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History of Rock and Roll

by: Miss Bria Brekke

History of Rock and Roll MUSC 309

Marketplace > Kansas > Musicology > MUSC 309 > History of Rock and Roll
Miss Bria Brekke
GPA 3.87

Roberta Schwartz

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Roberta Schwartz
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Bria Brekke on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUSC 309 at Kansas taught by Roberta Schwartz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/182441/musc-309-kansas in Musicology at Kansas.


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Date Created: 09/07/15
MUSC 309 Lecture 6 Rhythm and Blues 1 RampB background A What is RampB 1 Marketing label a Rhythm and blues records race records b Records primarily by black artists marketed to African American consumers c Billboard changes chart title in 1949 2 Musical meaning a Strongly rhythmic fusion of African American styles b Crossover appeal i Also popular with white audiences ii Hits have potential to cross over to pop country charts c Musical in uences 7 i Gospel ii Swingjazz iii Boogiewoogie iv Country blues V Popular music B Social and Economic Issues of African American society 194555 1 Improved economic status a World War II stimulated economy b More better payingjobs 2 Pace of great migration increases a More migrants from rural south b Blacks concentrated in most areas in urban north 3 Civil Rights movement 1 Brown V Board of Education 1954 ends legal segregation 2 Montgomery bus boycott in 1955 sparks Civil Rights movement 4 Marginally better access to mass media a KFFA in Helena Arkansas becomes first station to broadcast blues in 1941 b 1948 WDIA in Memphis becomes first all black station in US i B B King and Rufus Thomas serve as discjockeys a Radio personalities with own radio shows b Popularity of DJs also drives listenership ii Within 2 weeks 1 station in Memphis a More African American artists appear on network radio 1 RampB Basics A Types 1 Uptempo strongly rhythmic blues 2 Electric blues 3 Gospelin uenced styles 4 Doowop 5 RampB with strong AfroCuban in uences a Instruments b Latin rhythms B The Big Beat of RampB 1 In many RampB styles rhythm becomes more prominent than in past 2 Backbeat a Accents on second and fourth beats of measure b In RampB usually strongly accented c Most often in drums usually snare d Sometimes reinforced with hand claps or snaps 3 Shuf e rhythm a Subdivision of beat as in rock style beat b First note ofpair twice as long as second c Ex swung eighth notes injazz 4 Triplets a Beat divided into three equal parts b Clap a steady beat then subdivide into triplets C The sound of uptempo RampB Rocket 88 1 Jackie Brenston and his Delta Cats a Group led by Ike Turner i Blues musician from Clarksdale Mississippi ii Also worked as talent scout for independent labels in south b Went to Sun records in Memphis to record song about Oldsmobile 88 c Turner s saxophone player Jackie Brenston sang lead on the track d Sam Phillips mistakenly credited Brenston 2 Guitar distortion a On way to studio guitar amp fell of top of the car b Tore the speaker cone part of speaker that vibrates to produce the frequency being amplified c Resulted in distorted fuzzy sound d Phillips liked used on record i Make guitar line more prominent ii Thought it complemented booting sax 3 Honking or booting saxophone i Alto or tenor sax standard part of RampB bands of 40s and 50s ii Preferred tone color honking or booting aa Harsh slightly sharp sound bb Created by overblowing 7 more air than needed cc Tone color a good match for rough gravelly timbre of vocalists 4 Triplets i Common feature of rhythm and blues ii Derived from boogie aa Rhythmic feel common to many African American folk dance styles i Created by alternating quarter long and eighth short notes ii Rather like shuf e rhythm iii Listen for triplets in piano part iv Shuf e rhythm in guitar and triplets complement each other aa Triplets in 44 time 1 2 3 4 XXXXXXXXXXXX bb Shuf e X X X X X X X X III Jump Blues A Descends from swing bands ofthe 30s and 40s 1 Particularly heavily blues in uenced groups like Count Basie 2 Stripped down instrumentation a Two or three horns b Plus percussion section B Add vocalist to the miX 1 Usually male singer with strong blues voice 2 Called quotblues shoutersquot C Songs a miXture of hokum blues jazz and popular music D Uptempo numbers with shuf e rhythms often boogiewoogie feel E Riffbased accompaniments 1 But not as smooth as swing jazz 2 More raucous quothonkingquot sound F Syncopated four or eightbeat rhythms G Lots of showmanship involved H Earliest and most successful of these was Louis Jordan 1 Arguably lSt RampB artist 2 Rhythm and blues one side of blues as evolved after WWII 3 EX Choo choo ch boogie a Fourbeat shuf e rhythm and boogiewoogie walking bass b Entirely riffbased i Permeates entire teXture ii Including melody iii Kind of gimmicky opening saX riff iv Horn riff under verses c Not a 12 bar blues verse and refrain form d Boogie woogie piano solo e Followed by verserefrain f SaX solo built from riffs g Compare to Tight Like That IV Electric blues A New style develops in cities as result of Great Migration 1 New environment social conditions concerns 2 Typical blues venue shifts from small jukes to larger clubs 3 Informed by country blues style a Clear ties to Mississippi Delta blues b Little in uence from commercial music styles 4 Collective performance the norm B Blues band 1 guitar 2 upright bass 3 drummer 4 harmonica or piano 5 Role of each instrument becomes standardized C Characteristics 1 More regular forms than country blues a 12 or 16 bar blues b versechorus blues form c Versechorus blues form where either verse or chorus is a 12bar blues 2 Dense often riffbased texture 3 Strong rhythm section laying in backbeat 4 Electronic ampli cation a Some blues players using electric guitars in early 1930s b Becomes norm after WWII c Requires ampli cation of singer bass and harmonica as well 5 Call and response with vocal like responses from harmonica or guitar D Muddy Waters McKinley Morganfield 1915 1983 1 quotDiscoveredquot in Mississippi in 1941 by Alan LomaX while recording for Library of Congress 2 Moved to Chicago shortly after 3 Major in uence on every blues player since 4 Hoochie Coochie Man a Waters accompanied by piano bass harmonica b Verse i Stop time now almost blues cliche ii Big nasty 1 12 beat riff followed by 2 12 beats for vocals c Chorus i Laid back shuf e rhythm b 8bar blues d dense texture e Multiple rhythmic layers f Hoodoo lyrics i Hoodoo Southern African American folk magic ii Contains some African retentions aa High John the Conqueror root bb Black cat bone cc Mojo V The Latin tinge part 2 New Orleans RampB A AfroCuban in uence surfaces in rhythm and blues in New Orleans B Professor Longhair Roy Head 1 Few major hits 2 But very in uential 7 mentors large number of younger New Orleans musicians 3 Professor Longhair s BluesRhumba a Walking bass b boogiewoogie piano c eight beat shuf e rhythm d quotreversequot clave rhythm or 23 son rhythm i 1 2 3 4 X X X X X ii As opposed to l234l234 X X X X X C Fats Domino 1 Native of New Orleans 2 Very much in uenced by sound of Professor Longhair and Latinin uenced boogiewoogie 3 Signature of many of his songs fast even triplets 4 Thick dense sound particularly in middle register 5 What qualities do you hear in Mardi Gras in New Orleans a Thick texture often polyrhythmic as well b Clave rhythm c l2bar blues form D Bo Diddley by Bo Diddley Elias McDaniel l The Bo Diddley Beat aka hambone rhythm a Compare to clave rhythm b Slight modification but clearly AfroCuban origin c Connected to patting juba i Children s game ii By extension keeping time by patting on parts of body 2 Essentially children s song that is REALLY funky 3 Note the maracas a Latin percussion instrument b Before this rarely used outside of Latin music c Articulates eight beat rock rhythm 4 Accompaniment a single chord 5 Rhythm constitutes main interest of song V Not quite RampB doowop A Background 1 History of quartet singing in African American culture a Important social role in African American life after Civil War b Often attached to barbershops surprised 2 Most visible examples gospel quartets B Doowop or vocal harmony groups 1 Basically gospel vocal quartet sound but with secular lyrics a Important precursors i Mills Brothers ii Ink Spots 2 Mostly urban phenomenon of 40s and 50s 3 Major characteristics a Harmonizing in thirds b Falsetto obbligato 7 requisite high part c Prominent bass singer d Songs are l2bar blues versechorus or AABA form e Emphasis on rhythmic accentuation i Often via scat singing ii Using voice to imitate instruments or percussive sounds iii Also important in bebop 7 newjazz sound of 1940s aa Small ensembles replace big bands bb Melodies convoluted chromatic cc Disjunct melodic lines and wide leaps dd Rhythmically aggressive 4 Frequently crossed over to pop charts often in cover versions a Hit songs rerecorded by a different group b Most often RampB hits covered by white artists a But remake that could be played on pop radio stations b And appeal to mainstream white audience c Often single artist or group did covers of particular RampB artists a Crew Cuts 7 redid Orioles tunes b Most infamous 7 Pat Boone covers of Buddy Holly tunes c Also black groups that covered white pop hits i These often involve new interpretation ii Different arrangements stylistic shifts C Comparing gospel quartets and doowop 1 Compare The Chords Sh Boom to Jesus I 3911 Never Forget 2 Differences a Sh Boom more like pop song b How i Harmonies more compleX than blues but not much ii Melody iii versechorus form not based on blues iv Triplets in background vocals na na na na na na in chorus 3 Similarities a Vocal percussion light b Harmonies in vocals c No significant instrumental accompaniment D Epitome of the slow doowop style Flamingos I Only Have Eyes for You 1 Slow tempo 2 Very much in uenced by pop 3 Triplets in accompaniment 4 Scat singing in riffbased accompaniment doowopchbop 5 Fairly compleX harmonies E Coasters the opposite of most doowop 1 Fair assessment 2 Listen to Young Blood 7 how is it different from ShBoom a Heavy backbeat b Humor c Tells a story d breaks e Faster tempo f More percussive backing vocals VI Gospel in uences in rock and roll A Important component of RampB B Ampli ed by performers with strong gospel backgrounds C Sam Cooke 1 Former lead singer of Soul Stirrers 2 Began recording secular material in 1956 3 Pioneered popgospel style 4 EX You Send Me a Gospel traits i Melismatic ourishes ii Effortless control of full vocal range iii Emotional connection to material soul b Pop i Arrangement aa discreet instrumentals bb white background singers in pop style cc Subdued time keeping D Ray Charles 1 Raised in Florida but in uenced by West Coast RampB pianists like Nat King Cole and Charles Brown 2 Earliest recordings in blues crooner style 3 Moves to New Orleans starts to incorporate gospel in uences a Some early songs essentially secularized gospel b Getting happy feeling 4 What39s gospel in I Gotl Woman Besides that s it s a gospel song a Exuberance 7 getting happy feeling b Vocal melismas c Falsetto range d Gospel shout 5 What s RampBblues a Lyrics about relationship b Stop time c Electric bass d 8 beat rock rhythm on cymbal 6 What about What 61 I Say


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