in Section 41 and fast CAD algorithms 92797 Fast CAD algorithms can move con gurations to new locations on RH at runitime or make small modi cations to circuits based on runitime conditions to increase ef ciency 98 99 based on available resources 75 or potentially to provide faultitolerance 32 Systemlevel integration Embedded systems typically couple a traditional procesi sor the host with custom hardware speci cally to hani dle computeiintensive highlyeparallel sections of application code 100 The processor controls the hardware and exei cutes the parts of applications not wellisuited to hardware Recon gurable computing systems also frequently couple RH with a processor for the same reasons as well as to control the con guration processor ofthe RH 10 20722 101 RH processor coupling styles can be divided into three basic cat egories RH as a functional unit on the processor dam path RH as a coprocessor and RH as an attached processor in a heterogeneous multiprocessor system The coupling meth7 ods are best differentiated by how and how often the RH and host processorss interact Recon gurable functional units RFUs are very tightly coupled with a host processor Input and output dam are generally read from and written to the processor s register le 66 71 1027106 These units essentially provide new instructions to an otherwise xed instruction set architec7 ture ISA In some cases the processor itself may be imple7 mented on recon gurable logic allowing signi cant procesi sor customization 106 107 In Section 62 we will examine some of the design tools that help simplify the process of crei ating these customAISA processors If the circuits on the RH can operate for some time in dependently of the host processor a coprocessor or even heti erogeneous multiprocessor coupling may be more appropri7 ate 3 4 1087112 A coprocessor may or may not share the data cache of the host processor but generally shares the main memory Figure 1 shows an example of a recon ge urable coprocessor that has its own path to a shared memory Philip Garcia et al In dynamically recon gurable systems the RTOS must mke into account not only ask types deadlines and deadline types but also RHtask resources and task con guration time 1357137 If multiple msks reside on the RH simultaneously the RTOS must also consider their locations in the hardware Generally a con guration is tied to speci c resources at spe7 ci c locations on RH However to facilimte runitime recon guration partially recon gurable architectures with relocai tion allow the locations of the asks to be moved to accomi modate other tasks 137 Issues related to con guration are chitectures and recon guration management are discussed in Section 5 An RTOS may use preemptive scheduling of tasks onto RH 138 For example a softideadline task present on the RH may be removed to make room for a hardideadline task These scheduling algorithms offer tradeoffs in terms of over all system utilization and the toml number of asks that can be effectively scheduled The OVERSOC project 135 invesi tigates the interaction between embedded RTOSs and recon gurable SoC platforms and proposes a variety of methods to model recon gurable fabrics and techniques for schedule ing realitime tasks on recon gurable SoC platforms Although using RH to create a realitime system with cusi tomized hardware instructions can improve task completion ratios most tools used to design these instructions 139 140 focus on reducing average application execution time when in fact worsticase time is generally more impormnt for real time operation One custom instruction generator tool de signed speci cally for realitime systems instead selects sub graphs for custom instruction implemenmtion to minimize worsticase task execution time 141 Topics related to cusi tom instruction generation for nonirealitime systems are discussed in more depth in Section 62 44 Design security Highiquality hardware cores for embedded systems are ex tremely useful to embedded designers speeding the develop ment process However these cores are also timeiconsuming and expensive to develop and verify Furthermore since the hardware designs frequently reside in a con guration bit stream loaded at startup or at runtime into the RH designs can be intercepted and reverseiengineered Therefore design security of this intellectual property IP is critical to core def velopers leading to encryption of con guration bitstreams 142 143 Both Altera and Xilinx have implemented con g7 uration encryption in their commercial products 144 145 5 WHAT ABOUT CONFIGURATION OVERHEAD Recon guring hardware at runtime allows a greater number of computations to be accelerated in hardware than could be otherwise but introduces con guration overhead as the con guration SRAM must be loaded with new values for each recon guration For separate FPGA chips this process can mke on the order of milliseconds 136 possibly overshadi owing the bene ts of hardware compumtion This section brie y presents both hardware and softwareirelated aspects of managing the con guration overhead A straightforward strategy to reduce con guration over head is to reduce the amount of data transferred The struc7 ture of the logicrouting itself has an effect neigrained de vices provide great exibility through a very large number of con guration points Coarseigrained architectures by na ture require fewer con guration bits because fewer choices are available The Stretch S5 embedded processor 66 for example is composed of 47bit ALU structures This architec7 ture can be con gured in less than 100 microseconds if the con guration dam is located in the onichip cache Partiallyirecon gurable RH can be selectively pro grammed 68 71 110 111 114 146 instead of forcing the entire device to be recon gured for any change a common requirement However to be truly effective for runitime recon gurable computing the devices must also relocate and defragment con gurations to avoid positioning con icts within the hardware and fragmenmtion of usable resources 137 1477149 mainmining intracon guration communi7 cation and connections to the outside of the RH A page based architecture is an alternate form of partially recon gi L 39 that imnli 39 39 problems In a pageibased design identical tiles of recon gurable re sources are connected by a communication bus and con gi urations occupy some number of complete pages 1507152 Pipeline recon gurable architectures have a similar quality as each con guration smge may be assigned to any phys7 ical pipeline unit 111 These types of organizations can also be imposed on existing FPGA architectures by dedii cating part of the hardware to the required communication infrastructure 150 153 that simpli es crossicon guration communication Furthermore page or tileibased architeci tures would be especially useful in a system also require ing faultitolerance as the same division used for scheduling could be used for the STARS faultidetection approach dis cussed in Section 42 and faulty pages could be avoided Con guration dam can also be compressed 154 par ticularly useful when the RH and the con guration memory are on separate chips When possible onichip con guration memory or a con guration cache can dramatically decrease con guration times 66 155 due to shorter connections and wider communication paths Finally multiple con gurations can be stored within the RH at the con guration points in a multicontexted device 156 157 These devices have several multiplexed planes of con guration information Swapping between the loaded con gurations involves simply changing which con guration plane is addressed A key bene t of this approach is backgroundiloading of a con guration while an other is active Software techniques such as prefetching 158 or scheduling can also reduce con guration overhead by pre dicting needed con gurations and loading them in advance as well as retaining con gurations in a partially recon gi urable device that may be needed again in the near future If the system operation is wellide ned and known in advance temporal partitioning and smtic scheduling may be suf 7 cient 159 160 For other systems the simplest approach is 10 EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems A W Designers can manually HWSW partition applications E B 7 using a combination of pro ling and intuition and develop g C H W the components separately for each resource 171 Alter W Tim e FIGURE 7 Different implementations fast but large small but slower or software for three kernels A B and C are shown over time Shaded areas show when kernels are not needed In this exam ple one fast or two small kernels can t in RH simultaneously to load con gurations as they are needed removing one or more con gurations from the RH if necessary to free suf 7 cient resources 66 155 161 162 In more complex systems compiler or useriinserted die rectives can be used to preload the con gurations in or der to minimize con guration overhead 155 or the con guration schedule can be determined during application compilation 163 dynamically at runtime 137 153 16 171 or a combination ofthe two 152 Although dynamic scheduling requires some overhead to compute the schedule this is essential if a variety of applications will execute cone currently on the hardware breaking the static predicmbility of the nextineeded con guration Dynamic scheduling also raises the possibility of runtime binding of resources to ei7 ther the recon gurable logic or the host processor 1687170 and of choosing between different versions of the compui mtion created in advance or dynamically 75 99 based on areaspeedpower tradeoffs 153 165 170 172 as shown in Figure 7 This could allow an embedded device to run much faster when plugged in and save power when operate ing on batteries To facilimte this scheduling the RH could be contextiswitched saving the current state before load ing a new one 66 173 174 ossibly allowing preemptive scheduling ofthe resources 137 6 WHAT TOOLS AID THE RECONFIGURABLE EMBEDDED DESIGNER The design of recon gurable embedded systems or applica7 tions for them is frequently a complex process Fortunately tools can assist the designer in this process as described in this section 6 1 Hardwaresoftvvare codesign The recon gurable computing hardware software HW SW codesign problem is similar to general HWSW codesign and in many cases FPGAs are used to demonstrate tech niques even if they do not leverage runitime recon guration 24 175 176 Design patterns 77 in many cases can ape ply equally well to general hardware design and hardware design for recon gurable computing This section primar7 ily focuses on areas of codesign speci c to embedded recon gurable computing More information on general HWSW codesign can be found elsewhere 1777180 nately applications can be speci ed in a more uni ed form generally using a highilevel language HLL such as C or Java 66 175 1817183 but in many cases these compilers require code annomtions to specify hardwareispeci c infor7 mation custom bitwidths parallelism etc or only operate on a restricted subset of the language Some compilers per mit parallelism to be speci ed at the task level using threads 184 185 However compiling hardware from a software style description can be dif cult or inef cient due to the see quential nature of software and the spatial nature of hard ware 1867188 Some efforts have therefore focused on new ways to express computations that are more agnostic to nal implementation in hardware or software expressing instead the data ow of the application 151 1897191 One aspect of HWSW codesign unique to RH is temporal partitioning 160 171 192 193 the process ofbreaking up a single ciri cuit or a series of compumtions into a set of con gurations swapped in and out ofthe RH over time Some systems also allow these con gurations to be dynamically placed and con nected to the other components on RH 162 194 Finally designing an application for an embedded system with RH has the advanmge that veri cation tools can use the RH in conjunction with software simulation and debugging to accelerate the veri cation process 66 1957198 If design errors are found the RH can be recon gured with a xed design because con guration is not a permanent process 62 Processor ISA customization Backwardsicompatibility is generally far less critical to em bedded systems than to generalipurpose computers This ale lows embedded systems designers the freedom to adapt prof cessors ISAs to changing needs and technologies and makes custom compilers for such ISAs less of a burden as embedded applications are frequently developed by the same company that develops the hardware or one of its partners RH ale lows the designers to use a single chip design to implement dramatically different ISAs by reprogramming the RH with different functionalities Multiple design tools are available to automate this process 66 139 140 199 200 These tools generally examine precompiled binary instruction streams and generate data ow graphs as candidates for custom in structions Another approach is to create a compileetime list of potential con gurations and their associated binary in struction graph and at run time detect those graphs in the instruction stream replacing them with the appropriate RH operations 140 The SPREE tool 200 is a manualiassist tool that allows a designer to explore processor tradeoffs such as pipeline depth software versus hardware implemenmtion of compo nents such as multiplication and division and other design features The tool also removes unused instructions to save area Tool chains from Altera and Xilinx focus on SoPC plat form design with parameterizable softicore processors mane ually tuned to the respective FPGA architectures and core Philip Garcia et al 11 generators to create other common compumtional structures needed on SoPC designs Developers using Stretch procese sors write applications in C pro le them and choose can didate functions for RH to im lement in a C variant de signed to specify hardware 66 120 Finally for designers wanting to create a xedesilicon custom processor with a re con gurable functional unit instead of a softecore processor implemented on an FPGA customizable processors such as Xtensa 201 provide a base processor design and a tooleset for customization Xtensa is the base of Stretch Inc commere cially available recon gurable embedded processors 66 63 Automated RH design Finally automatic design tools can aid in the creation of the RH itself 2027204 The Totem project focuses on the creation of automatic design tools to create coarseegrained domainespeci c RH for SoCs based on the intended applica tions 205 Other work investigates the use of synthesizable FPGA structures either speci cally for embedding in SoCs 23 202 or tileebased FPGA layout generators usable eie ther in SoCs or as standealone architectures 204 This latter work created architectures in 34 personeweeks instead of 50 personeyears with only a 36 area penalty 7 WHAT DOES THE FUTURE HOLDl Recon gurable hardware faces a number of challenges if it is to become commonplace in embedded systems First there is a Catch722 in that because recon gurable compute ing is not a common technique in commercial hardware it is not yet something that many embedded designers will know to consider This problem is gradually being overcome with the introduction of recon gurable computing in cermin embedded areas such as network routers highede nition video servers automobiles wireless base stations and medie cal imaging systems Furthermore a greater number of peoe ple are exposed to recon gurable hardware as more univere sities include courses and laboratories using FPGAs Second the strict power limitations of many embedded systems high lights the power inef ciency of LUTebased recon gurable hardware compared to ASIC designs Because power con cerns are intensifying in all areas of computing research will increasingly focus on power ef ciency Efforts are already uni erway with researchers studying a variety of architectural and CAD techniques to improve power dissipation in recon gurable hardware and computing Third the exibility of recon gurable hardware that permits the fault tolerance bene e ts discussed in this article also increases the hardware s suse ceptibility to faults due to the extra area introduced to sup port recon gurability and the use of SRAMebased con gue ration bits Innovative recon gurable architectures circuit level design methodologies and techniques for detecting and avoiding faults are needed to further improve the fault tolere ance of recon gurable hardware There are also a number of softwareerelated issues to con sider Compiler support while improving is not yet at the level required for widespread adoption of embedded recon gurable computing In most cases the computations to be implemented in software and the compumtions to be imple mented in hardware must be speci ed separately in different languages and compiled with different toolsets While some systems and tool suites do offer a more uni ed ow these are currently less common Continued research in effective hardwareesoftware codesign is essential to improve the ease of application design for embedded recon gurable systems Furthermore even though the concept of OS support of ref con gurable hardware was proposed nearly a decade ago this area remains open These challenges are worth addressing as recon gurable hardware has many advanmges for embedded systems Ime plementing computeeintensive applications partially or com pletely in hardware can dramatically improve system perfore J A power 39 The ex ibility of the hardware allows a single structure to act as an accelerator for a variety of calculations saving the area that discrete specialized structures would otherwise require and allowing new computations to be implemented on the hard ware after fabrication That exibility can also be used to re duce the design and production cost of embedded system components as one physical design can be reused for mule tiple different tasks amortizing NREs Finally recon gurae bility provides new opportunities for faultetolerance since a design implemented in the recon gurable hardware can be con gured to avoid faulty areas of that hardware In some cases the recon gurable hardware can even be con gured to implement the functionality of a faulty component else where in the system For all of these reasons recon gurable 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processors in Proceed ings ofACMSIGDA 11th International Symposium on Field Programmable GateArrays FPGA 03 pp 21729 Monterey Calif USA February 2003 12 G K Rauwerda G I M Smit and P M Heysters lme A 39 of lquot t d d wireless 39 39 re ceivers in aheterogeneous recon gurable systemeonechip in Proceedings ofthe 16th ProRISC Workshop pp 4217427 Velde hoven The Netherlands November 2005 13 l Kuon and I Rose Measuring the gap between FPGAs and ASle in Proceedings of the ACMSIGDA 14th International Symposium on FieldrProgrammable Gate Arrays FPGA 06 pp 21730 Monterey Calif USA February 2006 14 P A Laplante Computing requirements for selfrrepairing space systems ournal ofAerospace Computing Information and Communication vol 2 no 3 pp 1547169 2005 15 T Branca How to Add Features and Fix Bugs 7 Remotely Here s What You Need to Consider When Designing a Xilinx Online Application Xilinx 2001 16 C F Da Silva and A M Tokarnia RECASTER synthesis of faultetolerant embedded systems based on 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tended genetic algorithm for codesign optimization of DSP systems in FPGAs in Proceedings of IEEE International Con ference on FieldiProgram mable Technology FPT 04 pp 2917294 Brisbane Australia December 2004 177 S Kumar I H Aylor B W Iohnson and W A Wulf The Codesign of Embedded Systems A Uni ed HardwareSoftware Representation Springer New York NY USA 1995 M Chiodo P Giusto A Iurecska H C Hsieh A SangiovannirVincentelli L Lava no Hardware software codesign of embedded systems IEEE Micro vol 14 no 4 pp 26736 1994 R Ernst Codesign of embedded systems status and trends IEEE Design and Test of Computers vol 15 no 2 pp 45754 1998 176 l E l 3 180 W Wolf A decade of hardwaresoftware codesign IEEE Computer vol 36 no 4 pp 38743 2003 M Gokhale I M Stone I Arnold and M Kalinowski Streamioriented FPGA computing in the StreamsiC high level language in Proceedings of the Annual IEEE Symposium on FieldrProgrammable Custom ComputingMachines FCCM 00 Napa Valley Calif USA April 2000 182 Synopsys lnc CoCentric System C Compiler Synopsys Mountain View Calif USA 2000 183 M Weinhardt and W Luk Pipeline vectorization IEEE Transactions on ComputeriAided Design ofIntegrated Circuits and Systems vol 20 no 2 pp 2347248 2001 184 D Nielaaus and D Andrews Using the multiithreaded computation model as a unifying framework for hardware so ware coidesi and implementation in Proceedings of the 9th International Workshop on Objectioriented Reaerime Dependable Systems WORDS 03 p 317 Capri Italy Octoi ber 2003 185 B Swahn and S Hassoun Hardware scheduling for dynamic adaptability using external o ling and hardware thread ing in Proceedings of IEEEACM International Conference on ComputeriAided Design ICCAD 03 pp 58764 San Iose Calif USA November 2003 on EURASIP JOURNAL ON EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Special Issue on Embedded Systems for Intelligent Vehicles Call for Papers The transport sector is seeking new technology to improve safety driver comfort and ef cient use of infrastructures Computer vision range sensors adaptive control and net working among the others target problems like traf c ow control pedestrian protection laneedeparture monitoring smart parking facilities and driver assismnce in general Em bedded systems are sought after to implement technologie cally advanced solutions in smart vehicles The automotive industry addresses mass markets in which embedded systems have a dramatic impact on the nal consumer market price From the point of view of academic research intelligent vee hicles represent a complete and suf ciently complex bench mark for integrating sensors actuators and control to test prototypes of autonomous systems Additionally intelligent vehicles are a challenging environment with a direct applicae tive aspect for research on autonomous systems intended as systems reacting in a closed loop with the environment Topics of interest include smart sensors sensor fusion em bedded vehicle controls autonomous vehicles centralized and local traf c control GSM and ad hoc networking Blue tooth and IEEE 802154 technologies driverecomputer in terface signal processing for embedded environments aue tonomous components and intelligent control This special issue focuses on new results of research work in the eld of embedded systems for intelligent vehicles Seve eral main keywords are 0 Intelligent vehicles Autonomous vehicles 0 Embedded systems versus autonomous systems a Computer vision in embedded systems Laserradar range sensors 0 Multiple sensor embedded architectures Sensor networks for automotive applications a Vehicle networking Obsmcle detection and tracking GPSebased navigation 0 Design methodologies FPGA for embedded systems with application to intele ligent vehicles Authors should follow the EURASIP ES manuscript format described at httpwwwhindawicomjournalSesl r t L 1 11bmitan l r oftheir complete manuscript through the EURASIP ES manuscript tracking system at httpwwwhindawicommts according to the following timetable Manuscript Due October 15 2006 Acceptance Noti cation February 15 2007 May 15 2007 Final Manuscript Due Publication Date 3rd Quarter 2007 GUEST EDITORS Samir Bouaziz Institut d Electronique Fondamenmle Universite PariseSud XI Bat 220 91405 Orsay CedeX France bsiefu7psudfr Paolo Lombardi Institute for the Protection and Security of the Citizen European Commission U Joint Research Centre TP210 Via Fermi1 21020 Ispra Imly paololombardijrcit Roger Reynaud Institut d Electronique Fondamentale Universite PariseSud XI Bat 220 91405 Orsay CedeX France rogerreynaudiefuepsudfr Gunasekaran S Seetharaman Department ofElectrical and Computer Engineering Air Force Institute 0 Technology Dayton OH 45433 USA gunaieeeorg Hindawi Publishing Corporation h ttpmmch in duniron VLSI DESIGN Special Issue on NetworksonC hip Call for Papers Single chip and embedded x r m complex and heterogeneous Such systemseonechip SoCs imply the seamless integration of numerous IP cores per forming different functions and operating at different clock frequencies On one hand this integration process requires standard interface sockets to allow for design reuse of IP components across multiple platforms On the other hand it is causing the scalability limitations of stateeofetheeart SoC busses to emerge Networkseonechip NoCs are generally viewed as the ule timate solution for the design of modular and scalable com munication architectures and provide inherent support to the integration of heterogeneous cores through the smne dardization of the network boundary NoC architectures loosen the delay bottleneck in signal propagation across deep isubmicron interconnects and are likely to improve de sign predicmbility although their area and power overheads still remain critical issues to be addressed by research This special issue is dedicated to the aspects of architecture and design methodology of onechip interconnection systems and their applications Topics of interest include but are not limited to 1 1 a Design ows for NoCs and MPesoC platforms 0 Modeling simulation and test of NoC systems Onechip network monitoring and management Architectures and topologies Performance and tradeeoff analysis 0 Mapping and scheduling applicationscommunication Energy ef ciency and power management 0 Fault tolerance and reliability issues 0 Routing and addressing issues Q08 in NoC systems Recon gurability issues 0 Industrial case studies of 80C designs using the NoC paradigm Authors are encouraged to submit highequality research contributions that will not require major revisions Ach r h quotH follow the VLSI Design manuscriptformat at httpwwwhindawicoInGetournalastjournalVISI r quot L L 1 1bmitan l t 39 r oftheir complete manuscript through the VLSI Design manuscript tracking system at httpwwwhindawicornmts according to the following timetable Manuscript Due October 15 2006 Acceptance Noti cation December 15 2006 Final Manuscript Due March 15 2007 Publication Date 2nd Quarter 2007 GUEST EDITORS Davide Bertozzi Dipartimento di Ingegneria Universita di Ferrara Italy dbertozziingunifeit Shashi Kumar Department of Electronics and Computer Engineering School of Engineering Ionko39ping University Sweden ShashiKumaringhjse Maurizio Palesi Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica e delle Telecomunicazioni Universita di Camnia Italy mpalesidiitunictit Hindawi Publishing Corporation h ttpmmch in dil iCOITl Convetting Raw Materials to Steel Product Forms Mechanical m 11 gzgg ys 3 3 5 3 Excess C 4 5 removed c oxidation I H t 7 r If E quotGn1 when mwTI UH M u Madmch MM IWIp1 William F Smith Structure andPro enies ofEn ineerin A110 5 McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Blast Furnace Iron Making Hum open lvrlrk v Numbquot 7 Humm m u 7 2mm x l m yvlm m um Hm mum rumw leip intlim Flgure 3 2 Cross wcuun of the general upcratiun of a modem blas furnace After A G Guy Elements 0 Physical Metaurgi 2d 311 quot 959 4 MumWesley Reading Mmmrhurells Flg 25 p 2 William F Smith WW5 McGraWHill Publishing Co 1981 Steel Making Oxygen Furnace Pig iron up to 30 scrap Pure oxygen reacts with liquid 45 minutes gt 200 tons of steel to create ironoxi e C reacts with iron oxide to oduce CO Figure 14 Sleelmnklng m ham uxgeu lurnuu u mmm n mm m rnmpum I Superior to open hearth 39sulfur conmnination avoided no external iels 39trace nitrogen in oxygen used for re ning so low N in steel lt0004 residual oxygen in steel less so few deoxidizing agents required loWer impurities less scrap L William F Smith Structure andPrermes of Engmeenng Alloys McGraersll Publishing Co 1981 Open Hearth Steelmaking Process 610 hours gt 200 tons of steel Flzun39 36 Oprrulmn yr m upcnhcurh xlcclmukmg mum mumJ m mumm an 1 u Wuhan F Smnh Structure and Propemes of Engmeenng Alloys McGraerJll Pubhshmg Co 1981 Electric Arc Furnace Electrodes positioned above cold steel scrap and are is struck Increased temperature contro 6090 tons per day Figure 37 Slcelnmkmg m in L39lL39tlnkaln lurrmcc 7lmrren n InmuIS39Iiul ianvmm William F Smith Structure and Properties of Engmeenng Alloys McGraersll Publishing Co 1981 Continuous Casting FIGURE 54 The continuous casting process for steel The solidified metal descends 31 a typical speed of 25 mms 1 ins Source Metav caster s Reference and Guide American Foundrymen39s Society Mum in x m n umlmix pmli iug nit i mm min Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology g WW m 3rd Edition AddisonWesley publishing Co 1995 Hot Strip Rolling Mill Not necessary for continuous casting qusnms shun an m nominal av I In H20 spray to control temp WM hm 39 39 39 39 nae MIHum Mmmwmmm mimeMew RM 19711513 Temperature just slightly above recrystallization temp avoid excessive grain growth breaks down coarse grains of ingots re ned grains heals porosity strength increases in roll direction Humanism 1 William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Intermediate Material Product Forms 24 60 Slabs 2 399 processes into plate sheet Blooms 6 677 I 1212 processes 1nto shapes and rails Billets g X I processed 1nto bars rods pipe tubes AIS 1006 1010 AISISAE carbonsteel compositions SAE N0 C 008 max 008413 0137018 0187023 1227028 028 034 032 038 037 7044 0437050 0487055 050460 0607070 0657075 0 707080 0757088 0807093 0857038 0907103 P 0040 max 5 005 max Mn 025 040 0307060 030 000 0 3070 60 03070 60 Ono090 060 090 060 090 060 0 90 06070 90 01107090 0607090 000 7090 0407070 0007090 070400 0607090 0307050 Plain carbon steels constitute N85 of steel used in US although very little in aerospace lst two digim denote type 10 plain carbon steel Last two digim indicate amount of C in hundredth percent William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Effect of Trace Elements on Carbon Steel Ol manganese reacts With sulfur to produce MnS soft inclusions increased yield strength O005 sulfur if insuf cient manganese sulfur Will react With iron at grain boundaries cracking during working O004 phosphorous forms brittle Fe3P compound O003 silicon forms silicate inclusions SiOZ but has little effect on properties N w r an 6 Limitations of Plain Carbon Steels They cannot he strengthened beyond about l00000 psi Without significant loss in toughness impact resistance and ductility Large sections cannot be made with a martcnsitic structure throughout and thus are not deepvhartlenublc Rapid quench rates Lire necessary for full hardening in mediumcarbon plain carb0n steels to produce it matrtcnsitic structure This rapid quenching leads to shape distortion and cracking of heattreated steel PlainCarbon steels have poor impact resistance at low temperatures Plain carbon steels have poor corrosion resrstancc for many engineering environments Plaincarbon stccls oxidize readily at elevated temperatures William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Equot PEAS General Effects of Alloying Elements in Steel i To improve mechanical properties by increasing the depth to which a steel can be hardened allows advantage of tempered mattensite throughout allows slower quench To allow higher tempering temperatures while maintaining high strength and good ductilin To improve mechanical properties ll high Lll ltl low temperatures To improve corrosion resistance and dentedtemperature oxidation To improve special properties such is abrusmn l39CSlSlLlnCC and fatigue be havior William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Effects of alloy elements in steel Generally 14 Boron improves hitrdenability without loss of or even with some improvement in macliiiubility and formaliilitv Calcium deoxidizes SLCClS improves toughness and may improve formability and machinability Carbon improves hardenahilitv strength hardness and wear resistance reduces ductility weltlability and toughness Cerium controls the shape 01 inclusions and improves toughness in highisrrengdi lowalloy steels ClcnxidiZCS steelsr Cbromlu l inlpl UVUS lUngllllCSS hardel tabilit Wear and CUIrUSlUn resistance and hightemperature strength increases depth of hardness penetration in heat treat ment by promoting carburixaiinnr Cobalt improves strength and hardness at elevated temperatures Cnppcr improves resistance to atmospheric corrosion and to a lesser extent strength with little loss in ductility adversely affects hotv39orking characteristics and surlace quality Lead improves machinahility causes liquid metal emhrittlement Effects of alloy elements in steel Generally 14 Magnesium has the same cli Fects as cerium Manganese improves hardcnahility strength abrasion resistance and machinahil ity dcoxidizcs the molten steel and reduces hot shortness decreases weldability Molybdenum improves hardenabilily wear re stance toughness elevated temperature strength creep resistance and hardness minimizes temper embrit tlemcnt Nickel improves strength roughness and corrosion resistance improves harden ability Niobium colmrtbimn imparts ne grain size improves strength and impact toughness lowers transition temperature may decrease hardcnability P1905Pb07 145 lmpl VCS Strcngth hardcnabillty CH rlsln rCSiStanCC and machin ability severely reduces ductility and toughness Selenmm improves machinability Silicon improves strength hardness corrosion resistance and electrical conductiv ity decreases magnctic hysteresis loss machinability and cold formabilityl Effects of alloy elements in steel Sulfur improves machinability when combined with manganese lowers impact strength and ductility impairs surface quality and weldability Tantalum has effects similar to those of niobium Tellurium improves machinability formability and toughness Titanium improves hardenability deoxidizes steels Tungsten has the same effects as cobalt gt Vanadium improves strength toughness abrasion resistance and hardness at ele vated temperatures inhibits grain growth during heat treatment Zirconium has the same effects as cerium Residual Elements in Steel Antimony and arsenic cause temper embrittlement gt Hydrogen severely embrittlcs steels heating during processing drives out most of the hydrogen gtNitrogen improves strength hardness and machinability in aluminum deoxidized steels it controls the size of inclusions and improves strength and toughness decreases ductility and toughness Oxygen slightly increases strength of rimmed steels severely reduces toughness Tin causes hot shortness and temper embrililement Alloys Favorably Affecting Properties 39 39 Strenalh Touohness quot L39 Boron Carbon Calcium Lead Carbon Cobalt Cerium Manganese Chromium Chromium Chromium Phosphorus Manganese Copper Magnesium Selenium Molybdenum Manganese Molybdenum S u Ifu r Phosphorus Molybdenum Nickel Tellurium Titanium Nickel Niobium Niobium Tantalum Phosphorus Tellurium Silicon Vanadium Tantalum Zirconium Tungsten Vanadium Element with most in uence Principal Types of Standard Alloy Steels lJXX 40xx 4lxx 43 44 Abxx 47xx 4Exx 50xx 51M Slxxx 52xxx 61m S xx 87xx SSxx 927m SUBXX 5 lex E 1 Biol 94Hxx Manganese l 75 Molybdenum 020 or 025 or molybdenum 025 and sulfur 0 042 AI 81 SAE System Chromium 050 080 or 095 molybdenum 012 020 or 030 lst two digits indicate principal Nickel 183 Chromium 050 or 080 molybdenum g alloy or group of alloys Molybdenum 053 Nickel 085 or 183 molybdenum 020 or o 25 Last two digim indicate amount Nickel 105 chromium 045 molybdenum 0 20 or 0 3g of C in hundredth percent Nickel 350 molybdenum 025 Chromium 0 Chromium H40 088 093 095 m l 00 Chromium I 1 ThrumiumlAS Chromium 060 or 095Vuiizidiuiii013lir min 015 Nickel 055 Chromium 050 molybdenum 020 Nickel 055 chromium 050 molybdenum 0 ZS Nickel 055 Chromium 050 molyhdcnum 0 35 Silicon 200 or silicon L40 and L llrlllnium 0 70 Chromium 0 28 or 050 Chromium 080 Nickel 030 Chrummm 0 45 molybdenum J 12 Nickel 045 chromium U 40 molybdenum 0 2 Nola B dennles boron steel l Alter Rel I William F Smith Structure and Properties 01 Engineering Alloys McGraW Hill Publishing Co 1981 SAE Designations for Steels and Their Maj or Alloving Elements IOxx P1n1r1 namon 19215 Hxx ResuWunzed carbon steelsuree machmlng 12xx apnospnonmn and resuwunzed carbon sieels lree 111ac111111 n91 13xx Mn 1 leto 31xx N1 125 CrOES 33xx N1 3 50 C1 1 55 um Mo 0 20 01025 A1xx C1 05001095 1111001201020 aaxx N1 130 C1050 urOSU M0025 M Ma 0 40 Asxx Ma 0 57 46 1 N1 1 80 Mo 0 25 Axx N1 105 CruAS Muuznnruas 48xx N1 3 50 Mu 025 aoxx C1 0150 40 mo 50 Emma c 1 no Cr 0 50 51xx c nuouao095ur1oo sum 2 1 no C11 05 52xxx c C1 1 A5 GIxx Cr 050 081 a 095 V 012010m1nnrn15min E1xx N1 03 Crow M0012 aexx N1 055 C1050 M0020 B7xx N1 055 CruUS M0025 88xx N1 0 55 Cr 0 50 Me a 35 92 x 11111 085 1200 LIDD39U35 93Xx N1 3 25 Cr 1 20 o 94 x N1 04 0040 Mou1z saxx N1 100 crnso M0025 no1e i mscvwd onwn 01c Ecmvd va Mrd Mer 51 110L451 Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley publishing Co 1995 AISISAE and UNS Designation Systems and Composition Ranges for Plain Carbon Steel and AI 39ISAIC Dextgnalmu Various Low Alloy Steels Jmnpnmimi Rungrx infr of IIlying I Il lllt llLl m ultimo a Cquot Dwugnmiml Ni 7 Mn Mm lUxx Plain 1 39lJUIl llUxxU llxx I rcc Inchinng GI Ixxn 0084133 S l2xx Free nunsliininigr ll2xx0 1104135 8 UH l 2 P lilxx llilxx 1130490 Mn 40xx HUXXU 020 030 4lxgtlt G4 050110 1137025 43KX 0407090 020 030 4ixx 1157030 48xx 2FU30 rilxx 07le ilxx 03U7110 010 015 V S xx 0 ll07 MU 060 015 025 92xx i92xx0 1807220 Si quotquothe Ldrbun mumquot1minquot in right pmu nl mum mm is imcxrcr 39 4 m i pl i Itxi39cpl m 92 lf hx dill in iln pluu ul x39 in mi spmlhi um i w mmunni n n IN mm I on mquot x Ilinys mum mutnuiumn 1m than u m m Uyn mun mmnuwmn mm lwlwvmv In imi n 1 Vi William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Nominal Compositions and Typical Applications of Select Standard Alloy Steels 39wy z w 2N u Am AENo CH 1 rypicauwnmnus Mhnyntse mu mu Ma 7 Illghnruigllihixlis mu 040 I75 Chromium mi sun 020 mm 0X4 rammmngsieel 195 um 030 Sibermg Vans ow mu 080 nm 053 um s deal to u as 14 Hall and iulkrheunngs Molybdenum ahx h w 1 im om 025 quotmunmgsml 037 um 025 w 047 ago 02 chmmmwmolynumm mu 4m mxoxo quotso on gt we 0m nsn 095 no Pressure mic mrmn mumml panmm ma My 088 m5 020 m ueumg knucklu lt hmmlumwanadmm vnts Mm um 080 ms 0 i5 a emndspnng Nickel mnlyhdenum Huh 443le am 055 ml in Trammmmngamutmm pmmhans roller 4m um cm 2 1 so bearings Nilm ms thmmHimrmvbhkmlm mt 4m in 050 o 5 m Limummgmgl gt mom mu um on 025 18 Hun snlmnylandmggcarx truck pn Ninkgl l0 issayrmmmmmrmoi bum mi 55 irhnnnng steel v mo nm 4un mm 020 I am 040 m n m om Auto pnngV mmu nmLhInc 15 mm mu 0 50 o 88 u su n m u 55 Slhum mm also um 088 20 c qvmgg I maxS except rlnlnc furnace mm m Mud hm 0mm nmx P and 001 max 5 William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Typical Applications and Mechanical properties for OilQuenched and Tempered Steels 39l I V N n mlm lemmm I mml mgm I 39S THINr Shrugh Nunhm m X IUW39MI ul l39lrII llmglJ W X mum1 lullHY Q I39 m 2 m TlHIHI IpIt39rlmm H H IUSU 1 003 10131 4310 MN Inwlu 1 William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction Lllllllll LIUSUU L l 1930 HORN 2131011 113131quot 887 Ill 605480 1 1137190 511043101 I 71 760 1280 1 14 3 117 73672450 iii 281 9804 960 l 18 315 815 70 u hiqu cum mclx Plain Carbon Steels 2 quoti 43073311 704 ll mne mm 717121 31078311 Alloy Swab IN 7270 74571800 2171 21711 22e7 lininkx linlh bolls hiselm lmmmrls Kim39ew lmr kmm blades Splines liriml Ul39 Bushings ailuull mining Slilll1iltlm1s gum John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Common Applications for Common Steels TABLE 52 TYPICAL SELECTION OF CARBON AND ALLOY STEELS FOR VARIOUS APPLICATIONS Product Steel Product Steel Alrcra fcrgings tubing fimngs 4140 8740 Gears car and truck 4027 4032 Automobile bodies 1010 Landing gear 4140 4340 8740 Axles 1040 4140 Lock washers 1060 Ball bearings and races 52100 Nuls 3130 Balls 1035 4042 4815 Railroad rails and wheels 1080 Camshafts 10201040 Springs coil 1095 4063 6150 Chains ltransmission 3135 3140 Springs leafi 1085 4063 9260 6150 Coil springs 4063 Tubing 1040 Connecting rods 1040 3141 4340 Wire 1045 1055 Cmnkshahs Merged 1045 1145 3135 3140 Wire music 1085 Differential gears 4023 Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley publishing Co 1995 Chemical Compositions and Typical Applications of LowAlloy ChromiumMolybdenum Steels Alloy Chemicalcgposition nominal M Z AlSl SAE No 39 Mn Cr Mo lypltal applications 4118 018 180 050 013 4130 030 0 50 055 020 Pressure vessels aircraft 4140 040 088 095 020 structural pans auto axles 4150 050 088 095 020 steering knuckles 1 After quotASM Datahookrquot published in Metal I rugrerr vol 112 no 1 midJune 1977 Chromium improves hardenability strength and wear resistance Combination allows slower oil quench to produce martensite which reduces thermal gradients and internal stresses William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Continuous Cooling Diagram A181 4140 Alloy Steel lEDO 39 5 r E x 44o o 44 lt l 04 Mn 029 Si I 8 Cr 0 5 Mo i i 1400 V Auslemhzed m 550 Farms 0 A 17 Gvaln we ASTM No9 peai39lim Ac l 63 o Ac I380 r translomlation gt200 i 39 Towing cuvves is delay d A p irom I550 F l I l dlCaled l 0quot dislonces horn v woo 3 quenche end A 391 r 2539 E 50 a E Boo i 600 w r r F 5 Transformeb A Auslemie 400 F Fernve 90739 2 P Peurme 8 Emma 3 IV Muilensne y 392 5quotquot zoo i l quot l 5 l 20 50 l 200 500 wooo Cooling 39ims eC William F Smith Structure andPro enies ofEn ineerin A110 5 McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Material Properties for Chromium Molybdenum Steels Table 4lz Mechanical propcnllt nl nonllalized and annealed llmmllnl cum lllnrllmlybdenuln Slcelvl39 Redm lmn llllpau mm mm mm m and nmgm Alsl mum slrvsnglh n m m um w mmw m m a m n lb ma mnmlvmdllwo mm mm 255 m on AnnellludUSKTF 51st man in ls w ma menunuwn 05000 tum 77 m2 m Annealed I500 F L500 li lt N7 1 mn nmlmumn umm msw u 7 m F5 AnnealedllSW ll 55000 IU J U 202 l939r 52 l Aler ASM Dumhmxk mman univan w w w lnlldJulu m I able 413 Mechanical propellim o qucnthcd and Ielnpeled lrlvt allu3 rllml lull lulybdcnum steel new lunpcrlllg Tuml Yield mm hon m Hun AlSl mm mum mun hull m nus No lure up w W v t mm mm 4411 2mm 212000 to Al 457 a 2n zmmv n 43 435 8le 186000 173000 n w 320 we 150000 may w 51 MS um HMKXI 22 54 2 me we 15mm mm 38 slo 5m zzwoo miwr a u w sou mow moon n 49 m mm in 1mm la n 2 mo no 95000 2 51 210 mu 4m moon mm ID 9 ma MI 256 mu w 800 220000 2001 2 440 mm Hum lwwo 2 m law is y l 2001 m 290 v Alm ASM nnlnlmx vnnlnnm n Mumquot Pmnrclr ml n1 nu I and Jun l9 William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEnglneerlng Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Chemical Compositions and Typical Applications of LowAlloy NickelChromiumMolybdenum Steels A110 Chemical composition nominal Winr AlSISAF No C Mn Ni Cr Mo Typical applications 4320 020 055 LS3 050 025 Carburizing grade 4340 040 060 83 080 025 Heavy sections landing gears 8620 020 080 055 050 020 Carburizing grade 8640 040 088 055 050 020 Auto springs small machine axles shafts 8660 060 088 055 050 020 T Aller quotASM Datebookquot published in Mem ngrr yi39 vol 12 no I mid June I977 Nickel with Chromium improved elastic limit hardenability impact resistance and fatigue resistance 3939 furtlier39 r 39 to39 39 quotquot and reduced embrinlement William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Continuous Cooling Diagram A181 4340 Alloy Steel 1600 1 14340 cm ammuazmsm m r o 72 o 20 No W7C i y r Austenwc at W Ferrite to pearlite V W 2 3 1 quot 5 0cm we nsw No 7 590 r r transfonnation IS q 1 1 mo F i signi cantly delayed lt20 v r r t Coclmg ewes 113m 650 F l at incrca39ed l nmancss trom WV IOOO 77 7 of r A r quenchec and E t 8 39 g i HA 3 I e g w quotquotquot39 W Trunsicrmed l A am new H 600 Ea View l r m MOA 3444 400 A Austemle EMMA lt F FemIe 8 Emma r2 2 MMuransne m 35 31 t w 200 i 5 l0 lCO 2 o 500 lOOC Comm time 59 William F Smith Structure and Pro enies ofEn ineerin A110 s McGraW Hill Publishing Co 1981 Material Properties for Normalized and Annealed NickelChromiumMolybdenum Alloy Steels Rcduo mm Impact held I39cnsile Elonga In llardr strength A151 Vircnglh sircngxh mm area ness 12ml No Treuunenl Ni rm 391 Bhn n lb 4320 Normalized 1640 139 I 15000 208 50 7 234 538 Annealed 1560quot1 84000 29 0 58 4 163 510 4340 Normalized 1600 139 185501 12 2 163 363 117 Annealed 1490 Fl 103000 220 49 9 217 377 8620 Normalned 1075 39F 91750 263 59 7 183 735 Annealed 1600 1 17750 31 3 621 149 112 8 8630 Normalized 1 600 I 62250 94250 235 53 5 187 69 B Annealed 1550 1 1 54000 81750 290 589 156 702 S650 Normalized 16111 1 99751 148500 140 40 4 302 100 Annealed 14651 56000 103750 225 46 4 212 217 8740 Normalited 1600c F 88000 134751 161 479 269 13 0 Annealed 1500 F 60250 100750 222 464 201 29 5 1 After ASM lhrdhouk published In Mum Prugwu vol 112 no 1 nndJune 1977 William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Material Properties for Quenched and Tempered Nickel Chromium Molybdenum Alloy Steels AlSl N1 3030 3650 r 4101 quotASM Damhnnk puhmhed 10 MM Progresx nmpenng Tensile 1110 impair 21 rrnglh su engih 11m 1 p51 pl 400 241 000 500 230 000 1100 191000 1000 150000 1200 124000 400 213000 000 202000 x00 170000 1000 130000 1200 00000 400 242000 000 220000 2500 115000 1000 150000 1200 1 10000 400 243000 000 225000 100 102000 1000 153000 1200 120000 400 500 100 m 000 225 000 190000 170000 1700 155000 131000 400 290000 240000 000 249 000 225000 1100 201000 101000 1 175000 155000 1200 143000 131000 edqu Elongar 11m 111 1 11 ca Hardness th 10 33 520 10 40 486 10 44 430 11 51 360 19 00 21111 9 38 465 10 42 410 13 7 37 1 54 110 23 03 240 10 40 505 10 41 460 12 45 400 10 54 340 20 62 281 10 10 525 10 40 490 12 45 420 15 51 340 20 5x 250 7 7 580 7 535 13 37 460 17 45 370 20 53 315 10 41 57s 11 40 495 11 50 415 15 55 303 20 so 302 m1 112110 LmldJune 1977 William F Smith Structure and Properties ofEngineering Alloys McGraw Hill Publishing Co 1981 Stainless Steel High Chromium content gt10 Corrosion resistant hight strength and ductility Stainless gt chromium oxide resists corrosion Austenitic 200 and 300 series These steels are generally composed of this miurn nickel and manganese in iron They are nonmagnetic and have excellent cor3 rosion resistance but are susceptible to stresseeormsion cracking Austenitic stainless steels are hardened by cold working They are the most ductile oi all stainless steels hence can be formed easily llowever with increasing cold work their iormabilityis reduced These steels are used in a wide variety of applications such as kitchenware ttings welded construction lightweight transportation equipment furnace and heat CXCl l nger parts and CUlnpUnCntS for SC LTC Chcn llcal enVilAUnn39lCnlS Ferritic 400 series 39l39hese steels have a high chromium content up to 27 per cent They are magnetic and have good corrosion resistance but have lower ductility than austenitic stainless steels Ferritic stainless steels are hardened by cold working and are not heat treatable They are generally used for nonstructural applications such as kitchen equipment and automotive trim Stainless Steel Martensitic 400 and 500 series Most martensitic stainless steels do not contain nickel and are hardenablc by heat treatment Their chromium content may be as much as 18 percent These steels are magnetic and have high strength hardness and fatigue resistance good ductility and moderate corrosion resistance Martcnsitic stainless steels are used for cutlery surgical tools instruments valves and springs Precipitation hardening PH These steels contain chromium and nickel along with copper aluminum titanium or molybdenum They have good corrosion resis tance ductility and high strength at elevated temperatures Their main application is in aircraft and aerospace structural components Duplex structure These steels have a mixture of austenite and ferrite They have good strength and also have higher resistance to both corrosion in most environ ments and stresscorrosion cracking than the 300 series of austenitie steels Typical applications are in watertreatment plants and heateexchanger components Corrosion resistance decreases with carbon content due to chromium carbide formation Thus stainless steel utensils generally low in carbon content what does this imply Mechanical Propeities and Applications of Select Annealed Stainless Steels TABLE 5 6 ROOMTEMPERATURE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND TYPICALAPPLICATIDNS OF SELECTED ANNEALED STAINLESS STEELS AISI 303 830300 304 330400 315 531600 410 SMOOO 476 541600 Serope Kalpakjian Ultimate Tensile UNS Strength MP3 K 550 620 5657620 5507590 4807 520 4807520 Vield Strength MPa 21107250 2407290 2107290 240 310 In 53750 60755 60755 3525 30720 Elongation 39 50 mm 0 Characteristics and Typical Applications Screw machine products shafts valves bolts bushings and nuts aircraft fil tings bolts nuts rivets screws studs Chemical and food processing equip ment brewmg equipment cryogenic vessels gutters downspouts an flashings High corrosion resistance and high creep siren th Chemical and pulp han dling equipment photographicequip ment brandy vats fertilizer arts ketchup CDOkll39lg kettles and yeasltubsi Machine parts pump shafts belts bushings coal chutes cutlery tackle hardwarejet engine parts mining machinery rifle barrels screws and valves Aircraft fittings bolts nuts fire extinr guisher inserts rivets and screws Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley Publishing Co 1995 Tool and Die Steels High strength impact toughness wear resistance TABLE 57 BASIC TYPES OF TOOL AND DIE STEELS Type AISI High speed M molybdenum base Elevated operating temperature T tungsten base M more common Hot work H1 to H19 chromium base H20 to H39 tungsten base H40 to H59 molybdenum base Cold work high carbonhigh chromium A medium alloy air hardening 0 oil hardening Shock resisting s Impact toughness Mold steels p1 m p19 OW carbon dies punches Chisels P20 to P39 others Special purpose L ow alloy F carbontungsten Water hardening W Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley publishing Co 1995 ICSEAEESrooL T001 and Die Process Material Diecasting H13PZD P033319 mmgy A2 S7 D2 D3 M2 Metalworklng IeS WC D2 M2 Molds or plastics and rubber Si 01 A2 D2 srs EFE P6 P20 P21 H13 Hotforglrl 6F2eGH11H12 Hotexlrusion HllH12Hia Cold heading Wlw2MlM2D2wc Ceid extrusion nch A2 D2 M2 M4 Dles Di W1 A2 D2 Coming 52i00w10iA2DzDsD4Hl1Hi2Hia Drawing wire we diamond Shapes wc D2 M2 Bar andtubing wcWiD2 Rolls Rolling Cast iron cast sleel forged steel we Thread rolling A2 D2 M2 hearspinning A2 D2 Sheel metals Bari Cold D2 A2 A9 2 55 s7 at H11H1ZH13 Pressworking Zlnc alloys 4140 sleel casl iron epoxy comr pushes A2 D2 01 Deepdrawmg W1 Di casl iron A2 D2 Machlmng Carbiues highrspeed sieels ceramics Notes ihn i n n Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley Publishing Co 1995 Approximate Cost of Raw Materials for Various Product Forms TABLE 51 APPROXIMATE COST OF RAW MATERIALS AS A FUNCTION OF THEIR CONDITION SHAPE AND SIZE Carbonsteel plate and sheet Aluminum plate Hm rolled 60 70 2024 T351 530 590 Cold rolled 75790 6061 T651 330 350 Carbonrsteel bars 70751 651 560 520 Hot rolled round 55780 Aluminum sheet Cold finished round 60 200 2024 T3 6104350 Cold finished square 90 170 3003 H14 275 300 Stainless steel sheet 6061 T6 360 400 304 230 Aluminum bars 316 3007340 Round 2757510 410 375 5757700 Stainless steel bars Remangma39 5504000 3107730 Aluminum extrusions 2607310 303 square 560 1000 Nore Primsarein USdullars per looks Generally n n 9 al Tahln 51 Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley Publishing Co 1995 Materials Properties For Steels MILHDBKSE Chapter 2 mummy di Hardness and Hardenability quotnnsini i momquot i i WL in F e i A m 7 vmpmug mm WE PM M Comma lal il mm mm ginning mm m mm Pse 7 Ilr n 7 mm 45 743017m7 is n 40 7 1 x E E a U E 32 10 u i g fcmni In 1039 i o x lo 24 J u x I szmce mm in quendml Dumm39e lmm rnd m n 6 u 32 wizlerqucnclml l if in l I W X M 21 32 Dmmce Innn minnquencheu Emir m n 0 x In 4 Dinning m we gun Ln w my FIGURE 833 Relationships between Cooling rates in round bars and in Iominy locations 1 still water 2 mildly agitated oil 3 2 still oil 4 mildly agitated molten salt Richard A Flinn and pain K Trojan Engineering Materials and Their Applications 4m Edition Houghton Mif in Co 1990 Representative Hardenability Curves 190 1 Cooling race in 1300quot aFsec 600 744510 17 1 ii i a c A 1 391 Steel Mlyw Grain number C Mn Ni Cr Mn size Hardness HRC as o 1040 03 089 001 001 8 1060 062 081 002 ZandX 3140 038 073 135 050 8 20 4140 038 079 001 101 022 R 4340 040 075 1 71 077 032 3 DislanCe from quenched end i in 11 FIGURE 334 Hardenability curves for several steels with different compositions and austenite grain sizes A higher number indicates a ner grain 5126 IL H Van Vlack elemenic ofMaMna Scxznce 2d ed AddisonWesley Reading Miss 196d Fig 1130 p 321 Richard A Flinn and pain K Trojan Engineering Maienais and Their Applieaiions 4m Edition Houghton Mif in Co 1990 Hardenability Example EXAMPLE 8 ESEl Suppose that we have a simple shaft 2 in 508 mm in diameter and we wish to obtain at least a hardness of 50 HRC to in 127 mm beneath the surface We wish to use a stilloil quench for hardening having experienced cracking in tests with a water quench Which steel should we use Answer Figure 833c reveals that the cooling rate at this position mid radiusl is 20 Fsee and this corresponds to a Iominy position of in from the quenched end of the bar We then draw a vertical line at this position on the Iominy curve of Figure 834 We see that of this group only 4340 steel would provide hardness of above 50 HRC 4140 would be almost 50 HRCL Richard A Flinn and Paul K Trojan Engineering Materials and Their Applications 4m Edition Houghton Mif in Co 1990 Hardenability Example EXAMPLE 88 ESEl We have a complex shape made of 1040 steel After austenitizing and quench ing in agitated oil the hardness in below the surface is 30 HRC This steel is too soft for our application 50 HRC at in below the surface is necessary What steel from Figure 834 would you recommend if the austenitizing treat ment and quenching are to remain the same Answer In the Iominy curves Figure 834 30 HRC for 1040 steel appears at in from the waterquenched end This means that the material in from the waterquenched end of a Iominy test cools at the same rate 174 Fsce as the material in below the surface of our complex shape quenched in oil Therefore we look at the hardness obtained for other steels at the same cool ing rate 1 in position or 74 Fsec and see that 4340 4140 and 3140 steels all give over 50 HRC under these quenching conditions Richard A Flinn and pain K Trojan Engineering Materials and Their Applications 4m Edition Houghton Mif in C0 1990


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