History of Rock and Roll
History of Rock and Roll MUSC 309
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MUSC 309 Lecture 17 Heavy Metal 1 Intro to Metal A More aggressive strain of blues rock developed in late 1960s B Drew inspiration from Rolling Stones The Who Cream and particular Jimi Hendrix show chart 1 Reaction to the Beatles or rather reputation of the Beatles 2 And other British invasion pop rock bands C Eventually takes on characteristics that combine blues acid rock 1 Extended improvisations including long drum solos Use of guitar distortion feedback other noise effects Powerful loud active drumming Riffbased Bluesin uenced guitar Modal harmonies Frequent doubling of bass and guitar lines High harsh dramatic bluesedged vocals 9 Highly engineered sound reverb echo 10 Relies heavily on power chords D Eventually spawns two related essentially intertwined styles 1 Retains strong ties to the blues hard rock 2 More affiliation with acid rock dark imagery heavy metal E Early hard rocldproto metal bands 1 Cream 2 Steppenwolf a Song Born to Be Wild uses the phrase quotHeavy Metal Thunderquot b Gained wide exposure due to use in film Easy Rider 1969 3 Vanilla Fudge 4 Iron Butter y InAGaddaDa Vida 17 minutes 5 Led Zeppelin we ll come back to F Earliest band that clearly represents new style that will come to be called heavy metal Black Sabbath 11 Black Sabbath Ozzy Osbourne Tommy Iommi quotGeezerquot Butler Bill Ward A Originally English blues band called Polka Tuck 1 Name then changed to Earth 2 Then finally Black Sabbath B Aggressive reaction to psychedelic culture of San Francisco Woodstock show clip C Most of characteristics of metal displayed in first and largest hit Paranoid l Harddriving eightbeat rock rhythm 2 Power chords in bass guitar outline harmonies but don t create sense of motion toward harmonic goal a Demonstrate if need be with blues changes b Can t just leave hanging on V c But if take away all but skeleton of the chords sounds OK 3 High aggressive vocals 4 Very dense texture 00IOUIJgtUN 5 Fast 6 LOUD 7 Dark subject matter 8 Riffdriven 9 Modal guitar solo D Deep Purple 1 Once listed in the Guinness Book World s Record as loudest rock band 2 may also hold a record for the most changes in personnel 3 Originally pop oriented with signi cant in uence of blues 4 Keyboardist Jon Lord encouraged the group to pursue more progressive musical ideas a 1970 s Concerto for Group and Orchestra a collaboration with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra b Made classical music esp that of Baroque period Bach Handel Vivaldi core in uence of group c Album sold poorly and Richie Blackmore steered band toward hard rock d Both in uences evident in Highway Star 11 Liberation of Rock A By mid1960s rock musicians begin to assimilate various stylistic in uences into central rock style B Also freer rhythmic approach C Results in number of bands that defy easy classi cation 11 The Who Roger Daltry 1944 Pete Townshend 1945 John Entrwisle 1944 2002 Keith Moon 19471978 A Odd combination of blues rock garage band and art rock 1 Fit into niche between the Beatles and the Stones 2 Part of the quotsecond wavequot of British Invasion bands B Early career 1 Pop sound that eXibited con icts between hardedged rock Daltry and artistic intellectuality Townshend 2 Started as the High Numbers name changed to the Who in 1965 3 Part of image sound start to come together when during 1965 gig Townshend accidentally smashed guitar a Crowd went wild b So Keith Moon destroyed his drum kit too c Became part of act d Physicality stage behavior important characteristic of band i Windmill strumming of Townshend ii Jumps leaps splits iii Daltry strutting mike twirling iv Pissedoff openly hostile on stage d If the Stones were antiBeatles kind of grubby dangerous then the Who were openly menacing to older crowd i Not only didn t conform to pop sensibilities ii Earliest demonstration of punk aesthetic 4 Also affiliate with electronic technician Jim Marshall i Start to employ stacks of Marshall amps on stage ii Comes to be known as quotMarshall stackquot iii Loud and encourages feedback and distortion 5 First hit I Can t Explain 1965 6 Followed closely by musical extension of stage personae My Generation 7 Albums begin to integrate more experimental techniques sophisticated musical ideas 7 Ex Won t Get Fooled Again a Intro 7 synthesizer i Provides alternative tone color ii Functions as rhythm guitar 7 lays out 8 beat rock rhythm b Active melodic bass line c Irregular drumming by Keith Moon d Long song i Introduction ii As well as long interlude iii And extended instrumental solos 5 In uences a blues rock b Early rock and roll especially Chuck Berry c Early Beatles and Stones d Trad jazz 7 Entwistle and Townshend playing banjo were in a band together called the Scorpions e Surf sound of Duane Eddy f Motown and soul II Led Zeppelin often credited as first heavy metal band A Debatable 1 Certain parts of output suggest 2 Some don t B Can argue that Zeppelin one of the most important band in the development of heavy metal 1 Show transparency 2 Point out chronology problems Aerosmith after most devoted imitators 3 And in uence problems Grand Funk and American metal heavily impacted by Zeppelin C Unquestionably most important in development of hard rock 1 In uence evident in almost every metal or hard rock band of the 1970s and 80s 2 Huge impact on vocal and lead guitar styles 3 And the way songs created D Even larger 7 often unacknowledged impact on interaction of recording companies and artists touring importance of the single and the business of rock E Also dubious distinction of being one of most popular rock bands in the world yet until recently hated by critics press 111 Led Zeppelin A Jimmy Page 1944 I Started guitar at age 15 in uenced by skif e craze but primary in uences Chuck Berry guitarist James Burton on Ricky Nelson records 2 At age 17 recruited by London band Neil Christian and the Crusaders a Started to develop a reputation as THE guitar ace in England b But touring too much strain on health 3 Quit band but shortly became one of the most popular studio musicians in UK a Played on a huge number of singles b Ex Kinks You Really Got Me 7 Jimmy behind the fuzz tone c Also on The Who I Can t Explain singles by Them other lesser British Invasion bands 4 By 66 bored with session scene joins Yardbirds when asked to reinforce Jeff Beck a Band split up in 1968 with roster oftour dates to be filled b Jimmy retained name decided to form new band c Recruited B John Paul Jones John Baldwin 1946 1 Another popular English studio musician 2 Played bass on countless rocldpop hits of mid 1960s C Robert Plant 1948 l Relatively unknown vocalist who performed with various bands round Birmingham 2 Recommended by one of Page s first choices 3 Once Page heard him and unique vocal style primeval wail was hired 4 He recommended D John Bonham 19481980 E All had strong ties to blues RampB l Particularly Plant Page 2 Not same diversity of stylistic in uences as say Beatles at beginning 3 But Page Jones used to playing anything and everything F Played first tour as New Yardbirds but then changed name to Led Zeppelin III Characteristics A Riffbased style 1 Most early songs based on bass riff 2 Riffs used different ways in different songs a Often change or shift over duration ex Black Dog 7 will get to b Or different riffs used in different sections Ex The Crunge c Or drop out for solos choruses etc Ex Celebration Day B Engineered with reverb echo distortion and other sound effects 1 Some produced by unorthodox methods not electronic 2 Examples a Bonham lined bass drum with foil b Page playing guitar with violin bow 3 But frequent use of multitracking doubletracking in concert C Unbridled emotionalism 1 Huge contrast to other bands of their time 2 Probably one of reasons were critically panned D In uence of blues on style but something different 1 Hardedged rock sound steeped in the blues and the psychedelic rock of the late 60s a Blues roots often not acknowledged b Even blues covers aren t always recognized as such c Ex Jesus Gonna Make Up My Dyin Bed In My Time of Dying 2 But multitude of other in uences 7 surface in individual songs or albums rather than in overall sound a World music especially Indian and Arabic Ex White SummerBlack Moutain Side b reggae D yer Mak er c Celtic English folk music d country music and bluegrass Ex Hot Dog 3 But blues in uence still there a l2bar blues on every Zeppelin album b Blues lyrics frequently tossed into songs live performances c But not as much of focus for tunes as Stones E Diversity of style F Plant s vocal style 1 Extremely high voice for rock singer 2 In uenced by blues shouters of RampB 3 Voice changes timbre and texture like a guitarist a Shrieks moans vocalizations b Can sing in variety of styles depending on song G Page guitar style 1 Avoids clean sound 2 Prefers distortion thick texture 3 Frequently employs pedal effects feedback 4 In general sound more important than notes 5 With Hendrix founder of metal guitar style H Loud active drumming 1 Variety of percussion sounds 2 Mixed or additive meters or irregular accent patterns common I Sonically vast l Loud and edgy 2 Wide range of textures but songs often end with dense rich texture IV Example of style Stairway to Heaven A Zeppelin s masterwork B Began as instrumental framework C Then defined as sectional form AA BC 1 Acoustic introduction with Renaissance soundsA 2 Successive additions of instruments A 3 Switch from acoustic to electric instruments B 4 Final climactic section 5 Set off by short instrumental bridge D Essentially strophic within sections 1 Each 3line strophe to same melody 2 New melodic idea or variant introduced in each section E Folkmusic in uenced melody and folklike delivery F Endweighted 7 texture and tension gradually build to last section 1 Twelvestring guitar fanfare a Metrically complex 7 additive meter b Leads into guitar solo 2 C section vocals very different a aggressive hardedged shouting vocal tone b Short melodic idea over guitarbass riff 3 Final guitar solo slows tempo 4 A capella statement metrically free of last line of rst strophe as tag line G Never released as a single 1 track was fully 8 minutes long 2 pop and rock songs still limited to 34 minutes to facilitate radio play 3 DJs jammed into their play lists palticularly AOR stations 4 Fans bought the album as if it were a single 5 All of a sudden longer tracks OK with studios 6 From the beginning focus on albums not singles a By 1970 outsted Beatles as most popular band in UK even though had never and would never released a single in Britain b Only had a handful of singles reach the top 10 in US c Though every album by the group hit the top 10 in both countries V Another characteristic of Zeppelin 7 performance style A Like Stones had front man and guitar god 1 Both extremely visible 2 Focus actually Page rather than Plant B Drummer Bonham given feature every concert 1 Idea of rock drum solo quite new 2 Originated with Ginger Baker of Cream 7 Toad 3 Similar song 7 Moby Dick 7 was Zeppelin acknowledgement of drummer 4 But much longer 7 often 1015 minutes in concert C Improvisationally oriented band 1 Like Grateful Dead once on stage songs were a framework for improvisation 2 Long guitar keyboard solos 3 Frequent exchanges of ideas between Plant Page 4 Free jams D As a result concerts usually 34 hours long without opening band E Example Dazed and Confused 1 Cover of song by American folk singer Jake Holmes 2 As recorded starts with descending chromatic scale in bass a Longstanding l7Lh c association with grief and despair b Ostinato 7 repeats over and over c Distorted guitar line sketched above 3 Leads into first verse 4 Break riff doubled by guitar an 8ve higher and 8ve above that by second guitar track 5 Second verse 6 Break a triplet feel in bass b Followed by riff doubled by guitar 7 Third verse a Starts like previous break but develops into extended improvisation b Call and response exchange of motives between guitar vocals c Tripletime section 8 Last verse bass riff returns with vocals 9 On Led Zeppelin I 6 minutes 20 seconds 10 In concert a More extended improvs b Violin bow solo to emulate distortion and effects added in studio c Movie graphics too VI The Heavy Metal Band issue A Black Dog 1 Considered by many THE representative Zeppelin song 2 Instantly recognizable riff a metrical intricacy 7 constant displacement of beat in relation to drums b show transparency c creates sense of momentum d Also destroys expectations 7 cuz don t know what to expect 3 Stop times 7 blues 4 Barreling guitar solo 5 Loud sharp drumming 7 like a rhino in a tutu B Compare to Battle of Evermore VII Impact A I ll definitely buy as godfathers of heavy metal and father of hard rock B Shatter 4 minute barrier for songs 7 and fix importance of AOR radio C Set expectation for concert length D Change in concert circuit and way business was done in re tours 1 Tours generate bulk of income rather than promote albums 2 Zeppelin renegotiates artists take from concerts a Previously got 10 of money from ticket sales b Zeppelin and everyone after took 90 E Establish importance of the album as primary revenue generator MUSC 309 Lecture 14 Rock 1 British Blues revival A Fans of traditional New Orleans style jazz and skif e also interested in Blues 1 Creates market for blues reissues on LP a Country blues b Chicago blues artists of 50s like Muddy Waters John Lee Hooker Howlin Wolf c Landmark in English rock release of Best of Robert Johnson 1961 d Can all be considered deep blues i Clear ties to country blues ii Little in uence from commercial music styles 2 Blues clubs begin proliferating throughout Britain 3 Skif ers and Trad musicians begin forming bands to perform blues repertoire a Cyril Davies and Alexis Komer form Blues Incorporated i First English RampB band ii Modeled on experiments by Trad jazz bandleader Chris Barber iii Training ground for a number of young players aa Mick Jagger bb Ginger Baker cc Jimmy Page dd Charlie Watts ee Eric Clapton b Followed by other RampB acts c Begin with relatively straight cover versions of Chicago blues d Unlike American covers in 1950s don t change character of music e Sincere attempts to emulate style but often lacking something 4 Eventually yields new rock styles hard rock blues rock heavy metal 5 Blues in uences on hard rock a Primacy of the guitar i Prior to revival guitarists important members of rock bands but rarely featured ii Guitar solos also rare iii blues focused ensembles around the guitar b Guitar tone colors and techniques expand i Overdriven guitar sound aa Result of pushing amplifiers to limits bb Creates snarling hard rock guitar sound ii Virtuosity becomes important c Vocal style i Rough harsh colors of blues singers ii Using entire voice not just refined singing voice aa vocal glissandos slurs and shadings of tone and color bb groans moans and shouts d Improvisation i Extended improvised solos become important part of rock ii Jamming based on blues changes e More dynamic and aggressive showmanship f Increased focus on rhythmic complexity g Riffbased compositional style i Ex Kinks You Really Got Me ii Single guitarbass riff provides melodic interest rhythmic and harmonic foundation aa Harmonic sequence 7 twochord riff played at several different pitch levels bb One for first half of verse another for second third for chorus iii Use of power chords aa threenote chord composed of the tonic fifth note of the scale and an octave above the tonic bb Doesn t include the third necessary component of tonal harmony so neither major nor minor cc Creates static harmonic feel iv Overdriven distorted guitar sound II Rolling Stones A Childhood friends Jagger and Richards discover common interest in blues after hearing Muddy Waters perform in England in 1958 B Form Stones named after line from Muddy Waters quotMannish Boyquot with other regulars of Ealing blues club in 1962 C First hit in England cover of Chuck Berry39s Come On 1 Second I Wanna Be Your Man by LennonMcCartney 2 Most early hits rock and roll rather than blues covers a But in uenced by blues i Dense textures low registers in all instruments ii Hard yet precise drumming creates drive swagger to songs iii Riffbased style laden with power chords iv Rough vocal style v Prominent often distorted guitar b Also favor interdependent texture i Melodic interest shared between voices and instruments ii Can t remove one without lessening whole 3 Manager Andrew Oldham shapes band into the quotantiBeatlesquot a Image as nonconforming rebels b Scraggly clothes scruffy hair aggressive manner i Particularly important Jagger performing style ii Introduces sexual aggressive strut amboyant quotfront manquot style to rock 9 straight out of the blues D First US 1 quotI Can t Get No Satisfactionquot 1 Original by Jagger Richards 2 What makes it work a Riff colored by fuzztone i distorted sound effect achieved by cutting through speaker cone ii or electronic device that simulates same tone color b interesting syncopation X X X X X X X X X X l 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 c quotshuf equot eighth ofriff against rock beat ofbass drums d Circular quality i Avoidance of tonic pitch in riff vocals ii There is a hook the word quotsatisfactionquot but rarely hear aa Instead hear the riff or drum break bb Old blues trick to build tension cc Compare to Spoonful by Charlie Patton e Regular but irregular form i Verse and refrain aa But really isn39t a refrain eXcept quotand Itry I can39t get no bb Verses same length but phrases within different lengths very conversational cc Also irregular 18 rather than 16 bars ii One big buildup to end but not endweighted iii Tension nally released by word quotsatisfactionquot on tonic pitch 4 Other things to notelisten for a Riff constitutes most melodic interest b Forceful drumming c Hard aggressive statements of the beat d Against syncopation in all parts F Same qualities in Jumping Jack Flash eXcept 1 More conventional form versechorus 2 Based on 12 bar blues progression with some reharmonization 3 Less reliant on melodic interest of riff 4 More rhythmic layering a Syncopated riff b Eight beat rock rhythm c Backbeat d Main beat emphasized by rhythm guitar and bass drum 5 Static harmonic rhythm in verse much faster in chorus 7 like it s only rock and roll G Sympathy for the Devil 1 Never a top ten hit but to many one of the most representative and powerful of songs 2 Repetition at core of song a Intro and LONG outro b versechorus form with 17 bar long verse verse is 17 rather than 16 measures long a But that s not what shapes the song 3 Shaped by changes of texture tone color 5 Congas establish samba rhythm incorporates clave rhythm at beginning a Maracas come in at the beginning of 4Lh bar b 8 beat rock rhythm 6 First versechorus a Sparse accompaniment of piano bass percussion b Bass becomes more active in second half of verse c Note quotextraquot measure is instrumental homage to 106 blues verses c Refrain based on different chords than verse 7 Second Piano and bass parts become more active 8 Third background vocals added 9 Fourth Verse is guitar solo vocals reenter for refrain 10 Fifth All parts more active regular l6beat rhythm under all 11 Outro vocal improvisation over alternating guitar piano solos G Stones part of first wave of the quotBritish Invasionquot of US l Invasion groups split a Softer pop avored rock and roll acts b Hardedged raw basic RampB orientation 2 Beatles at least in beginning represented the first group a Gerry and the Pacemakers Don t Let The Sun Catch You Crying b Herman s Hermits I39m Into Something Good Mrs Brown You ve Got A Lovely Daughter c Hollies i Bus Stop Stop Stop Stop ii Graham Nash goes on CSNY 3 Stones spearheaded the second later followed by a Animals House of the Rising Son We Gotta Get Out of This Place b Kinks You Really Got Me c Zombies She39s Not There Time ofthe Season d Troggs Wild Thing e Yardbirds H Yardbirds 1 One of premiere bluesin uenced bands in Britain a Particularly recognized for excellence of young guitar player b Eric Clapton b 1945 2 quotFor Your Lovequot marked move away from blues into psychedelic rock 3 Clapton leaves band in 1965 a Replaced by Jeff Beck b Beck later reinforced ultimately replaced by 2quotd guitarist Jimmy Page 4 Joins John Mayall and the Blues Breakers a Respected blues not bluesrock band b Early personnel includes Mick Taylor would replace Brian Jones in Stones Jack Bruce John McVie and Mick Fleetwood Fleetwood Mac c Clapton refines blues sensibilities i Has more freedom to play solo lines ii Begins to receive serious critical popular attention aa Mostly due to pro ciency in blues styled solos bb Ex guitar solo from Double Crossing Time on Bluesbreakers with Eric Clapton 103 iii quotClapton is Godquot graffiti appears throughout England d Soon leaves band to form Cream IV Cream A Ginger Baker b 1939 and Jack Bruce b 1943 two other veterans of blues revival B First quotpower trioquot 1 Lead guitar bass drums 2 No chording instrument like guitar or piano C Format ideal for Clapton who preferred long extended solos lead guitar lls l Rhythm guitar just got in the way 2 Trio format more similar to blues setup D Number oftop 10 hits in UK and US 1 Sunshine of Your Love 2 Strange Brew 3 Both bluesin uenced psychedelic rock hard rock E Ex Strange Brew l Arrangement of the traditional blues Lawdy Mama with new lyrics 2 l2bar blues 3 Riffbased accompaniment a Riff from the Buddy Guy Junior Wells Everything s Gonna Be Alrigh b Complemented by Jack Bruce s syncopated bass line aa Long jazzin uenced ideas bb Makes bass more than just background instrument c Guitar solo i Lifted nearly in entirety from Albert King s Cross Cut Saw ii Nonetheless well executed and contains aa string bending and vibrato ala B B King bb Loose rhythmic quality 7 oats over foundation ii In ection of notes for emphasis rather than sharper accents d Rock rhythm present but irregular emphasis d Double time drum patterns and break toward end F English bluesrock bands spark similar revival in the US G Spearheaded by American guitarist who achieved early success in UK Jimi Hendrix 19421970 IV Hendrix A Raised in Seattle listening to Delta Chicago blues B Started career playing backup for Little Richard B B King and Ike and Tina Turner C Forms own group in 1966 1 One of members of the Animals encourages him to move to London 2 Forms power trio Jimi Hendrix Experience a Noel Redding bass b Mitch Mitchell drums 3 Experience not really a collective ensemble Redding and Mitchell there to back Hendrix C American breakthrough at Monterey Pop festival D Quintessential moment version of Star Spangled Banner at Woodstock E Hendrix one of most in uential guitarists in history of rock until death in 1970 1 Expanding palate of rock sounds 2 Known for use of feedback distorted squeal produced when sound coming through ampli er taken in by a microphone or pickup on guitar and then fed back through amp 3 And other effects pedals a Electronic circuits through which sound from pickup routed b Alters sound that emerges from amp c Common fuzztone wawa 4 Deafening volume important part of style 5 All of the above in uenced by electric blues artists Earl Hooker TBone Walker 6 Awesome technical mastery of instrument 7 Dynamic performing style a quotSacrificequot of guitar at Monterey Pop festival b Dominance of stage as soloist D Voodoo Chile Slight Return 1967 l l6bar blues form a Adds fourth line to traditional aab lyrics b Extends length of each phrase like country blues player c Doesn t follow traditional 12bar progression i Static harmonic rhythm for first part of song ii More variety faster harmonic rhythm in second 2 Uneven shuf e beat throughout 4 to the bar 3 Hendrix on vocals a Laid back bluesin ected vocal tone b 106 division of vocal line as in Delta Blues c Verbal interjections 4 But focus is clearly the guitar solos a Loaded with feedback so much that solo at times overlaps itself b Bends strings to emulate blues slide playing c Occasional doublenote fills riffbased episodes single string playing d Varies tone color with pedals 5 Darker textured sound becomes trademark MUSC 309 Lecture 9 The Reaction to Rock and Roll 1 Rock and roll and RampB didn t enjoy instant popularity and success A Reaction from churches and civic groups 1 Unwholesome obscene 2 Morally corrupting encouraging wild rebellious behavior and violence 3 Also racist objections as well a Encyclopedia Brittanica in 1955 referring basically to early rockabilly and RampB de nes as maximum of rhythmic noise deliberately competing with the artistic ideals of the jungle itself b NY Times article called cannibalistic and tribalistic c White Citizens Councils in south at least open about objections i Feared integration ii Exposure of whites to AfricanAmerican culture B Reaction of large record labels how do we make money on this 1 Large record labels missed out on early rock and roll a Elvis early hits for Sun records in Memphis i As does Jerry Lee Lewis ii And most other rockabilly artists b Chuck Berry with Chess records in Chicago c Little Richard recorded on Specialty label in New Orleans 2 Want to capitalize on new style 3 Mostly by making rock and roll more acceptable to white mainstream 4 Strategies a Cover versions of RampB hits by white artists i Different from earlier cover arrangements aa Exact copying of arrangements bb Cleaning up ragged qualities cc Expunging all sexual innuendo from lyrics ii Most infamous 7 Pat Boone covers of Little Richard tunes b Create dance crazes for rock and roll songs c Infuse characteristics of rock and roll into pop mainstream d Create teen idols to sing new music i White ii Good looking teen idol types vaguely resembling Elvis aa Fabian Fabian Forte 1943 bb Frankie Avalon 1940 xx Bobby Rydell 1942 5 Mostly taming of rock into wilder avor of pop 11 Several things happen in 1959 that nearly wipe out rock and roll A The Day the Music Died Feb 3 1959 Holly Big Bopper Richie Valens killed B Elvis drafted in late 1958 by design C Jerry Lee Lewis marries 13 yr old cousin while still married to second wife causes public backlash D Chuck Berry arrested for violation of Mann Act E Payola Scandal 1 Congressional committee formed to investigate corrupt broadcasting practices 2 Including charges that independent record companies paying disc jockeys to play their records a True to certain extent b Used to force several indie labels and several prominent DJs including Freed out of business F But record companies don t want to lose money to be made on rock so 111 The Brill Building A Attempt of record companies to manufacture rock and roll B Mostly a pop phenomenon 1 Many songs written by Aldon Music Co 2 Socalled Brill Building even though across street a Hired teams of songwriters including Leiber and Stoller to write rock and roll hits b Pop crafted songs with teen themes rock sensibilities more or less 3 Songwriters included a Gerry Goffln and Carole King b Neil Sedaka c Paul Anka 4 Show tape ofNeil Sedaka C However occasionally artists produced solid pop rock hits of some note 1 Ricky Nelson 19401985 2 Dion Dion DiMucci 1939 and the Belmonts D Brill Building becomes new Tin Pan Alley D Brill Building becomes new Tin Pan Alley 1 Music by its songwriters in a zone where rock and roll and pop merge 2 Distinctive and rather homogenous sound a popular songs i Typical pop lyrics about relationships ii Most in AABA pop song form iii Focused on melody line with simple harmonic accompaniment b Heavily in uenced by doowop i Background vocals in doowop style ii Frequent call and response c Animated beat d Thick textures i Made possible by multitrack recording ii Overdubbing aa Different layers of song recorded onto audio tape bb Additional sounds like sweetening instruments added cc mixed onto master tape before committed to acetate dd Effects can be added to any all layers iii Greatly effects sound of the record band iv Decisions made by producer aa Selects which arrangement takes are used bb Can use overdubbing to add instruments sounds etc cc Approves if doesn t do mix Relative levels of each track Effects changes to audio signal Echo or reverb panning etc d Ex the Shirelles Will You Still Love Me Tomorrow i Fairly quick tempo ii 4 bar intro iii Song in ve l6bar phrases each AABA aa Endweighted to end of section Texture becomes thicker as song progresses E g strings added at end of rst verse continue into second with more active part backing vocals become more active etc bb Overall form is AABA with interlude iv backbeat in drum part aa second beat of measure subdivided in two rebound backbeat bb common in early 1960s pop rock iv 8 beat rock rhythms v Lead vocals plus doowop type accompaniment vi Not typical lyrics aa Most Brill Building fare deals with teen relationships in innocent way bb This deals with the rami cations of potential one night stand vii Heavily produced 7 orchestral lls at ends of phrases as backing throughout 3 Brill Building style producer driven 3 Most in uential producer of the 1960s was Phil Spector 1940 a Part of the Brill Building crowd worked with Leiber and Stoller b Classical music fan thought of pop records as little symphonies for the kiddies c So Spector records tend to have i Thick full textures achieved by extensive overdubbing recording one track over another ii Often include a large orchestra with lots of percussion iii Prerecorded sounds iv Background vocals v And standard rock ensemble vi Plus the group d Textures so complex called the wall of sound or Spector wall of sound e Many of groups produced by Spector were girl groups i Trios or quartets of female singers ii Sound controlled by producers songwriters iii Image controlled by producers and record companies iv Marketed to appeal to young female audience f EX Da Doo Ron Ron i Group less important than Spector production aa Viewed groups as interchangeable bb Crystals aren t singing on at least one of their hits ii Wall of Sound aa large group of backing vocalists bb piano cc bass dd guitar ee drums ff saxophones gg auxiliary percussion iii Rhythmic stratification aa Slow harmonic rhythm saxes bb Beat 7 bass bass drum hand claps cc Piano 7 triplets dd Backbeat 7 snare ee Syncopated vocal line iv Driven by hook da doo ron ron v Lyrics about young love vi Sophisticated production IV Dance crazes A Importance of American Bandstand 1 TV huge vehicle in popularization of rock and roll 2 Most in uential show throughout history was American Bandstand a Began broadcasting from Philadelphia 1957 b Projected cleancut safe mostly white at start image of rock B Launched careers of many of teen idols C And createdpromoted dance crazes 1 First dances created to go with popular songs a First and foremost 7 The Twist b Popular with all age groups c Topped the charts twice 1960 and 1962 2 Followed by host of other records that provided instructions for new dance fads a First Pinetop s Boogie Woogie l928 b But reached critical mass in earlymid 1960s c Many by Chubby Checker d Others such as the Mashed Potato Watusi manufactured by Brill Building writers e All similar in style i l2bar blues as verse or refrain ii Straight rock ensemble with backing vocals iii Not heavily produced iv Emphatic presentation of rock style beat 3 Very much pop rock 4 But goes a long way to remove some of stigma of rock 5 And indirectly some of segregation taboos