Week 2 Notes
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Royal on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Introduction to Psychology Psyc 2010 002 Week 2 Notes 0824 0828 Chapter 2 Research Methods Human intuition tends to be really bad Limits on Human Intuition Confirmation Bias 0 The tendency to seek out proof that you re theories are correct while ignoring the evidence that disproves your theories Overconfidence 0 We are generally more confident in our abilities than we really should be 0 People who are really bad at things are usually the most confident in their abilies while people who are better tend to constantly question themselves and be less confident in their abilities 0 quotThey couldn t hit an elephant at this dist quot Famous last words of Union General John Sedgwickjust before being shot at the battle of Spotsylvania Was overconfident about the accuracy of enemy s guns and then shot Hindsight bias 0 Tendency tojudge past knowledge based on current knowledge 0 Murphy 1990 quotDay after day social scientists go out into the world Day after day they discover that people s behavior is pretty much what you would expectquot 0 People who hear facts will generally say that it39s what you d expect but before you told them they wouldn t know 0 Schlesinger 1949 Suggested that social science studies were common sense 0 Lazarus 1949 Responded to Schlesinger with a thought experiment Gave list of WWII study findings and asked if people could come up with explanations Afterwards announced that the actual findings were opposite of the ones he had shown them Scientific attitude 0 Approach the world with amiable skepticism What do you mean How do you know Show me the evidence 0 Is it credible Requites humility o Sometime you will have to admit to being wrong 0 Scientific Method 1 State a Theory a An organized set of principles b Describes explains and predicts behavior c A good theory i Organizes many observations ii Makes clear prediction iii Parsimony 2 Form a Hypothesis a Testable prediction derived from a theory 3 Perform a controlled test and analyze the results a Limit number of variables b Must be repeatable 4 Evaluate the Theory a Did the evidence collected support the hypothesis 5 Share the Results a Publish injournal b Peer review 6 Repeat a New prediction b Replication How do we test these things Goals of Psychology 0 Describe To understand one must first describe Defining what it is you are talking about Example Depression 0 Everyone can have a differ definition of depression Goal Describe a population 0 Ideally you would want to study all cases in a group 0 However it is impossible to study every case 0 Instead study a subset sample and extrapolate to the rest of the population 0 Example Population all men ages 18 30 Sample 100 men age 18 30 Goal Generalizability 0 Studies need to apply to the majority of the population 0 Sample must represent population 0 Gender race age 0 What is true of the sample is true of the population Ex The favorite pizza topping of American men age 18 30 is peperoni o If you only sample from one region it will not represent the whole population Samples should be 0 Randomly selected each member of population has an equal chance of being selected Not possible Ideal situation 0 Representative as similar to population as possible Similar demographic as population Age gender race To increase generalizability 0 Increase sample size 0 Strategic sampling Specifically sample people based on race gender age to achieve a sample similar to population 0 Descriptive Methods Case study In depth look at one person Gives detailed information about one person 0 They have a unique condition or something different Shows what can happen but not what necessarily will happen Study a rare condition 0 There are very few people who suffer from it Ex Dissociative identity disorder As you do more studies starts to become a sample Can t be generalized based on case studies I Survey Interview Larger Sample Assess self reported attitudes behaviors of a group of people Questionnaire structured questions 0 Not as accurate 0 People who self report are not always honest 0 Social disability bias people tell you what they think you want to hear 0 May not know the answer Guesstimating People can be sensitive to wording How often to you exceed the speed limit vs how often do you break the law by speeding o Naturalistic Observation 0 Watch and record organisms in their natural environment 0 Advantages Realistic setting Minimal interference by researcher 0 Limits on Observation some things are not observable in public 0 Lab Studies 0 Artificial observation 0 Set up conditions to observe specific behaviors o Other Goals of Research Explain Something I Predict what will happen I Control if it will happen 0 Controversial should we control behavior whether promoting good or stopping bad behavior Correlation Research 0 Are two or more factors naturally associated Determine causality o Cross sectional Correlation Research To determine if two things are related Calculated by quotcorrelation coefficientquot 0 Statistic of how strongly two things are related range from 1 to 1 The larger the absolute value of the number the stronger the relationship 0 Smaller relationship goes to zero no correlation 0 Larger relationship goes to 11 perfect relationship On a scatter plot of variable AB the slop is the correlation coefficient 0 Types of correlations Positive L 7 positive correlation 75 0 As one variable goes updown the other variable goes the same direction 0 Correlation coefficient is positive Negative negative correlation l75 0 As one variable goes updown the other variable goes the opposite direction 0 Correlation coefficient is negative Zero k r No relationship 000 o No relationship 0 Correlation coefficient is O 0 Correlation Does Not Imply Causation Amount of ice cream eatean and number of violent crimes are positively related 0 Does ice cream make people violent NO Three ways to interpret a correlation 0 Violent video game play is associated with aggression o A gtB Playing violent video games increases aggression o B gtA Aggressive people tend to like violent games more 0 C gtA 8L B A spurious third variable causes both 3rd variable problem 0 Correlation is not bad science They are a starting point Sometimes the only way to study a topic Easy to gather data 0 How to determine causation Three things needed 0 Covariance 0 Variables vary together 0 Change in one variable changes the other 0 Correlation provides this o If they are not covaried they do not cause each other Temporal precedence 0 One thing happens then the other 0 Experimental A comes before B 0 Correlation cannot provide this 0 longitudinal studies Elimination of spuriousness o Elimination of third variable problem 0 Correlation and longitudinal studies do not provide this Would have to study all variables still does not guarantee no third variable problem 0 Experimental studies only way to completely control situation Can show relationships between two variables Change one variable for each group and see what changes Reduces concerns for 3rd variable 0 Can never completely remove it I Only Best way to really know if two things are related Example Study Violent Video Games Cause Aggressive Behavior 0 Independent Variable Type of Game 0 Experimental Condition Violent Video Game 0 Control Condition Non Violent Video Game 0 Internal Validity Random assignment Control Biases Researcher could put aggressive people with aggressive video games Each participant needs to be equally likely to be in any condition Attempts to ensure level playing field Differences can then be contributed to manipulation Variables not being examines should be held constant 0 Dependent Variable Ways to measure aggressiveness Must not pose any risk proxy measure Give people chance to hit bobo doll Make them believe they are shocking someone or blast with sonic noise 0 Add hot sauce to food for someone who does not like it o How do we know there is a difference quotSignificant differencequot 0 Meaningful differences between groups quotStatisticaldifferencequot o Likelihood the result occurred by chance 0 Psychologist usually accept 5 probability 0 Run the study 100 times the effect would replicate 955 of the time
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