History of Rock and Roll
History of Rock and Roll MUSC 309
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MUSC 309 Lecture 11 Folk Rock I Folk music revival A Begins in 1930s when Lomaxes Leadbelly Pete Seeger and Woody Guthrie all end up in NYC 1 Success of educational tours of Lomaxes and Leadbelly create demand for folk 2 Particularly among bluecollar organizations like unions leftleaning political partices B No commercial success national attention until early 1950s 1 Moe Asch establishes Folkways records to promote various types of music in which major labels didn t have interest 2 The Weavers Pete Seeger Ronnie Gilbert Lee Hays Fred Hellerman signed to Decca Records score 1 hit with Good Night Irene 3 Backlash a House Unamerican Activities Committee i perpetrated communist witch hunts in 1950s ii Went after folk singers because of associations with unions and leftwing causes b Resulted in blacklisting of Weavers Woody Guthrie and older folk musicians c Pete Seeger cited for contempt blacklisted until 67 4 Folk already had established audience a In schools 7 American culture b teens and young adults looking for something more authentic than pop and rock 5 Hootenany 7 ABC weekly program that presented folk singers similar music 9 tended to present younger singers not affiliated with politics C Late 50searly 60s American folk revival 1 In the beginning two different approaches a Rediscovery of musicians from older niche musics i bluesmen ii bluegrass and early hillbilly performers iii older performers in other authentic styles outside of poprock mainstream b Recreated folk music by contemporary musicians i cover versions of old folk songs ii sound of traditional folk iii EX Joan Baez Wildwood Flower iv Compare to Carter family version 2 Eventually folk artists begin writing own songs in the folk style a Simple accompaniments b focus on melody i Often narrow ranges ii and highly repetitive c Lyrics explore of social and political themes ala Guthrie d EX Bob Dylan Talkin John Birch Paranoid Blues i Talking blues of type performed by Woody Guthrie ii But associated with older ballad style of performing iii Overtly political content a John Birch society 7 in uential socially conservative society that was b Extremely anticommunist c Associated with HUAC iv Characteristic Dylan 7 weak vocal delivery but full of humor and sarcasm v Guitar strumming harmonica combo from country blues i Some aspects of callresponse style ii Completion of vocal phrases by instrument 11 Bob Dylan Robert Zimmerman 1941 A Interested in rockabilly guitar music from young age 1 Began performing at age 10 2 Familiar with nearly all styles of American music esp blues B Gets into folk music in college after hearing Woody Guthrie also changes name 1 Popular on campuses 2 Associated with Beat movement Kerouac Ginsberg William S Burroughs C 1960 Goes to NYC to meet Woody Guthrie 1 Visits him in hospital 2 Accepted by Guthrie other established folk singers in the city a Richie Havens b Peter Yarrow Paul Noel Paul Stookey and Mary Travers c Ramblin Jack Elliot first Guthrie protege d Joan Baez 7 one of stars of movement with PPM and Dylan e Odetta i Older African American folk performer ii Particular association with unions 3 Dylan worked coffee house scene with others a Discovered by John Hammond of Columbia records b Cuts eponymous first album D Shortly after lyrics take on different tone 1 EX Blowin in the Wind a Highly repetitive melody in claustrophobically narrow range b Strophic form 7 three verses i each with three phrases ii First two pose rhetorical questions ii Last functions as refrain c Simple chordal accompaniment with slow harmonic rhythm d All place focus on lyrics 2 Lyric writing for pop folk music changes 7 more acknowledgement of contemporary events 3 Folk music with political commentary a Associated with civil rights antiwar protests b Not only good vehicle for these type of sentiments c Democratic 7 anyone can participate d And noncommercialized 4 Though socially relevant folk does start to make commercial inroads a Dylan s Blowin in the Wind recorded by Peter Paul and Mary b Climbs to No 2 on the charts c Compare to Dylan version d Perhaps presentation makes palatable to more popular audience 7 but words are still there E By 1965 Dylan one of the most popular folk singers on the scene 1 One of main draws for the Newport Folk Festival 2 Yearly congregation of acoustic performers as addendum to Newport Jazz Festival 3 In 65 Dylan commits an atrocity at the festival 7 plays electric set 4Same year releases two singles with electric accompaniment a Subterranean Homesick Blues b Like a Rolling Stone i Expanded instrumentation organ drums piano electric guitar harmonica ii Eight beat style beat iii Snare accents backbeat iv Repetitive accompaniment aa Different for a b sections of verse bb Also for chorus cc Varied somewhat in successive verses v Electric guitar fill marks transition between sections c Again change in content d Less overtly political e Deal with more personal re ections i Again 7 something new in rock music ii Present in the blues but with slightly different angle iii More obscure elusive darker F When Dylan plugs in folk rock is born 1 Differences from pop rock Brill Building Motown a Political or intensely personal lyrics b Not heavily produced c Harmonically simple d Acoustic guitar playing or modeled after acoustic style e Vocal harmonies usually important 2 Number of folk singers musicians follow Dylan in plugging in 111 The Byrds A Shortly thereafter lst folk rock band emerges 7 The Byrds Jim Roger McGuinn Gene Clark David Crosby Chris Hillman Mike Clarke 1 Part of California music scene 2 Includes Manfred Mann Mamas and the Papas 3 Groups from that area but members on fringes of folk scene before turning to rock B First hit Bob Dylan tune Mr Tambourine Man 1 Compare to Dylan version a Change in feel mentioned by Roger McGuinn b Riff prominent in Byrds version not Dylan c Dylan longer irregular form of poetry Byrds standardize d Vocal quality totally different e Question is either rock and roll by our old definition i Byrds 7 yes describe back beat riffbased bass has 8beat ii Dylan 7 not really iii Have to abandon old definition 7 rock and roll has matured into rock 2 Great contribution of The Byrds a Vocal harmonies i Maturation of the Everly Brothers style ii David Crosby composite part 7 explain b Rickenbacher 12string guitar sound c Both diffused through bands founded by members after group splits in 67 68 i Crosby leaves to form Crosby Stills Nash ii Gram Parsons brought in to replace Mike Clarke forms Flying Burrito Brothers with Chris Hillman MUSC 309 Lecture 9 The Reaction to Rock and Roll 1 Rock and roll and RampB didn t enjoy instant popularity and success A Reaction from churches and civic groups 1 Unwholesome obscene 2 Morally corrupting encouraging wild rebellious behavior and violence 3 Also racist objections as well a Encyclopedia Brittanica in 1955 referring basically to early rockabilly and RampB de nes as maximum of rhythmic noise deliberately competing with the artistic ideals of the jungle itself b NY Times article called cannibalistic and tribalistic c White Citizens Councils in south at least open about objections i Feared integration ii Exposure of whites to AfricanAmerican culture B Reaction of large record labels how do we make money on this 1 Large record labels missed out on early rock and roll a Elvis early hits for Sun records in Memphis i As does Jerry Lee Lewis ii And most other rockabilly artists b Chuck Berry with Chess records in Chicago c Little Richard recorded on Specialty label in New Orleans 2 Want to capitalize on new style 3 Mostly by making rock and roll more acceptable to white mainstream 4 Strategies a Cover versions of RampB hits by white artists i Different from earlier cover arrangements aa Exact copying of arrangements bb Cleaning up ragged qualities cc Expunging all sexual innuendo from lyrics ii Most infamous 7 Pat Boone covers of Little Richard tunes b Create dance crazes for rock and roll songs c Infuse characteristics of rock and roll into pop mainstream d Create teen idols to sing new music i White ii Good looking teen idol types vaguely resembling Elvis aa Fabian Fabian Forte 1943 bb Frankie Avalon 1940 cc Bobby Rydell 1942 5 Mostly taming of rock into wilder avor of pop 11 Several things happen in 1959 that nearly wipe out rock and roll A The Day the Music Died Feb 3 1959 Holly Big Bopper Richie Valens killed B Elvis drafted in late 1958 by design C Jerry Lee Lewis marries 13 yr old cousin while still married to second wife causes public backlash D Chuck Berry arrested for violation of Mann Act E Payola Scandal 1 Congressional committee formed to investigate corrupt broadcasting practices 2 Including charges that independent record companies paying disc jockeys to play their records a True to certain extent b Used to force several indie labels and several prominent DJs including Freed out of business F But record companies don t want to lose money to be made on rock so 111 The Brill Building A Attempt of record companies to manufacture rock and roll B Mostly a pop phenomenon 1 Many songs written by Aldon Music Co 2 Socalled Brill Building even though across street a Hired teams of songwriters including Leiber and Stoller to write rock and roll hits b Pop crafted songs with teen themes rock sensibilities more or less 3 Songwriters included a Gerry Goffln and Carole King b Neil Sedaka c Paul Anka 4 Show tape ofNeil Sedaka C However occasionally artists produced solid pop rock hits of some note 1 Ricky Nelson 19401985 2 Dion Dion DiMucci 1939 and the Belmonts Ex Runaround Sue D Brill Building becomes new Tin Pan Alley D Brill Building becomes new Tin Pan Alley 1 Music by its songwriters in a zone where rock and roll and pop merge 2 Distinctive and rather homogenous sound a popular songs i Typical pop lyrics about relationships ii Most in AABA pop song form iii Focused on melody line with simple harmonic accompaniment b Heavily in uenced by doowop i Background vocals in doowop style ii Frequent call and response c Animated beat d Thick textures i Made possible by multitrack recording ii Overdubbing aa Different layers of song recorded onto audio tape bb Additional sounds like sweetening instruments added cc mixed onto master tape before committed to acetate dd Effects can be added to any all layers iii Greatly effects sound of the record band iv Decisions made by producer aa Selects which arrangement takes are used bb Can use overdubbing to add instruments sounds etc cc Approves if doesn t do mix Relative levels of each track Effects changes to audio signal Echo or reverb panning etc d Ex the Shirelles Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow i Fairly quick tempo ii 4 bar intro iii Song in ve l6bar phrases each AABA aa Endweighted to end of section Texture becomes thicker as song progresses E g strings added at end of rst verse continue into second with more active part backing vocals become more active etc bb Overall form is AABA with interlude iv backbeat in drum part aa second beat of measure subdivided in two rebound backbeat bb common in early 1960s pop rock iv 8 beat rock rhythms v Lead vocals plus doowop type accompaniment vi Not typical lyrics aa Most Brill Building fare deals with teen relationships in innocent way bb This deals with the rami cations of potential one night stand vii Heavily produced 7 orchestral lls at ends of phrases as backing throughout 3 Brill Building style producer driven 3 Most in uential producer of the 1960s was Phil Spector 1940 a Part of the Brill Building crowd worked with Leiber and Stoller b Classical music fan thought of pop records as little symphonies for the kiddies c So Spector records tend to have i Thick full textures achieved by extensive overdubbing recording one track over another ii Often include a large orchestra with lots of percussion iii Prerecorded sounds iv Background vocals v And standard rock ensemble vi Plus the group d Textures so complex called the wall of sound or Spector wall of sound e Many of groups produced by Spector were girl groups i Trios or quartets of female singers ii Sound controlled by producers songwriters iii Image controlled by producers and record companies iv Marketed to appeal to young female audience f EX Da Doo Ron Ron i Group less important than Spector production aa Viewed groups as interchangeable bb Crystals aren t singing on at least one of their hits ii Wall of Sound aa large group of backing vocalists bb piano cc bass dd guitar ee drums ff saxophones gg auxiliary percussion iii Rhythmic stratification aa Slow harmonic rhythm saxes bb Beat 7 bass bass drum hand claps cc Piano 7 triplets dd Backbeat 7 snare ee Syncopated vocal line iv Driven by hook da doo ron ron v Lyrics about young love vi Sophisticated production IV Dance crazes A Importance of American Bandstand 1 TV huge vehicle in popularization of rock and roll 2 Most in uential show throughout history was American Bandstand a Began broadcasting from Philadelphia 1957 b Projected cleancut safe mostly white at start image of rock B Launched careers of many of teen idols C And createdpromoted dance crazes 1 First dances created to go with popular songs a First and foremost 7 The Twist b Popular with all age groups c Topped the charts twice 1960 and 1962 2 Followed by host of other records that provided instructions for new dance fads a First Pinetop s Boogie Woogie l928 b But reached critical mass in earlymid 1960s c Many by Chubby Checker d Others such as the Mashed Potato Watusi manufactured by Brill Building writers e All similar in style i l2bar blues as verse or refrain ii Straight rock ensemble with backing vocals iii Not heavily produced iv Emphatic presentation of rock style beat 3 Very much pop rock 4 But goes a long way to remove some of stigma of rock 5 And indirectly some of segregation taboos VI Garage Rock A Rock produced outside of rock industry 1 Often forget thousands of amateur groups formed across the country after rock and roll becomes popular 2 Seems accessible even for those with little musical experience 3 Play at local driveins small clubs etc 4 In time some recorded by local independent labels a Regional hits picked up by larger record companies b Distributed and promoted nationally B Characteristics 1 Often amateur or inexperienced musicians 2 Doityourself ethos a Learn as you go b Passion more important than advanced musicianship 3 Low production values 4 Rudimentary instrumental parts that are repetitive or riffbased 5 Untutored vocals often harsh and strained 6 Thin or medium textures 7 But lots of energy and rhythmic drive C Louie Louie l Quintessence of garage rock style 2 A short history of Louie Louie a Cuban bandleader Rosendo Ruiz Quevedo i One of the creators of the chachacha ii Writes song about popularity of dance Cha Cha Cha Loco or Amarren al Loco b Rene Touzet Cuban bandleader working in LA creates arrangement i To emphasize lyrical content writes crazy riff for intro iii replaces the standard chacha rhythmil 2 chachacha 7 with its rhythmic inversion c LA based songwriter Richard Berry adapts for his doowop group i Number 70 on national charts ii But regional hit on West coast d Gains popularity in Paci c Northwest i Nearly every rock RampB band does cover versions ii Most in uential 7 Rockin Robin Roberts and the Fabulous Wailers aa First truly rock and roll version bb First recording after Berry version in 1957 cc Their recording establishes surf rock guitar sound alternate riff under verses and quotLet s give it to 39em right nowquot as essential parts ofquotLouie Louiequot e Kingsmen and Paul Revere and the Raiders record versions in Portland three days apart at same studio f Paul Revere record technically superior but Kingsmen version becomes the de nitive one 3 The Kingsmen quotLouie Louiequot a Shortcomings by standards of time i Screamed nearly unintelligible lyrics ii Unpredictable timekeeping iii Sloppy guitar solo iv Muf ed bass makes harmonic progression almost subliminal b Nearly all intentional c Meant to capture excitement of live performance rather than slick studio production d Other features i Harsh untutored vocals that use whole range of voice ii Riff dominated aa For much of song keyboards bass and guitar all play r1 bb Much of vocal line based on same motives V Surf rock A New rock sound develops in Southern California in early 1960s 1 Little in uence of founding fathers of rock and roll especially rockabilly 2 Associated with surfer subculture 3Guitar oriented sound defined by instrumentalists B Dick Dale 1 King of the Surf Guitar 2 Introduces new guitar effects into rock music a Tremolo b Rapid glissandos 7 slides between notes 3EXploits possibilities of Fender Stratocaster 4 Leo Fender a Califomiabased luthier maker of stringed instruments b In 1950 creates first massproduced solidbody electric guitar with single pickup microphone for all strings c 1954 releases redesigned Telecaster Stratocaster i Two tone knobs ii Three pickups iii Lever selects which pickup projected through amp aa Neck bb Middle cc Lead iv Tremolo lever or whammy bar connected to slots for all siX strings can move all at once 5 EX Dick Dale Misirlou a Based on Middle Eastern stringed instrument style b Adds Latin in uences iTrumpet iiVariant of clave rhythm c Heavy backbeat d Sizzling glissandos e Tremolo and reverb prominent in main riff C The Beach Boys 1 Brian Wilson 1942 Dennis Wilson 19441983 Carl Wilson 19461998 Mike Love 1941 Alan Jardine 1942 2 First hit Surfin Safari exploits terminology of surfer culture a Becomes a hit b Sparks nationwide surfer craze 3 Primary in uences Chuck Berry and Bill Haley a also in uenced by the Four Freshmen pop jazz singers b and doowop 4 Simplicity of early lyrics disguises relatively sophisticated music 5 Beach Boys I Get Around a Wide vocal harmonies i Large distance between lowest and highest harmony parts ii Falsetto obbligato requisite high part from doowop Vocal riffs from doowop Melody laid over top Different character of verse refrain Wide variety of sounds shape song f A capella introduction g Chorus chugging accompaniment from guitar bass drums organ h Verse i First two lines 7 accompanied by bass with lots of reverb ii Second two 7 claps added iii Short transition guitar Hammond organ iv Third couplet 7 bass as above plus delicate staccato guitar line v Fourth 7 claps reenter D Wide variety of tone colors amount of studio manipulation in Beach Boys songs dictated by producer Brian Wilson 99057 MUSC 309 Lecture 2 Style basics the musical background of rock I Rock de nitions A What is it 1 rock and roll 7 musically de nable style 2 rock 7 larger de nition a music in uenced by rock and roll b subgenres c fusions d is it white music B Rock V pop 11 Rock basics 7 It s Only Rock and Roll A Rhythm 1 Time aspect of music is one of most important characteristics 2Rhythm a Orderly movement of music in time b Controls all relationships in music c Organized in terms ofa basic unit oflength beat 3 Beat a Regular pulse heard in most types of music b In most music beats heard in groups of 2 3 4 etc 4 Bars a In Classical music rst beat of every bar accented b Not always so in blues rock i Accent on second in group oftwo ii Called backbeat iiii Usually brought out some way drum beat snaps claps B Form 1 Way that a piece ofmusic is organized 2 At its most basic level musical form based on principles of a Repetition b Contrast 3 Form articulated by a Lyrics 7 return change of topic etc b Changes in certain elements i Addition or subtraction of instruments voices ii ie change in texture c Change in dynamics d Alteration of some other element How elements of 4 Basic rock form versechorus 5 Chorus 7 words and music repeat 6 Verse 11 Style A Def 7 sum of shared features that set one group of pieces apart from others B Most commonly used to describe commonalities among artists from certain time period geographical region or who share set of in uences C What elements consider when regarding style 1 Rhythm a Beat i Accent on beat or backbeat ii How de ned b Subdivision ofbeat i Other regular rhythms in most rock that move faster than the basic beat ii Often heard in drums rhythm guitar bass iii Even divisions Or is one longer than the other c Can think of as style beat i Even rock beat ii Uneven shuf e beat iii Is the style beat heavily emphasized or only lightly almost subliminal d Tempo e Other layers of rhythm i Where riffs occur or patterns played by certain instruments clapping etc ii Often different than both beat and subdivisions of beat iii Common method of creating rhythmic interest is displacing accents from their normal metrical patterns aa ie inbetween the beats bb syncopation f Layers of activity texture i Lots going on at once thick dense ii Only a few things thin g SO Rhythm in rock and roll i Medium fast tempo ii Strong backbeat iii rock style v syncopation vi rhythmic layers 2 Melody a Melody only in voice or do other instruments play melodic ideas motives or riffs b Riffs c Hook i catchy musical or text phrase that repeats throughout song ii Grabs attention 3 Harmony a Pretty hard to hear esp when starting to listen for b Speed at which change 7 harmonic rhythm d Slow accelerates as approaches title phrase slows again after e Harmonic rhythm contributes to shape of song 5 Style in uences a Play sample of Big Joe Turner blues then Mavis Staples gospel Sinatra or other pop Hank Williams country b Play about 30 of It s Only Rock and roll c Which sounds closer 6 Dynamics a Loud as in heavy metal loud b Quiet and tranquil c Again 7 about in the middle d What is the most prominent The rhythm section provides a foundation of rhythm and harmony Drums and percussionithe heart of the rhythm section 1 Establish the tempo and meter 2 Establish the quotfeelquot ofa song 3 The drum set a Snare drum which sits on a stand between the drummer39s legs b Bass drum played by the right foot usually referred to as the quotkickquot drum c Highhat two cymbals on a foot pedal stand that allows them to be clamped together d Tomtoms mounted on the bass drum are called ride toms We Got the Beat is a good example of the difference between snare and tomtoms in the intro and final verse only drums beats one and three are played on the tomtoms the backbeat is on the snare The drums solos in Wipeout are on the oor tom e A oor tom not fixed to the drum kit it is freestanding 4 Cymbals mounted on oor stands a Ride cymbal b Crash cymbal Use Me 14 Lots of crash cymbal 5 Drummers play rhythmic patterns that incorporate the entire drum set a Highhat or ride cymbals are used for division of beats and provide a steady stream of notes b The bass kick drum and snare drum play on strong beats or syncopated points for accents c Drummers usually play one pattern for verses and a different one for bridges or choruses d Tomtoms break the pattern to lead from one section into another section Auxiliary percussion Maracas Bo Diddley Good Vibrations 5 D section Conga drums Oye Como Va Triangle Save the Last Dance for Me 5 Tambourine We Can Work It Out 7 Sledgehammer 17 Wood block Uncle John s Band 10 Cowbell Rock Lobster 15 intro Photograph 17 under refrain Oooh look what you ve done to this rock and roll clown Bass 1 The role of the bass is to provide the link between rhythm and harmony a Bass part is derived from kick drum rhythm pattemiquotlocking inquot with the drummer b Other notes are lled in to create an interesting part c Walking bass line is common even rhythmic pattern in a scale oriented set of pitches d Emphasis is put on the root note of the chord by playing that note on the rst beat of the measure 2 Early rock music used acoustic bass 3 From the 1960s on electric bass has been the primary bass instrument a Jazz and country still continued to use acoustic bass b Electric bass is tuned the same way as acoustic bass c One octave below the four lowest strings of a guitar Electric Bass examples I Get Around 5 verse lots of reverb Dazed and Confused l 1 opening riff I Can t Turn You Loose 6 opening riff Rhythm guitar 1 Function is basically to provide full chords in rhythmic alignment with the drums and bass a Frequently the rhythm guitar enhances the snare beats while bass locks in with the kick drum b Can be either acoustic or electric guitar 2 Acoustic rhythm guitar in early rockabilly actually replaced the drum kit Keyboards 1 Keyboard instruments can also be used as rhythm instruments a Acoustic piano Rockin Pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu 5 Any Little Richard songs 4 Lucille Tutti Frutti Great Balls of Fire 4 Roll Em Pete 3 b Electric piano Watermelon Man 14 Mother and Child Reunion 13 Drive My Car 7 c Organ also capable of providing a long sustaining tone if needed Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds 7 I Get Around 5 Hammond Organ I Never Loved A Man 6 d Synthesizer capable of an unimaginable array of sounds can provide long or short tones When Doves Cry 16 all keyboard sounds several weird vocal manipulations Wanna Be Startin Something 14 most of the percussive sounds including the bass are synthesized 2 Their musical function in that case is the same as rhythm guitar a Filling in notes that outline chords with a rhythmic pattern tting in with drums and bass and guitar b Organ and synthesizers can balance sustaining notes against rhythm instruments as well 3 Rhythm instrument players must be careful not to get in each other s way II Sweetening and soloing instruments Horns and strings 1 Additional auxiliary instruments add interesting timbral elements to the music a The term used in recording is quotsweeteningquot b These tracks must be written carefully not to detract from the vocal tracks 2 These parts usually center on harmonic or melodic concepts 3 Horn sections consist of brass instruments and or saxophones a Trumpets b Trombones On Broadway 5 Interlude 7 exchanges between trumpet and electric guitar Pharoah s Dance trumpet lead Soul Man 6 trumpet riff in intro chorus punctuation in verse I Can t Turn You Loose 6 horn riff 7 trumpets and trombones c Saxophones commonly alto and tenor I Got You 7 alto sax solo Respect 6 7 alto sax solo Rockin Pneumonia and the Boogie Woogie Flu tenor sax 7 punctuation and solo The Wanderer Tenor sax Young Blood tenor sax 4 Horns add punctuation accents to the music7quotpunchquot Respect 6 Higher Love 17 5 They are also used to emphasize chords 6 Strings ful ll the same roles as horns with less emphasis on quotpunchquot a Violins b Celli c Viola though not as common as the violin or cello Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow violins and Violas Eleanor Rigby Ch 7 violins viola and cello Save the Last Dance for Me 5 interlude 7 violins viola cello Stomp l4 violins B The instrumental solos Any instrument can have a solo in a song but certain instruments are used more than others a Saxophone solo as in the Coasters quotYakety Yakquot b Guitar solo Jimi Hendrix39s quotPurple Hazequot c A piano solo Jerry Lee Lewis39s quotGreat Balls of Firequot Usually occurs past the midpoint of the song This is the focus of the song when it is happening Rhythm instruments maintain their same supporting role Solos can add excitement to the return of the vocals making them sound fresh again 2 3 4 5 III The singers A The vocals l The sung parts of a song are either the lead vocal or backup vocals 2 The lead vocal part has two functions a Provide the main melody to the song b Convey the lyrics in a convincing and effective way 3 Singers can be relatively free in relationship to the rhythm parts a That can either be successful or not7depending on the song b The highly structured aspects of the rhythm parts can present a need for contrast from the vocalist 4 Some songs have only one singer Some songs have a lead singer providing all of the lyrics and main melody and additional singers as well a The additional singers sing the quotbackupquot vocal parts b This is usually a combination of harmonic pitches and melodic material c Backup vocal parts can also be similar to the quotsweeteningquot aspects provided by strings and horns Backup vocals can have lyrics or neutral syllables quotoohquot quotdoowopquot or both a They can accompany the lead vocal at the same time the lead vocal is being sung b An example ofthis would be the Beach Boys quotSurfer Girlquot c They can function as responses to the lead vocal d As in the Beatles39 quotTwist and Shoutquot IV How it all ts together A quotSmoke on the Waterquot by Deep Purple http wwwpeoplekueduNrfschwarrockpage l l html 1 2 0 Form versechorus pattern Introduction four versechorus pairs the third of which is instrumental with a coda to end the song Introduction a Fourmeasure bluesin ected riff on electric guitar with overdriven ampli er distortion b That is repeated c On the third pass the drums enter beginning with highhat d Snare is added on the fourth time through along with distorted organ doubling the guitar part e Bass guitar is added on the fth occurrence of the riff f Bass drum kick is added on the sixth time through the riff Verse begins with the entrance of the vocal a Drummer plays regular rapid notes on the highhat with snare and kick on strong beats b Cymbals crash at the beginnings and ends of phrases c Guitar and bass play very similar parts d Organ takes the role of rhythm instrument playing chords against drums and bass Chorus has changes in what the instruments are playing a Organ guitar and bass play more sustained notes b More cymbal crashes on the drums c Vocal harmony parts are added The next verse and chorus are very similar to the rst versechorus section The third versechorus section is a guitar solo a Bass is more active during the solo B Snare becomes the busiest part of the drumsireversing the role with the highhat The chorus is more dynamic than in previous vocalized choruses The guitar introduction material returns at the end of the chorus section to link back to the verse c d quotBye Bye Lovequot by the Everly Brothers httpwwwpeoplekueduNrfschwarrockpage5html l 5 6 7 Comparison b A V Begins with acoustic guitar without distortion a Dual acoustic guitars playing rhythm strumming b The acoustic guitars set the rhythmic pace for the song Drums are light brushes on the snare drumino other drums or cymbals are used The song begins with the chorus a Duo vocals are the Everly Brothers39 trademark b Both sing lyrics together in rhythm c Vocals are high with little or no vibrato Electric guitar is present but subtleiproviding only accents with a lick between chord changes Bass is played on an acoustic bass Vocals are accompanied by rhythm guitars electric guitar snare and acoustic bass for the whole song Verses are sung by a solo vocalist choruses are sung by both singers etween the two songs There are obvious differences between the styles of these two songs but they also share common aspects 1 2 4 B The co Singing is placed in front and in the center of the miX Rhythm instruments combine to form a coordinated accompaniment though in different ways a Deep Purple use more forceful playing on all instruments b Deep Purple use distortion on guitar and organ Everly Brothers use their acoustic guitars to drive the rhythm Both examples use solo vocals in the verses and duets in the choruses quotSmoke on the Waterquot features an instrumental solo quotBye Bye Lovequot does not mbinations of musical elements played in the songs cause the difference between the songs 1 When examining rock songs it is important to listen to individual aspects as well as the overall sound It must be understood that each song has many layers that contribute to the final product The accompaniment parts must all combine to form a tapestry that supports the vocal melody MUSC 309 History of Rock Lecture 3 7 Roots of Rock 1 Roots ofrock A Unique American art form 1 Mixture of European American and African musical in uences 2 Not a straightline in uence from any one kind of music B Helpful to think of rocks ancestors not as family tree but as primordial soup of music present in the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries 1 Or a matrix of in uences 2 Jazz blues gospel ragtime country western all emerge from matrix a Different proportions b Different emphases c Rock combination of all of these 11 African music A Most African slaves brought to US from northwestern Africa 1 Majority from Ashanti Dahomean Yoruban Congo tribes 2 Musical styles share many common traits 3 For the following Africa West Africa B In African music rhythm is of primary importance 1 African music is functional used to accompany dancing working religious rituals etc 2 Therefore strong rhythm is a necessity 3 Most African music polyrhythmic 7 many rhythmic layers a Each part has independent rhythm b Sometimes all parts coincide sometimes not 4 When they don t create cross rhythms a Rhythms working at cross purposes b Creates feeling of beat being pulled in different directions c Creates interest C Cyclic forms 7 can continue indefinitely D Complex tone colors prized in African music 1 Common to attach shells pieces of metal etc to instruments like drums and stringed instruments to create a more complex sound 2 Many Europeans thought impure sounds but actually quite sophisticated E Ex Untitled Yoruban chorus I Rhythmic layers a Stringed instrument b clappers c Drums on diff rhythmic parts d singers 2 Thick texture 3 Crossrhythms 4 Participatory 7 everyone sings whether a good singer or not F Slaves brought to United States also retained certain elements of musical culture 1 Drums prohibited in most places 2 But certain instruments banjo tambourine idea of rhythmic dominance preference for compleX tone colors survived III European in uenced parlor song A Contains elements of Irish Scottish German songs and Italian opera B Lyrical melody supported by harmonic accompaniment C Subjects generally melancholy or sentimental D Usually first performed and popularized in some secular stage entertainment and afterwards performed in the home E Designed to be performed by and listened to by persons of limited musical training and ability F Often in versechorus or AABA form 1 Two sections using the same melody but different words 2 Contrasting section of equal length 3 Return to initial melody G Henry Russell 1 Maybe most important composer of American popular song before Stephen Foster 2 English but lived in US most of adult life 3 Very popular as concert artist a Approximately 1830 ballad recitals become popular b Concertizes extensively to promote own works 4 Narrative melancholy or sentimental ballads his specialty 5 Russell one of first to recognize that lots of people liked good music not necessarily European Classical music H EX Woodsman Spare that Tree 1 clear regular form 2 Arpeggiated accompaniment 7 notes of chords played sequentially rather than simultaneously 3 Hierarchic division of rhythm a Melody dominates b But rhythm of accompaniment creates forward motion c Work together 7 not at odds IV AngloAmerican folk music A Folk songs brought to US by immigrants from England Scotland Ireland B Survived for decades or centuries in isolated areas like Appalachia C In general 1 types a Ballads 7 lyrical songs that relate a narrative b Instrumental music for fiddle accordion or guitar c story songs 2 In versechorus or strophic form 7 verses but no chorus 3 simple melodies with narrow ranges 4 Often use pentatonic five note scale i First second third fth and sixth notes of the major scale ii Common in folk musics throughout the world 5 plain unadomed singing style 6 Often a nasal vocal quality D Ex Old Joe Clark 1 Fast dance rhythms and subdivision of beat 2 Use off1ddle and banjo 7 African in uence 3 Humorous storytelling song 4 Versechorus form V Elements of AngloAmerican folk combine with African in uences to create African American folk style A Work songs 1 Strong rhythmic foundation sung in rhythm of task at hand 2 Often call and response singing 3 Subjects the work at hand sufferings of existence 4 Ex quot0 Rosiequot B Field hollers 1 Somewhat akin to yodeling 2 Good way to make voice carry across fields long distances 3 Ex Field Hollers l and 2 C Spirituals D Ballads E Dance music 1 Played on banjo or fiddle 2 With rhythmic emphasis of West African music 3 And syncopation 4 Example quotIf It39s All Night Longquot Miles and Bob Pratcher VI Minstrelsy l Earliest definitive uniquely American popular music 2 European classical and Anglo folk music combined with hints of African American folk tradition a Use of banjo fiddle b Percussion from bones tambourine 3 Example 7 Boatmen s Dance a Can hear similarities with quotOld Joe Clarkquot b Essentially European form harmony c Folk in uence both cultures in i Pentatonic scale ii Song tells a story iii Dancelike rhythms d Great deal of rhythmic complexity e What s the tambourine doing i accents on backbeat ii Percussion creates syncopation 4 Minstrel shows continue to be in uential until turn of the century a Seem wholly pejorative and distasteful in mocking of African Americans but 7 b Now know that good number of performers were African American under the black face c And at least some composers of minstrel songs were enamored of African American folk song tried to incorporate authentic elements d Sparks two innovations in American popular music i Incorporation of dance rhythms becomes the norm ii Versechorus form established aa Verses that tell a story bb Alternate with refrain MUSC 309 Lecture 5 Country Music Gospel Folk and the Latin Tinge 1 Country music A Least acknowledged and perhaps least noticeable in uence on rock music B AngloAmerican folk music essentially imported from British isles l Preserved with little outside in uence in Appalachian region of country 2 Does change over time a Certain instruments vored ddle banjo guitar b High nasal singing style c Called oldtime music C Commercial version country music D Two types 1 Adheres closely to mountain traditions Carter family 2 Hillbilly music a Heavily in uenced by popular music AfricanAmerican folk music jazz and blues b Jimmie Rodgers E Mountain tradition 1 Carter family EX Wildwood Flower a Strophic form each verse AABA b Guitar style of Maybelline Carter quotthumbbrushquot style i Melody played on lower strings ii Chords played on upper strings iii Adopted by many country later folk musicians iv Already used by some blues musicians 2 White gospel a Religious songs in mountain style b Vocal harmonies in uenced by Sacred Harp or shape note singing i Popular method of vocal instruction in rural areas ii Taught ha1monizing melodies at 3rd above the melody c Called tight vocal harmonies d EX Bales Brothers You Can t Go Halfway and Get In F Jimmie Rodgers EX Waiting for a Train 1 De nite in uences from popular music jazz and blues 2 Especially the latter 3 blue yodel very similar to some regional blues hollers blues in form and style EX Blue Yodel ll 4 Same mixture of in uences found in nearly all early rock and roll singers a Elvis for example known first as a quothillbillyquot singer b And country in uence on Chuck Berry undeniable G At about same time in West another country hybrid taking shape 1 By way of cowboy music 2 Cowboy songs collected as early as 1910 3 First big singing cowboy quotstarquot Gene Autry 4 Eventually cowboy songs fused with dance music jazz blues in Western swing a Innovator ddler Bob Wills b Through broadcasts on GrandOld Opry television very in uential c Fusion very clear in Guitar Rag i Pedal steel guitar ii Heavy twobeat iii But accents on back beat H Major employer of country singers were beer joints called honkytonks 1 Rough saloons loud environments 2 EX Your Cheatin Heart a Foxtrot beat b Backbeat c Very emotional singing style d Electric and pedal steel guitar I From HonkyTonk short step to modern CountryWestem music 1 Oldtime music not quite as popular 2 Reemerges as folk music as part of folk music revival J Folk Music revival Combination of factors 2 Largely centered in public works projects of depression 3 One involved collecting songs and stories of older Americans to document culture of late 19th century 4 Another John LomaX and son Alan go to south to record African American folk songs 5 At same time Woody Guthrie combines honkytonk music cowboy songs oldtime music and pop songs into something completely new 6 All of these in uences come together combine with Union building activities labor rallies in NYC 7 Immediately brings to rock a Music as vehicle for social commentary b Aspects of guitar style of Woody Guthrie 8 Largest in uence comes later when Bob Dylan enters tail end of folk music scene in NYC revitalizes and brings into rock 9 Example Woody Guthrie quotThis Land is Your Landquot 11 Gospel A Combination of blues and church hymns B First songs in the genre by Thomas A Dorsey recognized as father of the genre C Large mixed choirs not the only ensembles that performed gospel l Quartets also largely in uential 2 Quickly developed unique sound a A capella singing b Usually one member of quartet takes lead others accompany by i Imitating instruments ii Vocalizing with ooohs or shoobop or other sounds vocal percussion c EX Golden Gate Gospel Quartet Golden Gate Gospel Train i Backing vocalists imitating train ii Swinging eight beat feel iii Provided by riffs of backing vocals iv Highly syncopated d EX quotJesus I ll Never Forgetquot i Accompaniment of a bass guitar and piano very soft but there ii Bass guitar hitting backbeats iii Most evident and important feature is lead singer aa Not only because Sam Cooke who becomes soul singer in the 60s bb But quality of the vocal line cc Same type of rhythmic freedom as heard from Louis Armstrong e But seems to soar rather than oat over backing vocals iv Clearly in uenced by blues aa Improvisations on melody line bb Emphatic interj ections cc melismas stretching word or syllable over number of notes D Same style heard in probably greatest of the female gospel singers Mahalia Jackson 1 EX Move On Up A Little Higher 2 Vocal style clearly in uenced by blues a Remind you of anyone b Aretha Franklin other RampB soul singers up through Whitney Houston Alicia Keys in uenced by Mahalia Jackson 3 Employs melismas 4 Harmonies a From spirituals and Methodist Baptist hymns b Combination of blue notes pentatonic melodies and Western harmonies accounts for distinctive sound of Gospel c Frequently coopted in rock music esp soul 5 Accompanying instruments a Electric keyboard b Hammond organ i Electronic organ developed in 1930s ii Frequently employed in gospel music of this period iii Adopted by rock artists as groovy new sound in mid 60s 111 Other in uences A American Folk B quotThe Latin Tingequot 1 Jazz and later rock also contain hints of Latin American musical styles 2 Most popularized in this country as dance crazes 3 Fusions between European music African in uences and native musics of individual countries of Central and South America 4Rumba a Dance popularized in 1930s b Introduced by Cuban bandleader Don Azpiazu EX El Manisero c Opens door for other AfroCuban music 6 Mambo a Dance fad created in NY in 1940s bBased on AfroCuban rhythms c Injected two elements into American musical miX i Percussion instruments like conga drums bongos ii And the clave rhythm aa Often played by claves another Cuban percussion instrument aka son bb Analogous to backbeat in AfricanAmerican in uenced music cc Pattern of accents that run contrary to beat e l 2 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 C C C C C a Clap pattern until can do it with some ease b Then try clapping along with Carambola Chapter 14 Mainstream Rock in the Seventies I Mainstream rock after 1974 A Rock becomes extremely diverse 7 number of different popular styles 1 Not just division of white music black music 2 Or rocldfolk B Partly associated with essential change in the nature of rock as a business 1 Becoming more business oriented 2 Less about spontaneity more about nding mainstream audience 3 Something of a corporate takeover of industry a By larger conglomerations not associated with music i Todd Rungren companies interested in money producing enterprises ii Examples Gulf and Western Time magazine b Brought about by dramatic increase in record sales Suggested clip from Time Life History afRack andRall series episode 8 19705 Have a Nice Decade on success of Framptan CamesAlive and Rumors which set the stage for the megaplatinum artists of that decade 4 Recording Industry Association of America RIAA awards for sales a In 1958 instituted presentation of gold record for sale of 500000 copies b By 1976 needed to create platinum record for sale of 1000000 copies c In 1983 official recognition of multiplatinum category for sales of2 million and up i Colloquially used earlier ii Used to describe high grossing acts d Now a diamond record 7 sales of 10000000 copies i Some examples aa Michael Jackson Thriller bb Eagles Greatest Hits Vol 1 cc Led Zeppelin IV Zoso ii Rare for new releases 5 Reasons for increased sales a Economy doing well b Rock is the mainstream c Major labels dominating business again d Crossmarketing i Tours used to promote records as in the beginning ii Arena tours e New formats make it easier to access recordings wherever they are i Four and Eight track tapes installed as options in planes autos in mid 1960s ii Audio cassettes aa Boom box 7 large portable stereos with cassette and radio bb Walkman 1979 7 personal cassette player f AOR exposes radio listeners to wider variety of music not just top 40 hits g Record companies aggressively promote focus artists IV Mainstream rock A Big tent including 1 Many glam rock acts 2 Singersongwriters like Paul Simon Billy Joel 3 Pop rock 7 pop so entangled with rock they become inseparable a Groups like the Beatles can t be called one or the other b Ditto for lots of others like i Elton John ii Wings iii Rod Stewart iv Fleetwood Mac 4 Hard rock aka Classic rock a Continuation of style of Rolling Stones Led Zeppelin Who i All still touring and charting in 70s ii Some ofbest selling acts esp Zep b Lots of other acts in similar vein though less in uenced by blues i Steve Miller Band ii Bachman Turner Overdrive iii Aerosmith iv Styx v REO Speedwagon c General characteristics i Standard rock setup 7 2 guitars bass drums keyboard ii Riffdriven songs with lyrics that speak to common experience iii Aggressive timekeeping iv Flavored at times by country blues gospel and art rock 5 Fusions a Country rock b Jazz rock fusion c Blueeyed soul i White musicians performing in soul style ii Some examples aa Hall and Oates bb Steely Dan cc Dr John iii Generally embraced by black soul audiences B In some ways carefully controlled 1 Slickly produced 7 high production values 2 Few truly fringe artists C But within mainstream room for great deal of diversity III Elton John Reg Dwight A Another musician who started in a British RampB band Bluesology B Singersongwriter in late 1960s but limited success 1 Finds niche after pairing with lyricist Bernie Taupin 2 Allows John to focus on music performing a Accompanies self on piano b In 1970s outrageous stage presence i Elaborate out ts aa including Donald Duck costume boas and sequins bb Incredible variety of wild glasses ii Extroverted performing style iii Spoof on style of Liberace C Characteristics D Example Tiny Dancer see listening guide 1 Lyric dominates a Dramatic filmlike vignettes b Impersonal portrait though singer enters story in transition verse c Trivia fact Tiny Dancer iMaxine Feibelmann was Bernie Taupin s girlfriend later his wife 2 Introduction a Piano stating first phrase of melody b Introduces syncopated nature of melody 3 Versetransitionchorus form a Verses in AABA form b Musical contrasts define each section c Repeated returns to intro separate verses 4 End weighting through gradual addition of instruments new tone colors 5 Subtle sixteenbeat rhythmic foundation implied by piano strings IV Queen A Formed in 1970 by Freddie Mercury and Brian May 1 Known for stylistic diversity and complex arrangements a Frequent use of orchestral instruments b As well as complex vocal harmonies 2 Elaborate stage performances 7 elements of glam rock B Example Bohemian Rhapsody 1 At the time most elaborate and expensive single supplanting Good Vibrations a Recording took 3 weeks and four different studios b 200 separate overdubs required i At time only 24 track mixers ii Had to bounce down reduce 24 separate tracks to one single track eight separate times 2 Rare example of rock song with several tempo style changes 3 Parody of opera a Musical irony music and lyrics don t match b Mocks several operatic conventions and compositional styles 4 Conventional rock instrumentation plus piano timpani gong 5 Unusual form a Six separate sections with no chorus b Intro i A capella 4 part harmony a Similarities to doowop b All voices are Freddy Mercury ii Piano enters approximately 015 mirrors vocal line iii 4 part harmony accompanies lead vocal line c More melodic piano part introduces new section d Section A 7 ballad style 7 2 verses i Standard piano accompaniment to solo vocal line a Foreshadows vocal melody b Fills based on melodic line ii Melody AABA form iii Just before B section aa drums enter bb Modulation to higher key iv Drops out in nal A v Second verse aa As before but guitar enters just prior to B bb Continues through rest of verse cc Ends with key change prior to e Section B Guitar solo i Based on melody of section A ii Serves as bridge to f Section C 7 Opera 7 also 2 verses i Short piano chords on beat ii Parody of comic songs in light opera iii Fast harmonic motion iv Send a bolt of lightning 7 parody of operas of Richard Wagner v Galileo s 7 alone took 3 weeks vi Final screeching high note a jab at operatic sopranos g Section D 7 hard rock style i Driven by guitar riff ii Solid rock rhythms 8 beat style beat and accented backbeat iii New melody iv Hard rock vocal style h Outro i Return to style and tempo of intro ii Ends with a capella vocals ofbeginning V Fleetwood Mac A Started in England in 1966 as blues rock band 1 Lead guitarist Peter Green considered a rival of Clapton 2 Both he and Jeremy Spencer left group in early 1970s 3 Others Mick Fleetwood John and Christine McVie moved to California 4 Married couple Lindsey Buckingham and Stevie Nicks joined in 1975 B Eponymous first album with new lineup goes to 1 in US C Follow up 7Rumors 7 one of the rst multiplatinum albums of mid 70s 1 Both couples in band in process of divorce as was Fleetwood 2 Personal drama evident in songs D Example Dreams 1 Written by Stevie Nicks 2 Hard rock timekeeping and accented backbeats 3 Simple harmonies a Christine McVie keyboards 7 three chords and one note in left hand b Bass plays roots of chords c Lack of harmonic drive mirrors sense of lyrics 4 Occasional guitar riffs lls with wahwah pedal and distortion 5 Versetransition chorus form 6 Thin texture a Increases in transition b Thickest in chorus i Vocal ha1monies ii More active bass iii Congas added iv More frequent guitar lls VI Fusions A Country rock 1 Mixture of country rock pop and blues in uences 2 Some country rock merely rock bands playing country songs a The Byrds i Interest in exploring country after Gram Parsons joins ii Sweethearts of the Rodeo 1968 first country rock LP iii Example Pretty Boy Floyd but any track ne b Example The Band The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down 3 Others strike more of a balance 4 The Eagles Glen Frey Don Henley Bernie Leadon Randy Meisner Don Felder a Started as backup band for singer Linda Ronstadt b Combined country rock with slick pop production laid back feel c Extremely popular in 1970s i Eagles Greatest Hits Vol 1 second best selling LP of all times ii 23 million copies to date d Biggest hit 7 Hotel California e Example Take It Easy 7 more typical of style in 1970s i Country in uence is unmistakable ii Tight vocal harmonies in uenced by Byrds Everly Brothers iii Folk associations especially Dylan also clear iv Harmonically simple v Rhythmically straightforward f Much of impact depends on lyrics melodic interest B Jazz rock fusion or jazz fusion 1 Two types of j azz rock fusion 2 From thejazz side a Several jazz artists attempt to add rock characteristics to modern jazz iStraight eighth notes iiE1ectr0nic keyboards electric guitar bass iiiRepetitive bass lines ivElectronic effects and postproduction b Most successful i Herbie Hancock ii Miles Davis aa True jazz legend bb Fusion experiments met with mixed results cc Album Bitches Brew 1969 is the primary testament of jazzrock fusion iii Weather Report iv Mahavishnu orchestra 3 From the rock side a Rock bands in uenced by jazz rhythmic and harmonic sophistication b Band members often have jazz experience c Examples i Blood Sweat and Tears ii Chicago iii Steely Dan 4 Chicago b Example Saturday in the Park i Opens with syncopated piano riff ii Based on chord progression for Heart and Soul aa Old Tin Pan Alley standard bb Favorite of jazz musicians since 1930s 5 Steely Dan a Not a rock band in the traditional sense i critics have called it concept and nonband ii Outlet for Walter Becker and Donald Fagan only permanent aa jazz fans with a warped sense of humor bb like beat poetry absurdist literature and songwriting iii Permanent band for a few years ivDissolved in favor of using studio musicians for albums b Sound is rooted injazz but also in uenced by pop RampB classical folk c Lyrics are poetic but like Dylan meaning not always clear i Most sarcastic filled with obscure references ii postfolk rock for the intellectual set iii Often something vaguely sinister Arrangements loaded with complicated jazz harmonies meters e Melodies hooky enough for pop radio f Example Peg i Studio band largely composed of jazz rock musicians including Larry Carlton and Wayne Shorter ii Backing vocals by Michael McDonald of Doobie Brothers iii Intro aa Keyboard riff reminiscent of angular lines of bebop Compare to Dizzy Gillespie Salt Peanuts bb Evokes disco in quavery electronic sounds produced by synthesizer cc and 16 beat style beat provided by delicate guitar line V Verse aa Short melodic phrases concluded by guitar or riff from intro bb Appropriate since harmonies are reworked 12bar blues progression vi Chorus sweetened by background vocals vii Thick texture aa Electric piano bb Synthesizer cc Clavinet electronic clavichord dd 16 beat style beat guitar line ee Drums ff background vocals vii Complicated rhythmic interactions between all parts viii Harmonic variety typical of jazz ix Lyrics almost super uous 5 Blood Sweat and Tears Spinning Wheel a Ensemble iv Lead vocalist David Clayton v Rhythm section 7 drums piano organ guitar bass vi Horn section b Sophisticated jazz harmonies c Jazzin uenced horn riffs d Juxtaposed with syncopated RampB riffs e Short intro crescendo increase in volume horns play one measure of l6beat style beat A What goes up A You got no money B Extensive contrasting sectionshort bridge A Someone is waiting A 12 verse as bridge piano solo C solo section Improvisation on melody by trumpet 2x through chord changes plus extension A Someone s waiting D outro Mixed meter stop time alternating with calliopelike improvisation II Punk A Punk is a response to the above but 1 But really just a continuation of garage bands like Kingsmen 2 Combined with aggressive in your face attitude that rejected corporate image of most rock of the day 3 Either rebellion against basically all rock after early 1960s or extension of hard rock to its ultimate extreme B First surfaces in NYC in 197475 at club called CBGB OMFUG 1 Country Blue Grass Blues and Other Music for Urban Gourmandizers 7 2 basically eclectic bar where any and all music was welcome C First punk band debatable but most give title to New York Dolls 1 Five piece band modeled after English glam rockers T Rex Bowie 2 Regularly performed in drag had the attitude and showmanship 3 BUT 7 no one in the band was a skilled musician a BUT 7 they liked to play b There was a place for them to do so c So 7 they did doityourself attitude D The Ramones exemplify sound of punk 1 Like a surfband on speed 2 Reduction of all rock to most basic common denominator a Simple and repetitive music i Rejection of art rock pretension ii the complete dominance of the riff b Saturated eight beat 7 rock beat in every instrument and pretty much the ONLY thing going on in most of the parts c Extremely fast tempos d Deliberate rejection of all overt moves to court commercial popularity i Lyrics often gross inane or offensive or unintelligible ii Image often bizzare obnoxious or offensive iii Talent seen as optional passion essential 3 Listen to Blitzkrieg Bop E Even though weren t formed until almost a year later Sex Pistols are band most people associate with punk 1 Certainly most notorious 2 Ramones played fast hard music but no one was named Johnny Rotten or Sid Vicious 3 Added to characteristics of NY Dolls and Ramones a Nihilistic attitude nothing matters and its all bad anyway b Gross antics and stage behavior copped from Iggy Pop and the Stooges c Screamed monotonous lyrics 4 Ironically much of their behavior lyric content carefully designed to offend as surely as pop rock was designed not to a Ex God Save The Queen b Immediately banned by BBC caused a big scandal c Got tons of publicity d Shot their album Never Mind the Bollocks Here Come The Sex Pistols to the top of the charts in the UK 7 first successful punk album F Punk burned itself out within a few years 1 Hard to be that continually pissed off especially when you re starting to make it 2 When Sex Pistols started to hit big Johnny Rotten walked away in disgust 3 Had also by then sparked trends in fashion social behavior modeled after music G Energy drive that punk brought back to rock in uenced almost all bands that came after 1 Arguably most in uential of all movements in rock 2 Especially if duration is factored in H Bands that took punk as a primary in uence and then fused with other rock in uences 7 New Wave III New Wave A Another broad category B Punk mixed with nearly everything except country creates wide variety of styles C Energy riffbasis of punk seemed to fuse particularly well with reggae 1 Political and social protest of punk 2 Rhythmic activity of reggae especially accented afterbeats 3 Examples 7 Clash Elvis Costello D Punk and pop seems like unholy combo but actually worked 1 Back to basics feel of punk revitalized tired pop 2 Bright rhythmic feel of pop worked well with dominant eightbeat rhythm 3 Both employed stripped down simple textures 4 Examples 7 B52s Elvis Costello Blondie lots more E Punk art rock 1 Another unlikely combination 2 Basic stripped down textures of punk provided canvas for basically anything 3 Beattype poetry world music in uences electronic additions 4 Examples Patti Smith Devo Talking Heads a If time play Psycho Killer b Thin transparent texture c Eight beat very much present 7 simple continuous rhythmic pulse d As is somewhat the behind the beat feel of reggae e Definitely not pop lyrics 7 a little creepy and psycho f Nearly monotone lyric delivery 111 The Future of Rock A Number of hard rock groups of late 1970s returning to core values of rock 1 Solid rock timekeeping 2 Standard rock ensembles 3 Abandonment of pretensions of mainstream 1970s rock a Excess e use of 39 39 b Sprawling multisectional forms c In uence of progressive or art rock d Lack of lyric depth B Bruce Springsteen 1 Style encapsulates nearly every type of rock and roll a Early rock and roll b RampB and electric blues artists like Bo Diddley John Lee Hooker c Folk and folk rock d Garage rock e Blues rock f Country rock g Latin rock 2 One of rock s finest lyricists 3 Background a Began fronting garage and blues rock bands in mid l960searly 70s b Early 1970s worked as a singersongwriter in coffee houses in Greenwich Village c Returned to New Jersey and joined local E Street Band d Signed to three LP deal with Columbia records i First two sold modestly ii Built audience through touring iii Gained reputation as exciting live band playing straight ahead rock and roll of type not heard in mainstream rock e Last chance 7Born to Run 7 finally charted 4 Style a Vocal style i Mostly raspy blues and folk rock vocals ii Though can invoke gospel and soul when called for by lyrics iii Solid middle range b Riffbased guitar in the Chuck Berry Keith Richards i Riffs frequently long ii Often different for verse and chorus c Frequently works with E Street Band i Similar to Booker T and the MGs style ii Horn punctuation riffs d Heavy rock timekeeping unless performing in folk style e Great hooks 7 catchy but don t seem manufactured f Invokes number of stylistic in uences based on lyric content g Great poetic imagery abundant use of similes and metaphors 4 Example Born to Run a Lyrics encapsulate spirit of trying to break away i Doesn t say from what ii More universal appeal b Unusual form 7 modified AABA c Introduction i Assertive eight beat rock rhythm in bass keyboard toms aa Preceded by snare fill bb Snare then emphasizes backbeat ii Long guitar riff doubled by glockenspiel chime sound aa Marching band instrument like a Vibraphone bb Not synthesized d Long A section concluding with title phrase i Two melodic phrases each repeated aa First i Mumbled lyrics in low range ii Single long lyric phrase iii Accompaniment rhythm section with rock beat bb Second guitar glockenspiel arpeggios added i Short rhyming poetic ideas ii Ooh sustained keyboard chord precedes repeat iii Higher vocal range iv Faster harmonic rhythm V Leads directly into ii First melodic phrase in higher register with title phrase e Repeat of introduction serves as transition to f Second A section i As above sustained keyboard chords ii Doesn t conclude with title phrase g Tenor saxophone solo in early rock and roll style h Riff leads into i B section 7 new melodic idea i stated twice ii each text phrase at successively higher pitch iii Less aggressive timekeeping aa Implied not stated bb Soft rim shots on backbeat iv Accompaniment guitar and glockenspiel arpeggios iv Second statement of melody aa Strings and sustained notes on tenor sax bb More aggressive vocals j Interlude i Saxophone riff ii Double time Dick Dale in uenced guitar iii Complex harmonies iv Sustained chord v Yelled l 2 3 4 signals repeat of k A section in higher key i Accompaniment as in second A section with sustained notes in saxophone ii Less aggressive timekeeping l Vamp to end over music from intro C Aerosmith 1 Hard rock band in uenced by Rolling Stones Led Zeppelin a High vocal range of Steve Perry clearly modeled on Robert Plant b Extensive use of power chords pentatonic scales c Distorted guitar and bass d Loud volume e Demonstration of in uence compare opening of Black Dog and Walk this Way 2 Successful career as mainstream hard rock act in 70s but band derailed by substance abuse 3 Career restarted when early rappers RunDMC cover Walk this Way a began as a rap over the opening riff of the Aerosmith classic b Soon developed into a rapped cover version of the song c Producer Rick Rubin suggested that RunDMC bring Joe Perry and Steven Tyler into the studio to record with the group d Song served as bridge between heavy metal and rap e As well as RampB and rock 4 Example Walk This Way a Aggressive rock timekeeping b Long snarling guitar riff in l6beat style beat i in uenced by funk horn lines ii Compare to opening of Superstition c Versechorus form i Verse delivered in rapid re accented style ii Chorus in more traditional hard rock style MUSC 309 Lectures 12 and 13 The Beatles I Without serious competition as most important rock group in history A Conservative and innovative B Impacted every pop and rock artist that followed C Two big questions to consider 1 What makes Beatles sound unique 2 How did it change over time D Another 7 where did they come from 7 musically What in uences can be heard in their music 1 Key to uniqueness of sound 2 First rock group to absorb multitude of in uences and integrate all into music 3 So 7 need to know understand in uences 4 Familiar with some but others 7 and environment that created Beatles 7 exclusively British II Part of larger movement of British Invasion A English rock groups become popular in Us B British culture 1950s 1 Marked by decline and boredom postindustrial blight 2 Economic hardship a Widespread destruction in WWII b Large number of singleincome households c Wartime rationing continued until 1954 3 Class consciousness 7 pretty impossible to move up 4 Idle middle class with poor economic prospects rebellious teens 5 Rock and roll perfect vehicle for angst C English record companies begin to manufacture rock and roll singers but generally bad 1 Lack of familiarity with roots of rock results in pretty sterile copies of American groups 2 Much akin to BrillBuilding teenidol phase of early rock and roll 3 quotQuickly reverted to being uptempo teenage pop singersquot Chalmers 38 a Ex Cliff Richards 7 biggest English rock star b Listen to excerpt from Move It 4 Worse number of popular dance bands create quotrock 39n roll combosquot a Extension of white dance music culture avored with in uence of largely white covers of RampB tunes b Typical lineup sax guitar piano drums and vocalist D In some creates desire to look elsewhere for new music 7 particularly young guitar players who admired Elvis and especially Chuck Berrry 1 Look to records of country blues artists starting to be released in UK 2 Particularly associated with revival of traditional Dixieland jazz E Sparks skif e craze that sweeps England from 56 to 58 1 English version syncopated mixture of jazz folk and blues elements a Book says mixture of Dixieland jazz and country blues b Decent way to consider 2 Instrumentation mostly cheap easily accessible a acoustic guitar b washboard c quotteachestquot bass d other optional instruments such as kazoo 3 Primarily in uenced by black folk artists a Leadbelly b Josh White 4 Attracted young guitar players 5 Biggest artist Lonnie Donegan a Has lst skif e quothitquot with Leadbelly quotRock Island Linequot i Released as a single in 1956 ii One of 1st British records to make American Top 20 b Play eX 7 start at 115 c Claims it was the quotsingle record that introduced AfroAmerican music to Britainquot exaggerateed i But probably did introduce to many people for 1st time ii And popularized the acoustic guitar F Skif e craze largely responsible for British rock acts of the 1960s 1 ElVis popularized rock 2 Donegan made it seem playable III Personal in uences A John Lennon 19401980 1 Learned to play guitar after hearing ElVis 2 Primarily instructed by mother who played ukulele 3 Formed skif e group the Quarrymen at age 17 4 Primary in uences a country blues b trad jazz c rockabilly speci cally Buddy Holly B Paul McCartney 1942 l Grew up in musical household 7 father amateur musician 2 Musical education from father a Also took piano lessons b And learned a little trumpet c Took up guitar in late teens 3 Primary musical in uences a English popular music b Dance hall music c trad jazz d rock and roll rockabilly RampB C George Harrison 19432001 1 In uences a Dance hall music b jazz c American country music Jimmie Rodgers specifically Made him want to play guitar d Skif e e Rock and roll rockabilly 2 Friend of father s taught him to play guitar D Ringo Starr Richard Starkey 1940 l Started drumming at age 14 when hospitalized for tuburculosis 2 In uences a Country music esp Gene Autry b Big Bandjazz c skif e d English pop e blues III Periods A Book divides into four roughly equal stages 1 Beatlemania 196264 2 Dylaninspired seriousness 196566 3 Psychedelia late 19661967 4 Return to Roots 196870 B Good a way as any to consider career but need to add one more 7 Early Career 1 Book says had unique sound right from the start 2 Not exactly 3 The Quarry MenThe Beatles performed for five years before first major releases 4 In uences repertoire then shaped sound IV Early career A Gigs in Liverpool B Hamburg 1 Manager who ran most of big Liverpool groups incl Beatles was friends with club owner in Hamburg 2 Many acts from the city hired for several weeks or months to play at various clubs 3 Beatles played Hamburg number of times between 1960 and 1963 show transparency a Expected to play 67 hours a night 6 nights a week b Had to i Know a lot of songs ii Be able to respond to requests iii Learn to quickly absorb adapt and reproduce anything to fill time 4 Playlists though reveal core in uences a Elvis b Buddy Holly and the Crickets c Little Richard d Chuck Berry e Eddie Cochran i May not be familiar with ii Fusion of energy of rockabilly crispness of country music and Elvis vocals 7 Buddy Holly Elvis Carl Perkins iii To my ears primary in uence on vocal style not sound of Paul McCartney iv Play some of Twentieth Floor 5 Much of early material closely modeled upon these in uences III Beatlemania 7 to 1964 A Assume you know of the phenomenon so won t go into it 1 Height of group s fame in England conquest of US 2 Begins with release of Please Please Me in UK in Jan of 1963 3 First public mobs in Oct of that year 4 Signi cant date Dec 26 1963 a I Want to Hold Your Hand I Saw Her Standing There released in US b Hits 1 in matter of weeks c Tops chart for seven weeks d Marks beginning of the British Invasion B Albums 1 Please Please Me 1 2 With the Beatles 3 Hard Days Night 4 Beatles for Sale 5 Help C Please please me 1 In uences a Roy Orbison b Bing Crosby song Please c Carl Perkins Lend Me Your Comb i Harmonies shape seem to be from this song ii Group admits was a favorite on Cavern play list iii Play some of Beatles version from Anthology 2 Oblique harmonic descent a Lennon stays static b McCartney descends 3 Some complex harmonic turns 4 Favorite Beatle sound speci cally Harrison 7 guitar lines in octaves a No real precedent for b Chuck Berry double note style but never playes in octaves c Reason for the 12 string Rickenbacker 7 easier d Many other British acts pick this up 5 Forceful drumming 6 Protopunk bass line 7 why D I Wanna Hold Your Hand 7 rst U S 1 l Rhythm a Backbeat b Style beat c Other Variant of clave rhythm in claps d Layers of rhythm common in early style 7 didn t have drummer until 1961 e Note the rhythmic effect created by opening riff i Tap foot ii Don t know where downbeat really is until vocals enter 2 Form a Again quite typical of early style b Verse and refrain with prominent hook i Or strophic with contrasting section in middle ii Frequently have tag line or coda 3 Vocal harmonies 4 Solo vocal style a Falsetto shouts b Melismas c Shouting 5 Melody a Rising at end of verse into falsetto 7 leads into refrain b B section smoother more lyrical c Melody writing another hallmark of Beatles style i McCartney specialty ii Lennon songs generally less tuneful more static 6 Texture a Note when harmonized when not b And style of drumming 7 Also note no solos E Twist and Shout 1 Vocal 7 incredibly in uential 2 Harder edge than most music out there esp in US 3 Revisit chronology a By 1960 rock and roll had been for the most part taken over by corporations b most blues and country elements disappear from rock and roll c Motown has first hit in 1960 with Shop Around i Motown sound in general not heavily in uenced by blues ii Smooth re ned sound preferred by Berry Gordy d StaXsoul sound doesn t even hit RampB charts until 196465 4 Reintroduces shouting to rock music 5 As well as badly needed reminder of RampB blues 6 Compare to Isley Brothers version F Sum up 7 early period style characteristics 1 Emulation of rockabilly rock and roll RampB idols 7 rock and roll band 2 Number of songs covers or modeled after songs that formed early repertoire 3 Recordings basically live 7 little studio production 4 3 part harmonies 5 Woo Yeah and other such vocal embellishments 6 Largely romantic lyrics 11 Mature period or Dylanin uenced 196566 A Albums O Rubber Soul Soul StaX soul O Revolver B Singles Q We Can Work It Out O Day Tripper O Paperback writer O Yellow Submarine O Eleanor Rigby C The in uence of Bob Dylan 1 Your songs aren t ABOUT anything 2 Drugs 7 particularly marijuana D Characteristics of mature period 1 Expanded palate oftone colors a Sitar 7 Indian string instrument i introduced to West by Ravi Shankar ii Both Byrds and Beatles employ in songs in 1965 b Orchestral instruments i Strings 7 but not wall of sound strings ii Trumpet clarinet iii used sparingly iv Or in case of Eleanor Rigby in place of band c Even guitars i Employed 12 different guitars in studio ii Slightly different sounds to each iii And made modi cations to change further 2 Willingness to depart from traditional ensemble 3 Increased role of producer George Martin a Becomes collaborative part of ensemble b Key in creating Beatles sound c Starting to take advantage of multitrack recording i Each part recorded separately ii Then mixed into master d More overdubbing of vocal guitar parts 4 More complicated harmonically 5 Subject matter of songs changes a More social commentary b And personal re ection D Norwegian Wood 1 Slow waltz 7 3 beats per measure 2 Form A A instrumental 7 sitar guitarsitar A A B B A A A A B B A A A 3 Gentle pop vocal style a No in uence of blues gospel b Different than earlier songs 4 Thin texture 5 Modal not tonal orientation a Different kind of scale older b Not major or minor so lacks ha1monic direction drive of blues rockabilly 5 Storytelling song but a Intensely personal b Deals with free love 6 Endweighting Does instrumentation texture shape song 7 How much of the producer do you sense here E Drive My Car 1 Point out genius of Beatles borrowing 2 it IS a soul riff ala Redding a In fact it s taken directly from Respect b but it doesn t sound like it s trying to be a soul song c Something new is created 3 Other in uences III The Psychedelic period 196667 A Huge cultural changes taking place by 1965 1 Civil rights movement in full ower 2 As were free speech movements early protests of Vietnam war 3 And new drug beginning to lter through the country 7 LSD 4 Creating new artistic and cultural movement 7 psychedelia a distortion of reality b new emphasis on imagination creativity c Individual perception over rules norms of society d New nonWestem viewpoints were attractive 5 One of the musical re ections of psychedelia was acid rock a Rock inspired by LSD Eastern music b Loose improvisatory style incorporating many freeform solos c Dronelike foundation i Drone 7 long sustained note often tonic held for long duration ii Component of Indian classical music most Arabic music iii Provides harmonic foundation thickens texture d Modallybased harmonies 7 lack of harmonic drive e Often lacks a definitive beat f Freeform lyrics g First acid rock song 7 The Byrds Eight Miles High i Intro aa Thick dense texture bb Heavy reverb on all particularly guitar cc Static quality dd Riffbased but riffs repeated expanded 7 robbed of momentum ii Vocals 7 3 part harmonies some reverb iii Droning directionless guitar solos at times cut in on vocals iv Lyrics that might or might not be about drugs V To my ear only partly acid rock vi Play B Beatles burned out from touring resolved to retire from road after lled commitments 1 Never toured again and only played live once more after early 1966 2 Instead focused attention nearly fulltime on recording 3 Increased attention to production careful composition was already in the wind 4 Also in uenced by Beach Boys Pet Sounds a Brian Wilson suffered nervous breakdown in 1966 had to stop touring i Replaced on road by other musicians ii Group continued to tour b Wilson focuses whole attention on song writing producing c Result was totally new kind of album i Theme album aa all songs treat same basic subject bb Hopes dreams worries and anxieties of growing up ii Very much a product of the studio aa Very heavily produced bb Spectorin uenced iii Employs lots of new sounds nontraditional instruments d Brian followed with bestselling single and most creative rock song to that date Good Vibrations i Put up transparency ii No intro 7 straight into lyrics with high voice treated with heavy echo aa Accomp by repeated short organ chords one per bar bb and sparse bass line that repeats every two measures cc Both sounds engineered 7 lots of reverb iii Third line of vocals 7 drums tambourine added aa Don t really emphasize beat or backbeat bb Touches of rhythmic texture here and there iv Four hard drum shots lead into v B section 7 chorus aa Low vocals replace high ones bb Accomp by theremin 7 electronic instrument cc After 4 bars doowop in uenced backing vocals and tambourine only percussion in B section on backbeat enter dd Less heavily produced than A section vi A section 7 2quotd verse vii B section repeated viii C extension ofB aa Sudden change of texture bb Piano modified to sound like jangly barroom piano cc Alternates chords with bass dd Drums and tambourine add more tone colors but don t emphasize beat or backbeat ee Several layers of vocals added singing vowel sounds ix D section aa Texture suddenly breaks leaving only sustained chords on church organ sounding keyboard bb Maracas establish slower tempo before vocals enter cc Midrange vocal line dd Repeated bass and backing vocals added ee Repeats again high organ line added ff Ends with a little burst of B x E section aa Bass high vocals with heavy echo bb Jointed shortly by second vocal melody cc Creates polyphony dd Other voices enter with other melodic ideas that intertwine ee Then returns to second half of B with usual instruments 5 Beatles carried example of Pet Sounds with them into studio D Characteristics of period 1 Very experimental a Creating new sounds and effects b New styles forms methods of composition c New in uences 7 avantgarde classical music acid rock Beach Boys 2 Surrealisticpsychedelic lyrics often drawn from impersonal sources 3 Album takes precedence over single a Those seen as separate entitites b Most singles from this period never released on album i Penny Lane ii Strawberry Fields Forever iii Hey Jude iv Lady Madonna 4 Abandoning traditional roles in band a John primarily plays keyboards b Paul using overdubs playing both bass and rhythm guitar C Sgt Peppers l Considered the first concept album a Album in which all of the songs a1ranged around a central concept or story b Debatable whether Sgt Pepper s really is i Begins with whimsical tune of Paul s 7 Sgt Pepper s Lonely Heart s Club Band ii Reprised near the end iii Other songs don t really have anything to do with iv But still seem unified if for no other reason than framed by Sgt Pepper songs V Which is enough c Created new idea of what an album could be 2 Highly produced a Extensive manipulation of sounds tracks b Lots of overdubbing mixing down and overdubbing again 7 only 4 tracks 3 Many songs acid rock a Beatles turned on to LSD by Roger McGuinn and David Crosby b Certainly knew Eight Miles High i Originally Six miles high 7 cruising altitude for jets ii Renamed in homage to Eight Days a Week c Lucy in the Sky With Diamonds i Intro on electric organ with very heavy reverb 7 thick feeling ii Verse 7 vocals dronelike bass echo and overdub on vocals aa Note change in second half bb More active bass line outlining triplets foreshadowed in first half cc Shuf e rhythm on cymbols dd Echo on vocals increased guitar doubles ee Different harmonies as well ff Four even hits on tomtoms lead into iii Chorus 7 Lucy in the Sky aa Meter change 7 duple to triple bb Never been done before cc Harder sound dd reinforcing vocals on last repetition ee Guitar 7 or active bass iv Back to verse v Chorus vi Halfverse vii Tag line 7 Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds viii Lennon claims not drug lyrics 7 you make the call 4 A Day in the Life a Stands outside Sgt Pepper frame b Form AABA but unique in that sections of all different length i 4 bar intro 7 clapping extraneous noise piano i I read the news 7 10 bars aa Sparse accompaniment bb Piano bass occasional guitar cc Maraca ii He blew his mind 7 9 bars aa Drums added iii 1 saw a film 7 11 bars aa Drums fills become more active bb More from piano iv Interlude after tag line I d love to turn you on 7 10 bars a Piano bb Strings 39 39 quotJ 39r 39 J to create into V B section 7 22 bars aa 2 bar intro piano bb Then two phrases of5 bars i Any difference ii No 7 not weighted to end of section cc 10 measure dream sequence brasses vi A section aa I saw a lm today bb lll2 bars cc Accompaniment roughly similar to vii ll measure outro 7 balances interlude not intro aa Long electronically manipulated ascent and crescendo culminating in note only dogs can hear bb Crashing piano chord with LONG dissolve c Lyrics Mysterious and poetic approach to serious topics that come together in a larger direct message to its listeners an embodiment of the central ideal for which the Beatles stood that a truly meaningful life can be had only when one is aware of one s self and one s surroundings and overcomes the status quo i Actually A sections most from Daily Mail of Dec 19 1966 ii B section started as different song by Paul IV Final period 7 Return to Roots 19681970 A Pretty good description of style 1 Decrease in experimental tendencies 2 Largely independent songwriting 7 little collaboration 3 Music in wide variety of styles 4 Rock and roll but rock that re ects musical in uences form past and present B The Beatles The White Album 1968 1 Obviously less 1 Demonstration 7 variety of in uences 2 Put back up list of early in uences on lads 3 Play excerpts from a Rocky Racoon 7 folk rock country b Honey Pie 7 English dance hall pop c Yer Blues 7 RampB d Revolution 1 rockabilly e Sexy Sadie 7 doowop e Mention Back in the USSR 7 Chuck Berry Beach Boys V Importance of the Beatles Expand possibilities of rock A Unorthodox ensembles B Demonstrate what is possible in studio C Start to shift balance of importance from single to album D Expand acceptable length of single E Expand harmonic tone color choices MUSC 309 Lecture 19 SingerSongwriters of the 1970s 1 Folk rock redoux A CSNY l Supergroup together from early l969late 1970 a in uence far greater than suggested by duration of band b Not only for the personalities involved c But harmonies sound as well 2 Coming together of personalities from two prominent West Coast bands a Stephen Stills Neil Young 7 Buffalo Spring eld i Acidcountry rockfolk orientation ii Similar to the Byrds but more folkly iii Ex For What It s Worth aa What aspects are folk bb What is something else iv Core of CSNY sound b David Crosby from the Byrds c Plus Graham Nash of the Hollies 7 British Invasion band 3 Crosby Stills and Nash came together in 1968 a Relaxed folk character to songs b Very tight harmonically c But something missing 7high harmonies d Asked Young tojoin 4 All four songwriters so output of varied character a Especially on album Deja Vu b Example Teach Graham Nash i Country in uence 7 pedal steel guitar sound played by Jerry Garica ii two part harmonies on verses iii Break into four part harmony for refrain aa High close bb Both Young and Crosby singing composite harmony lines iv Second verse 7 lead vocals close Everly Brothers ha1monies v Not quite end weighting but does provide contrast aa Musical parallel to lyrics bb Teach your childem 7 teach your parents c Example Ohio Neil Young i Lyrics about Kent State massacre 1970 aa Student protest over the war in Vietnam bb National Guard sent in to restore peace cc Shot and killed four students dd Neil Young wrote in about a day ii Riffbased 7 takes on almost martial feel iii Distortion on lead electric guitar iv No harmony at beginning 7 signi cant V Harmonies on chorus particularly close 7 adds to tension 5 Harmonies are the most characteristic trait of CSNY a Different and new sound to rock b Compare harmonies on Helplessly Hoping and Catch a Wave by the Beach Boys i Difference ii Beach Boys harmony is much wider 7 larger range covered B Simon and Garfunkel 1 Another distinctive harmony sound 2 HeaVily in uenced by Everly Brothers as a duet a Mentioned hit Hey Schoolgirl as Tom and Jerry in 1957 b Split up for college reunited in 1962 3 Simon associated with both Brill Building crowd and NY folk scene a Colors songs of Simon and Garfunkel b As well as solo work by Simon 3 Acoustic Folk album released in 1962 doesn t go much of anywhere 4 Reissued with studio production rock band backup 7 Sounds of Silence a Dark imagery b But framed as lyrical folk in uenced pop song i Long melodic line ii Grows from short idea introduced at beginning iii Tells a story c Strophic form i With added feature ii Hook sound of silence that acts as something of a refrain d Modal harmony e Close harmonies i Much of the time in 5ths or 3rds ii But Garfunkel constructs composite part 5 Fairly typical of sound a The Boxer more complicated but contains most of the same characteristics b Wider palate of instrumental color i Jaw s Harp ii bodhran Celtic drum iii Trumpet sound on keyboard c Thicker texture depending on recording of Sounds d More complex modal harmonies e Fa la la refrain f Somewhat endweighted but more a series of curves that are thicker textured later in the song 11 Singersongwriters A One of largest new trends of 1970s was popularity of singersongwriters l Musician who writes and performs own material 2 Usually as solo act 3 Not oriented toward mainstream B Can be considered latterday folk rock performers 1 In early 70s artists in uenced by wider combo of in uences blues jazz pop 2 most moving farther from folk roots of groupsartists like Byrds Dylan 3 Or secondgeneration Brill Building C Covers wide variety of styles but have in common 1 Generally introspective selforiented lyrics 2 Singer instrumentalists usually on acoustic guitar or piano 3 Almost no studio production 4 Contrast to hard rock blackin uenced styles and mainstream rock D Trend toward this type of music starts with James Taylor 1948 1 Started in NY coffeehouses soft folk rock style with touches of country in uence 2 Signed to Apple Records in 1968 a Label started by Beatles in 1967 b As well as own records wanted to encourage and establish new talent c JT their first musical discovery 3 First successful album 7 Sweet Baby James 1970 a Most of the songs written while recovering from heroin addiction b Very painful introspective lyrics c Sold scads ofrecords 4 EX Fire and Rain a Folk rock orientation evident b Lyrical content personal but more akin to popular Motown styles c Acoustic guitar from Taylor d But record includes backing from rock band fair amount of studio production i Buzzing drone from bass ii Heavy drums iii Piano e Endweighted E Carole King 1 Brillbuilding songwriter a With thenhusband Jerry Goffrn b Hits for Everyly Brothers Herman s Hermits the Animals Blood Sweat and Tears Monkees Aretha Franklin Byrds 2 Records album of own material in late 60s 3 2quotd album Tapestry 1971 a I Feel the Earth Move It s Too Late You ve Got a Friend You Make Me Feel Like a Natural Woman b Huge seller i 300 odd weeks on the charts ii Best selling pop album to that date 4 Obviously considering background heavily pop in uenced piano oriented F Joni Mitchell Roberta Joan Anderson 1943 1 Began career as folk singer 2 Distinctive breathy recitatational lyric style 3 Sophisticated yet personal lyrics 4 Clear jazz in uences on vocal style especially in mid 70s G Van Morrison 1 Irish musician 2 Starts playing in skif e band when 11 3 Becomes lead singer for Them the rst Irish rock band a Several big hits 19651966 b Including Gloria 4 Moves to US starts solo career in 1966 5 Astral Weeks rst important a Heavily in uenced by jazz b As is most popular Morrison album Moondance 1970 6 Listen to Cypress Avenue on own H Neil Young 1 Discussed as part of CSNY 2 But tremendously important as solo artists a Long career encompassing myriad of styles i Rockabilly ii Country rock iii RampB iv Pop b Godfather of Grunge 7 and arguably contributor to number of other styles including punk rock 3 Songs typically dark poetic lyrics a Heavily in uenced by Bob Dylan b Storytelling songs but also impressions 7 often obscure c Hardedged d Frequent guitar breaks 4 The Loner 7 from rst solo album 1969 a Intro 7 acoustic guitar keyboard b Verse 7 complete change of sound and texture i Heavy bass and guitar ii Highly distorted buzzy guitar iii Every phrase completed by 2 bar break for guitar c Bridge 7 again total change i Sweeping strings on keyboard ii Heavy drumming iii Buzzing sound of guitar very exposed d Hook as refrain acapella e More rhythmic version of intro returns f Verse bridge hook as above g Leads into contrasting instrumental section i Strings and bass in counterpoint ii Short guitar solo h Final verse i Interlude returns with some additional touches of strings j Good deal of studio production but used in a really interesting way k This song in uence on number of songs groups of the early 1970s Ohio Tin soldiers and Nixon39s coming we39re finally on our own This summer I hear the drumming four dead in Ohio Gotta get down to it soldiers are cutting us down Should have been done long ago What if you knew her and found her dead on the ground How can you run when you know MUSC 309 History of Rock and Roll Rockabilly 1 Bill Haley and the Comets A Bill Haley from Western swing tradition Saddlemen B Some success with cover of Rocket 88 1 Renames band the Comets 2 Starts performing RampB covers 3 Hits with Rock Around the Clock a for much of the song fast shuf e rhythm b often evens out particularly during guitar solos c Uptempo d 12bar blues form i First 4 bars verse ii Last 8 chorus C Style 7 combination of Western swing boogiewoogie and RampB 1 Not a great impact in this country 2 But in England bigger than Elvis 3 Starts English teenagers singing rock and roll 11 Speaking of Elvis A Does the King of Rock and Roll really sing rock and roll B Let s test 1 Excerpts from following songs 2 Vote for either RampB shuf e beat or rock 3 Heartbreak Hotel 4 Mystery Train 5 Hound Dog 6 Jailhouse rock 7 All Shook Up C Whether most songs meets criteria established here for rock and roll or not secondary 1 Elvis is figure by which rock and roll reaches large white audience 2 Brief bio a Born Tupelo Mississippi 1935 to poor white family b Begins playing guitar age 11 listened to Muddy Waters Jimmie Rodgers c Moved to Memphis in 1948 absorbs blues RampB scene d Graduates from high school in 1953 e Goes into Sun studios to record demo in early 1954 i Second session records That s All Rjgbt Mama and Blue Moon ofKentucky ii By August featured on Grand Old Opry f Major television appearances in August of 1956 make him a sensation 3 In uence 7 show tape a Brings number of vocal styles into rock and roll i Fuses gospel honkytonk RampB hillbilly and pop crooning ii Stutters vibrato and vocal effects of honkytonk prominent b Cool factor c Persona in which country and RampB white and black cultures mesh d Show tape 4 Style a combination of honkytonk Western swing and rhythm and blues with unique vocal style 5 EX Jailhouse Rock a versechorus blues form b stop time from blues c RampBgospel vocals d rock style beat in guitar e Elvis tends toward shuf e rhythm in vocals interludes f walking bass g ranges i Piano 7 high register ii bass and guitar 7 low iii Elvis 7 middle of texture 6 Essentially creates a subgenre ofrock and roll III Rockabilly Def 1 Combo of country and RampB but with more weight on the country elements 2 Less blues in uence on vocal style than with Chuck Berry Little Richard Jerry Lee Lewis a Rather hiccups stutters b vibrato vocal effects like Lefty Frizzell country style 3 Fast nervous tempos of bluegrass 4 Accented backbeats slapped bass often alternating but even beats of country music 5 Rock or honkytonk instrumentation a Lead electric guitar b Acoustic rhythm guitar c String bass d Drums e No steel guitar 6 Songs from RampB repertoire or in similar style 7 Elements of RampB style like stop time back beats on snare drums 8 And in uence from early rock and roll artists B Elvis and Bill Haley both in rockabilly tradition I EX Elvis Mystery Train 2 Basic rhythmic premise honkytonk simple crisp backbeat a Slapped bass b Alternates with back beat from rhythm guitar c Modified with a rebound 3 Song is blues form but modified a Phrases longer than four bars b More ha1monic changes than I IV V 4 Elvis vocals combine RampB and country as well 5 Differences between RampB and rock and roll a Compare Elvis Mystery Train to Junior Parker version C Dick Clark calls precursor to rock and roll but continues until end of the decade D Major gure 7 Carl Perkins 19321998 1 Born rural Tennessee in 1932 a Working as country singer at dances parties when heard Elvis on radio b Decided to pattern style on Elvis c Went to Memphis auditioned for Sam Phillips on Sun Records d Thought would be bigger star than Elvis but almost killed in car accident as Blue Suede Shoes was climbing the charts 2 Country in uences audible 3 But also heavy doses ofblues 7 Blues with a country beat 4 EX Blue Suede Shoes a listen b Take it apart i Style beat rock ii Stop time from RampB iii Guitar style iv Instrumentation v Form vi Vocal style vii Style particulars Riffs Bass line viii harmonies E Buddy Holly 19361959 1 Born Lubbock Texas 1936 2 Formed Western swing band in high school worked as backup band for Bill Haley 3 Hears Elvis perform several times in Lubbock a Pesters about how to get a record contract b Models vocal style after Elvis 4 First unsuccessful recording in 1956 5 First hit That ll Be The Day in 1957 a Rapid string of 7 hit records with new band the Crickets b Killed in plane crash 6 Proof that ANYBODY can rock and roll 7 In uences equal parts of country RampB and rock and roll a Guitar playing 7 RampB in uenced b Vocal style 7 country very in uenced by Hank Williams Jimmie Rodgers Elvis c Rock and roll i Significant in that one of rst rock and roll singers to be in uenced by rock and roll ii Lyrics 7 in uenced by ChuckBerry aa Deal with teen themes bb but in way more re ective of pop songs iii Forms aa Borrows refrainframe from Berry bb But often combines with narrative as in Maybelline d Compositions most sophisticated of early rock artists 8 Not Fade Away a Riff based but combines with stop time b Stuttering vocal style almost Jimmie Rodgers c But 7 rhythmically complex i Layers ii Beat iii Style beat iv Bo Diddley beat v backbeat d 13 of class clap beat 13 backbeat 13 Bo Diddley e Now stop 7 listen for f Not always there 7 but always implied g Sophisticated technique from jazz 9 Well All Right a Indication that if had lived later style would have been quite different b Play c Hard to hear any blues d Verserefrain but with weight on verses e De nitely forward looking 7 Blind Faith records a decade later F Jerry Lee Lewis 1935 1 Born Ferriday Louisiana 2 Primary in uences 7 boogiewoogie piano New Orleans style of Prof Longhair 3 Usually categorized as rockabilly artist 4 But style has great deal in common with Little Richard 5 Listen to Great Balls of Fire a Style characteristics b Percussive boogiewoogie style c Glissandos triplets ala New Orleans style d Vocals i Blatantly sexual lyrics ii Important development in rock and roll e Same frantic performance style as Little Richard G Everly Brothers Don 1937 and Phil 1938 1 Very country music in uenced even though might not seem rockabilly 2 Born into family of country musicians a But as we ve heard very in uenced by RampB as well b Parents ran radio station in Iowa so heard and performed everything 3 Earliest recordings for Cadence label in Nashville a Perceived as country songs for teen audience b but had crossover appeal 4 Style a Mountainstyle tight harmony in thirds i Compare to sound of Carter family ii But 7 much of vocal style itself shaped by blues and gospel b Rock instrumentation often with acoustic guitar piano c Catchy owing melody lines d Gentle rock beat 7 not as heaVily accented as in other early rock and rollers 5 EX AIIIHa V6 to D0 15 Dream a AABA pop song form b Poporiented melody c 8beat style beat
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