Music History II
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Bria Brekke on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 340 at Kansas taught by Roberta Schwartz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/182440/musc-340-kansas in Musicology at Kansas.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
MUSC 340 Lecture 16 San Francisco Psychedelia and the Woodstock Generation 1 1960s Counterculture and Hippiedom A Evolves from Beat Generation 1 Common philosophy de ne one s own morality 2 Beats pretty elite intellectual hippie movement more egalitarian B For various reasons San Francisco becomes epicenter of movement 1 Begins 1965 2 By 1967 50000 hippies in S F C Philosophy and lifestyle 1 Essentially quotdo your own thing as long as it doesn t hurt anybodyquot 2 Egalitarian communalism and tribalism 3 Free love associated with pill 4 Drug use esp of LSD a Feeling oftimelessness b Increased sensitivity to stimuli c Dreamlike connection between thoughts d Sometimes hallucinations 5 Interest in Eastern religion philosophy 11 Music of the revolution psychedelic rock A Characteristics 1 Rejection of slick professsionalism 2 Extended instrumental improvisations often involving minimalismlike repetition of musical ideas 3Electonic experimentation a feedback and distortion b Other more avantgarde effects 4 Many players began in Dylanesque folk or country music traditions a Mixture of folk in uenes b And RampBblues in uenced style of Stones other British invasion bands 6 LOUD 7 Emphasis on light shows psychedelic art B By 1967 over 1000 bands active in San Francisco area 1 A thing to do for unemployed hippies 2 Musicians attracted to hippie scene 3 Many opportunities to perform a Happenings b Free outdoor concerts c House parties d Concert halls i Avalon Ballroom ii Fillmore Auditorium Fillmore West a Run by promoter Bill Graham b Guru of psychedelic rock e Progressive radio i FM radio ii Switch from quotTop 40quot format to AOR aa Albumorented bb Featured tracks from albums cc And new noncommercial bands 4 Most significant bands C Jefferson Airplane Marty Balin Paul Kantner Grace Slick Spenser Dryden Jorma Kaukonen Jack Casady l Founded 1965 a Many members part of SF folk music scene b Name a pun on Blind Lemon Jefferson c Played for opening of Fillmore West 1 First SF band to sign with major label 2 Grace Slick formerly of band Great Society replaces Signe Anderson after fist LP 7 Jefferson Airplane Takes Off 3 Most commercially successful acid rock band esp album Surrealistic Pillow 1967 7 first psychedelic rock LP to chart a Singles Somebody to Love b and White Rabbit 4 White Rabbit a Former Great Society number b Slick wrote lyrics after tripping while listening to Miles Davis LP Sketches of Spain c Lyrics based on Alice in Wonderland d Accompaniment in uenced by Spanish music i persistent bolero rhythm in drums ii SpanishLatin rhythms in rhythm and lead guitar iii Tone color of lead guitar recalls Misirlu e Vocals the focus of song f Gradual crescendo i Intro individual entries by snare bass lead guitar ii Increase in volume iii Vocal line gradually increases in pitch iv Rhythm guitar becomes more aggressive and more prominent in mix g Production i Heavy reverb on all instruments save drums ii Echo on vocals D Janis Joplin 19431970 1 First female superstar of rock 2 Fused blues acid rock and country in uences a Earliest in uences classic blues singers like Bessie Smith b But also absorbed honkytonk music from Texas upbringing 3 Arrives in S F in 1963 joins Big Brother and the Holding Company in 1966 a First album Down On Me enjoys some success b Breaks out at Monterey International Pop festival i Free music festival at Monterey CA ii Due to media interest in hippie counterculture extremely well attended by press record executives and other entertainment folk iii Number of bands signed to contract on strenght of Monterey Pop performances c Her performance a sensation d Especially her version of Big Mama Thorton tune Ball and Chain 4 Style a Blues gospel vocal in ections b Sensibilities of a soul or blues singer in interpretation i Melismas ii Added vocalizations c But quite different vocal tone 7 gritty blues buzz d Work with backing bands often close to Stax sound 5 Piece ofmy Heart a Cover of RampB hit by Erma Franklin i Sister of Aretha ii Also one of her background singers iii Responsible for backing vocals in Respect b versechorus form c Soulful vocal performance d Production i Distortion on most instruments i Feedback and end 6 Ball and Chain a Triple meter i Strong accent on first beat of every measure 11 b Band Full Tilt Boogie clearly psychedelic rock i Heavy distortion ii Gospelstyle organ but with lots of reverb iii Dense muddy texture iv Drone provided by guitar or electric piano c Frequent stop time d Suspension of time for extended vocal improvisation i Vocalization ii Equivalent of sermon from gospel tradition but in conversational hippie fashion iii Builds back into a capella vocals E Major defining event of hippie generation rock music as definition of cultural change was threeday festival of quotpeace love and musicquot in Woodstock NY in 1969 111 American Rock Sounds A Many San Francisco bands not acid rock 1 Drew on variety of in uences especially American roots music a Niche music from before WWII b blues bluegrass hillbilly folk etc 2 Difference from British bands 7 not as focused on blues B Many country rock mixture of country folk rock and blues in uences 1 Same ingredients as rockabilly 2 But now informed by a decade of rock music 3 And greater familiarity with folk and other roots music styles C Creedence Clearwater Revival 1 Most popular band in America 19691970 2 Formidable string of top 10 hits a Bad Moon Rising b Down on the Comer c Born on the Bayou d Proud Mary e Fortunate Son 3 Style a Rock music avored with country or rockabilly guitar lls b countryin uenced lyrics but blues rock vocal style c Country themes southern landscape identity d Often twobeat bass patterns like honkytonk 3 Proud Mary a Fusion of country rock blues and soul b Pentatonic opening riff with tonal triadic harmonies c narrow range d country and blues in uenced vocals e versechorus form D The Grateful Dead Jerry Garcia 19421995 Ron quotPigpenquot Mc Keman Phil Lesch Micky Hart Bill Kreutzmann Bob Weir 1 Members from diverse backgrounds a Garcia folldcountry music b Lesch Classical avantgarde electronic composition c Hart world music percussion d McKeman blues 2 Began as jug band a Jug band music 7 African American instrumental music using home made instruments b By 1960s more bluesin uenced version of skif e 2 First gigs in SF area acid tests partyhappenings with live music LSD while still legal thrown by author Ken Kesey a Room to experiment b Developed style of extended improvisational jams that defined band 3 Early style closer to blues acid rock 4 Most successful albums Workingman39s Dead and American Beauty 1970 capture simpler more country in uenced narratives 5 Uncle John39s Band a Intro each line lies foundation for next accompaniment melody introduced in turn b Formally both simple and complex i Initial section A Come hear Uncle John s Band aa 16 bars long but in two parts bb First four lines Begins on upbeat last beat of intro ii A repeated ii B section 8 bars bridge aa Melodically quite similar after first bar bb Different harmonies iii C section bars aa Like last 8 bars of A bb Refrainlike character always begins quotCome hearquot cc Repeated but second is instrumental iv Two A sections V Another C section vi B section bridge to vii Instrumental section D aa Based on seven repetitions of 7 beat pattern 4 3 bb Rifflike cc Then goes back into 4 beat pattern of rest of song dd In concert this is the section that would be expanded to 10 15 20 minutes of soloing here just get warmed up and then ee Ends quotWhooah what I want quot viii Pause then C section a capella ix B section extended then fades out c Note i Close 3 pt vocal harmonies in uenced by Byrds ii Two drummers more percussion color iii In uence of world music iv Use of mixed meters additional beats far freer than commercially produced rock V Possibility for extended solos in live performance IV Latin rock A As rock comes to dominate popular commercial music scene in Us and Europe other musics have to come to terms with 1 Either reject 2 Or incorporate rock into national or established styles B Turns out pretty easy to do 7 rock mixes well C Number of such fusions 1 Some like Yoruban highlife only popular in native country 2 Others made commercial inroads as part of rock mainstream D World Music not a new phenomenon per se 1 Cuban dances such as the mambo and rhumba in 1930s 2 About the same time Americans introduced to Brazilian rhythms as well a Transmitted through movies set in exotic tropical locations b Mostly through person of Carmen Miranda i Samba singer in Brazil ii Films incorporated samba other Latin music E Carlos Santana 1 Mexicanbom guitarist 2 Forms Santana Blues Band in San Francisco in 1967 a Fused blues and AfroCuban rhythm section i Blues like everybody else ii but added AfroCuban rhythms so now the women could dance iii Heavy Latin avor b Adds two conga drummers to group i In addition to drummer ii Also play auxiliary percussion c So 7 pretty rhythmicaly complicated i Drums frequently create crossrhythms polyrhythms ii rhythmic layering iii Little to no emphasis on backbeat d Organelectric keyboards also integral part of band 3 Blues band dropped by 1969 breakout performance at Woodstock 4 But still in uenced by blues a Hammond organ b Santana s guitar style 5 Oye Como Va a Cover of mambo by Tito Puente 7 in uential Cuban band leader b Opening organ riff 7 claveish c As is bass riff7 but don t coincide d Guitar riff layed over that i Almost light style 7 lots of space between notes ii Distortion pedal effects iii Riff drops out under vocals iv Forms basis for solos bridges IV Funk A General 1 In uence of James Brown on black music still very much in force a Rhythm the driving in uence b Dense rhythmic layering c Over syncopated riffs 2 Late 60searly 70s rhythms get even more complex a Sixteenbeat rhythmic foundation standard b Creates more crossrhythmic con ict between lines c Polyrhythmic 7 several independent rhythmic lines at once d Syncopated bass lines guitar riffs i Percussiveness emphasized by removing or weakening pitch ii Choked guitar sound iii Slapped bass 7 bump or slap strings with side of thumb rather than pluck e short vocal phrases f Lots of repetition of words and phrases g conversational delivery B Takes on a new avor 7 and transmitted to wider audience 7 through Sly and the Family Stone Sylvester Stewart Freddie Stewart more 1 Formed band The Stoners in 1966 evolved into Sly and the Family 8995 000 a Interracial band c male and female members trumpeter Cynthia Robinson pianist Rose Stone Stewart Appearance at Woodstock introduced to mainstream white audience Fusion of soul psychedelic rock and new James Brown Riff driven polyrhythmic structure over minimal chord changes or pentatonic scales From psychedelia fuzztone and distortion effects Avoided strong backbeat all four beats accented evenly and heavily a Flat four beat b This is the defining characteristic of funk Horns Something like update of Booker T and the MGs Thank You Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin a Primarily 8 bar sections i most have new lyrics on each repetition ii Others are refrain 7 Thank you for lettin me be mice elf b Polyrhythms created between separate patterns of guitar bass var drums c Lots 0 rhythmic layering d Particularly evident electronic manipulation of guitars i Wahwah riff in guitar with very little reverb ii Becomes a standard tone color of funk e Popped bass 7 strings plucked sharply with great force f Together 7 short percussive string sounds g Dense intricate texture composed of at least five or six layers of rhythmic activity h Can t imagine where another rhythmic layer would go 10 Check out other examples on web site 3rd and 7Lh bars have only 3 beats why cc Last four are 4 to the bar 4 beat feel paralleled in other A sections dd Note tight close vocal harmonies ee Relaxed vocal style folk in uences
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