Selected Topics in Linguistic Anthropology Final Review
Selected Topics in Linguistic Anthropology Final Review
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Anthro 147 Notes 52914 131 PM 4114 How do children come to understand and eventually master the language around them How infants who are bom into a culture come to perceive and understand language We raise our speech to a higher register with infants Infants are experiencing language The process of immersing and interacting with them Infants essentially hear music They hear pauses notes different kinds of sounds It is only overtime that infants come to be able to segment this essentially continuous speech stream that they hear and overtime they can acquire meanings How do infants make sense of the practices of language The engagement of being a proficient language user What is language A cultural marker Means of communication Sense of belonging to a culture Representational system System of rules and structures Vehicle for thinking We are interested in HOW people are using language vs how people should be using language General thoughts about language Language as it is used not as we think it should be used Language is NOT speech Language is not static it can always be a moving target It is growing and changing Language involves both culture and biology Language as a system Speech soundsphonology Words What is a word A child is hearing continuous speech Kids say gimme or wanna all the time Morphology Syntax Discourse Speech soundsphonology Smallest unit of sound that affects meaning Pat vs bat differ in one feature voicing it just differs if you allow a little air to escape Bam vs dam differ in place of articulation Sin vs tin differ in manner of articulation stop air ow Caps rooms edges same phoneme but pronounced slightly differently Phoneme can be comprised of more than one letter Words Symbols Not things themselves There s lots of ways for communicating Conventional Carrot English vs marchew Polish Completely different words but mean essentially the same thing Arbitrary but can have some iconic elements ex of a word that shows what it means Most of language is a code you need to leam a code to understand the meaning 0 Buzz hum woof 0 They give some indication as to what their meaning is o The word carrot or rabbit doesn t tell you anything about those words Morphology Minimal unit of meaning Can be words a pre x or a suffix They have an independent meaning They are used as plural markers The s at the end of squirrels is a morpheme They can be free words vs bound prefixes suffixes Derivational vs in ectional Write 9 writer vs write writg writing the ing is a morpheme in English but you can t use it by itself has to be linked to something else because it s a bound word Derivational how a noun gets changed to a verb or a verb gets changed to a noun Wash 9 washer Syntax Structures and rules of language Can govem how morphemes can combine Can govem how words can be ordered What words can precede or follow others Acceptability judgments not prescriptive grammar 1 saw him I seen him both acceptable Examples Word order but also verb agreement movement rules clauses Discourse Unit of language longer than a sentence Could be a monologue conversation etc Interaction with conversational partner Tumtaking Communicative functions Language as a practice Language as a multimodal phenomenon thinking about how the body is used in language Use in space how language is situated in space Use of common ground shared knowledge Language as a cultural marker the practices of acquiring and using language help to allow the infant to become a participating member and identify with that culture Where does gesture fit Gesture is part of the structure of language Can replace words amp concepts Children will point to objects before they can label it in speech Gesture is part of the practice of language Demonstrates knowledge of interaction Relates to environment gesture grounds speech in the physical environment How can we study language Gathering data What language What sample representativeness 0 Do you want to look at 4 year olds teenagers people in a nursing home Do you want to gather a sample representative of an entire culture subculture of a minority people with a profession etc What to gather 0 Audio video field notes demographics language experience How quickly do children leam language Does it matter whether there are more nouns or more verbs in the language spoken to children Experimental vs Spontaneous methodologies Experimental approach large amount of variables but the conclusions you can draw are also limited Spontaneous you are looking at language use and practice gives you a better sense of the existence of language as a living breathing creature What contextual variables affect the way that it s used If you re going to look at experimental approaches are the questions you will ask are appropriate for children Comprehension vs production Are you interested in how language is understood particularly with children Required text How children learn language William O Grady will be in the bookstore next week Quiz every 2 weeks on lecture and on the reading if quiz on thrusday will include that reading for the thrusday there s one next thurday Always on a Thursday 4314 What is the infant learning Language Development Focuses on children acquiring the sounds structures and uses of language Focus on the ages and mechanisms of acquisition How the infant makes sense of the diff sources of information Relation to cognitive development When does a child come to have an understanding of numbers objects interacting in the world Tying development of cognition to the understanding of surface level features of language Differences based on structures of language Diff languages will have diff word orders diff structures diff ways of marking the features of the event that is being constructed Differences based on input Idea of the infant as some kind of a vessel Has to learn to interact with the world There is a physical world that is has to leam how to navigate Universals based on leaming mechanisms or innate knowledge Language Socialization Socialization of language vs language as socialization There s interaction with people in your community using the practices of those communities and the systems of interacting that are common an essential to your culture and those ways of interacting provide information of how the language should be used Language is a powerful tool in the socialization process The way you talk about other individuals may be marked in language The expectations of you as a uid member of your culture come from language Focus on becoming a competent member of society Differences based on ways of interacting and processes of language use from one cultural context to another History of studying language development Diaries Even Darwin kept one When their child said their first word Normative studies What is normal When should children be hitting certain milestones Where should your child be at which age When do they start producing words Etc Structuralist revolution Chomsky et al 0 Has been pursued and picked up by huge number of people Look for structural knowledge in adults and compare to children 0 Compares manifestation of structures in adults to children Theoretical accounts Behaviorist Language is not special language any other behavior Based on system of rewards You produce behavior you get a reward for it Focus on general leaming mechanisms But how do children produce things they have never heard There s a mismatch between the things we see children doing and the assumptions based on this theoretical perspective Nativist Noam Chomsky Poverty of stimulus 9 need for innate structure Too little info for children to leam all the things that they are producing Requires that children have some innate structure that they know something about common structures of language when they come into the world Requires languagespeci c structures and leaming Universal Grammar UG Every language has some way of expressing nouns and verbs of marking the agent and the patient or the subject and the object Language acquisition device LAD Setting one feature can have a cascade effect because language is so interrelated if you learn a specific rule about verbs it can give you further rules about adverbs But does child learning support these assumptions Humans have evolved to use language in different ways Children come into the world ready to learn language Children seem to develop a more sophisticated understanding of deep structures of language than they can possibly extract from the sentence they hear There is a surface level where you hear all the words in a sentence but there is also a deeper level that children seem to have a more specific understanding of SocialCognitive Some innate structure Children are good at pulling out information and allowing it to propagate through various levels of their behavior General learning mechanisms Linked to other cognitive development reaching different cognitive milestones Evidence that there is general learning in a child s life simultaneously Concerned with input to the child and effect on language From Oats amp Schieffelin paper But input varies crossculturally and all children learn Child filters input They are doing some work at making the input that they receive and transforming that into a form that they can use There is some evidence that children s memory increases as they get older The child is modifying the input from an environment that is easiest for them to access All of these theories agree that children come into the world ready to learn language What do children bring to learning Does he have speci c hypotheses about structure Does he have general biases about information processing Motivation to cooperate and share their thoughts Methods Observational Diaries E g Deb Roy robot house that observed his child 24 hours a day Experimental Eg Wug test 0 To test if you re smarter than a child Natural experiments Vary the environment or the thing to be leamed Take advantage of crosslinguistic differences Ask questions of child biases in learning 0 Differences based on differences in input I Easier to leam certain types of structure 0 Common patterns despite differences in input Children learn the structure they hear Containment English vs fit Korean Relationship to concepts Children change the structures they hear Relation to cognitive development Universal patterns in acquisition of concepts Their system of understanding the world is developing alongside their linguistic ability 0 INON o UNDERBESIDE o BACKFRONT distinct I A person or a house 0 BACKFRONT general Forms vary but order is same Children acquire these concepts in a similar order Leam appropriate ways to use language When How To whom 4814 in final presentation don t use real name of children or parents or where they live trying to protect the identity of the participants HWl 400600 words on plan for quarter and specific plans for field work Some basic demographic information about the family age of child etc when are you going Are you visiting the families at the homes or a park Are there going to be specific roles assigned to certain people Expectation of child language and interaction based on readings thus far Submit ONE as a group Thursday start of class 12 questions multiple choice 15 min know major transition points in language big questions being asked if there are terms that are section headings pay attention to those and what that means based on reading AND lecture guest lecturer information will appear on the quiz Early language acquisition Imitation O grady goes through some of the possibilities and discusses the pros and cons for some of these different theories Proposal children learn language by imitating the sentences they hear Some role in word leaming Can t explain leaming structure and contextual use Children are not good at repeating sentences with unfamiliar words and structures Children are good at selecting the info that they already know 0 If a child heard the sentence all the cats are sleeping aren t they 0 The child would say cat sleep I They are repeating some things the parent just said but they are pulling out the parts of words that they are able to understand and reproduce CC 99 S They are omitting the morpheme they are omitting this plural marker They seem to be imitating parts of it but not imitating the entire utterance Teaching Proposal parents teach children explicitly through example and correction Do children leam by explicit instruction Most knowledge of language structure is implicit and NOT explicit Know what is right but often not why The dog bit him on the leg The dog bit him on a leg we know that this sentence is not correct We have a good sense of what kinds of structures are appropriate but don t have a good idea of why Parent corrections are rare and more focused on content than structure A parent is much more likely to correct a child if they are mislabeling an object or an animal Children don t incorporate corrections very well Setting a good example Proposal parents teach children implicitly by demonstrating the correct uses of language Recasts the child attempts something and the parent adopts what the child says but recasts it in a correct form Child he runned there Parent Yes he there Parents often repeat child errors they are trying to engage them in leaming different things Child close box Parent ok close box Do recasts help Naturalistic study Parents recast errors 35 of the time No immediate benefit of these types of corrections Experimental study slightly different point of view 45 yr old children fake verb in with an lNG ending eg pelling then the child is asked about the past tense should be pold children exposed to recasting learned better than children who were given form from start 30 leamed 0 Some children who were given an opportunity to experience recasting this was more effective or the others would already hear that contrast The recasts were most effective when not presenting truly novel information Simplifying language Proposal parents provide children with simpli ed language that aids their language Motherese baby talk the pitch is higher and it is more musical simpler vocabulary Slower more segmented Higher pitch Exaggerated pitch range and contrasts Restricted vocab Talk about the here and now vs the there and then Shorter sentences More direct commands and questions Does motherese help Infants show a preference for some features of motherese There are some acoustic features that are attractive to infants Not all cultures simplify their speech to children For ex in Schieffelin amp Oaks they talk about how children differ in their childcenteredness Accommodation 0 To help the comprehension of children 0 To the production of children 0 American families are high on the accommodation skill We do a lot of translating and simplification of our speech but this is not characteristic about all of the cultures in the world What do children need to be taught Some cultures language is something that children do on their own with little accommodation Some cultures children need to explicitly be taught how to walk Language Walking Variance on the ideas of child rearing and development of children s competencies Motherese helpful but not necessary Accessible input Proposal children need input that is accessible to them at their point in development Relates to Zone of Proximal Development ZPD Lev Vygotsky Leaming is greatest in ZPD ZPD changes as children leam Have concentric circles in the circle are things that the children can do on their own and the outside circle are things they can t do conjugating verbs driving a car walking etc Then in the middle are things that the infantleamer can do with help and it is this circle with he states at the right stage or leaming This is important to know that the zone is changing as the child is leaming more things Infants leam best when language is linked to the here and now at the zoo look the zebra is eating at home Tomorrow we ll go see the new zebra at the zoo Language invention deaf children with no access to sign language homesigners display some elements of structure more in week 8 blind children can t see context of word use eg zebra at zoo but no delay in leaming language 0 blind children seem to lack and important source of input as to what they early words mean but don t show a delay in leaming language visual words like look and see 0 they raise their hands when they hear look look at the table vs touch the table Acquisition Device Acquisition device specific for language LAD Nativist view Chomsky children come into the world uniquely equip to leam language Acquisition device not just for language Week 4 It s all statistics Week 3 Johnson guest lecture 4 10 14 Brown Reading Introduced the concept of humans having an interaction engine Set of behaviors that contribute to human understanding of collaborative interaction Cooperation Helping prosociality Humans have a prosocial stance they are more cooperative than they are competitive Humans are somewhat predisposed to help complete the goal of others The prosocial stance seems to be consistent among cultures Intentionality Understanding others as acting in meaningful nonrandom ways Understanding communicative intentions the idea that if someone is communicating to us they are intending that we will understand this This understanding forms the basis of human linguistic interaction Reading others minds Theory of Mind ToM Seeing others as having different knowledgeperceptions from yourself The idea that others can hold different beliefs False belief task The idea is that there is some cognitive advance that occurs when the child is able to understand that someone can have a false belief about the world which may not be true Coordination of attention Concept of if we are looking at and experiencing the same thing The patterning of attention differs between cultures Establishing Common ground We both know X We share an experience about something Shared intentionality Humans cooperate with one another in speciesunique ways involving shared intentionality Shared intentionality behaviors that are intentional and social where goals and actions shared with another we stance Tomasello Coooperation in communication We are communicating Referential Triangle Joint attention JA to extemal object Triadic interaction parent child object Gaze checking You have a parent looking at something the infant might start out looking at the parent and then start looking at the object 9month revolution 915 months JA emerges At 12 months Standard developmental trajectory Newboms they can orient to human faces Will prefer to look at human faces over other stimuli lmitate facial expression 2 months respond to smiling respond to gaze they will not follow gaze but they will be aware of when you are looking at them beginnings of socialization to tumtaking Motherinfant coordination varies culturally but some interactive coordination occurs 6 months follow gaze to object if object is 1 one seen 67 months vocal control increases babbling appears 0 this is important and is characterized by I repeated syllables I playing with sounds I mimics prosody of local language A big milestone pointing 12 months awareness of others as intentional agents joint attention to extemal object referential triangle imperative precedes declarative Imperative pointing can mean I want that Declarative wants to draw mother s attention Pointing doesn t have to occur with the index finger Can point with at hand elbow lip What s the point of pointing First to acquire items Gimme that Then to acquire information and to socially bond What s that o Followin labeling o Create leaming opportunities 0 We re sharing an experience Comparative study Tzetal Mayan community in Mexico Interactions with infants are minimal Infants are carried continuously restricted range Rossel Island Papua New Guinea Frequent facetoface interactions 41514 Ch 6 Talking the Talk O Grady Stages of Sound Production In utero attending to the cadence of speech intonational contours 23 months cooing 46 months producing various sounds babbling begins 7 months babblingfully developed 1018 months producing first words Determining a Child s Ability to Distinguish Words minimal pairs linguist N Shvavhkin the minimal difference that changes the difference of the word ex cat vs gat you can change a sound that doesn t change the meaning techniques contrast similar words or sounds and see if the child can tell them apart study results children can HEAR sounds before they can produce them voiced sounds require vibration of vocal chords which sounds are voiced all vowels are voiced You produce them by opening your mouth positioning your tongue in the right way vowels a e I o u voiced nassals m n ng voiced gliced y w voiced liquids l r voiced ptkfsshchhth unvoiced bdgvzzhjth these are essentially minimal pairs in English 0 tongue is in the same place only difference in voicing unvoiced sound you don t need vibration of the vocal chords Accommodation when children cannot produce a sound they must resolve the problem substitution deletion Deletion deletion of final consonant instead of saying give 9 giv deletion of one sound in a consonant cluster sl br dr cl sm instead of saying bread 9 ead deletion of nasal m n when with p t k stamp ant uncle 9 ucle deletion and reinsertion of s next to another consonant spaghetti 9 pasghetti Syllable Stress in Words primary stress receives the most stress secondary stress receives some stress examples STOP primary stress CHILdren unconstiTUtional Substitution replacing a sibiliant sounds you make my letting air escape through your mouth and replace those with a stop p t k fbdg transforming liquids l r into glides wy denasalization m amp n 9 b or d fronting preference for consontants made in the front of the mouth p b m f V produced in the lips assimilation making one sound like another baby but children may say beebee What is happening here Kitty cat 9 ki ca Deletion of the last syllable In kitty where is the stress syllable At the beginning at the ki They are deleting the secondary stress in kitty In cat they are deleting the last consonant Story 9 stowy Transforming liquids 9 glides From r9 w glides are w and y Stop 9 top Removing consonant Deletion of the S Try 9 tie Consonant cluster Bump 9 bup Thumb9 fumb Substitution they prefer speaking in the front of the mouth rather than farther in the back Room 9 woob Liquid 9 glide Denasalization Guest Lecturer Phonological Development Phonetics study of speech sounds production acoustics perception Phonology study of the systematic rules of sound patterns in a language in the mind of a speaker Focus most research on earlier years of language acquisition 624 months Concemed on how kids leam the sounds and perception What do kids bring to the table Is it innate or is it learned Language acquisition starts in the womb The fetus has access to speech signalsa Auditory system is already function before birth So what can be heard in the womb Baby can hear heartbeat of the mother and can hear the maternal voice most specifically prosody speech rthym stress sentence melody Think of what you hear when you re swimming underwater Starting to categorize Biggest problem a kid has to deal with is leaming how to categorize Speech signal is a continuous space Languages categorize different portions of this space in different ways carved up differently Variation in the way categories of sounds are produced Speech categories Crosslinguistically there isn t just one way to produce a t sound depending on where your tongue is placed on your mouth Dental alveolar retro ex When does categorization occur By 10months dif cult to discriminate between contrasts that do not exist in their native language For ex Hindi vs English Summary Lack of experience causes loss of ability to distinguish between sound contrasts not present in a given language Language experience can also maintain sometimes facilitate the ability to discriminate between sounds So by the end of the first year infants already know which sounds are contrastive and which aren t Helps direct attention to the differences that matter Studying infants We take behavioral measures as a means of testing what infants know or don t know Listening times Looking times Number of headtums Amplitude of sucking on a paci er Heart rate Eventrelated potentials Case Study Flapping in American English The English plurals s Cats gt cats but dogs 9 dogz this is now Voiced phonetic transcription Plurals can be produced as s or 2 depending on the preceding sound Flapping In North American English t and d are pronounced with a ap D in O Grady also known as a tap Between 2 Vowels When the following Vowel is unstressed o Eg meeting 9 meeDing Words can be pronounced in more than one way Eg pat and pad in ected as padding D ls neither t or d Infants need to leam these sound alternations Familiarization Sounds like you re talking to a baby If infants listen longer to familiar items evidence of segmentation ie they know that pat and patting are different Summary expt l amp2 12month olds can associate a word produced with a ap to a dword but they cannot associate a word produced with a ap to a t word Experiment 3 Visual Fixation stimuli tap and d in aDa context measured difference in listening time between same and switch trial Summary Expt l3 12 month olds can associate a ap form to a d word they cannot associate a ap form to a t word Experiment 4 we know that 12 month olds can t map ap forms to t words but we also know that adults can so when does this ability develop Sociolinguistic factors children aren t just leaming the sounds of their language childdirect speech also has a role in providing cues to socialindexical information Wrapping up by the end of the first year infants already hone in on the contrasts that exist in their language and they have difficulty discriminating contrasts that don t exist 41714 Guest Lecture statistical leaming detection of regularities in ones environment without an explicit awareness or intention to leam pattem detection if vital for figuring out the world brand new baby has to figure out the visual world when a baby is 7 months the auditory system is sufficiently well developed so the baby can hear what s going on inside the womb the fetus can hear the mom talk speech is important for segmentation when you hear a speech stream it s difficult to find words in a foreign country but if you hear it often enough you begin to notice reoccurring pattems and this is statistical leaming infants are rational constructivist leamers infants leam pattems that make sense constructivist how you start with nothing and then add more to that universal grammar there is already something in the brain that detect pattems in the speech stream this approach says that baby don t need to be bom with knowledge they can pick it up infants can t give you verbal responses can t tell you yes or no behaviorally they are challenged but they can tell us what they find interesting they do this simply by looking at it using looking at one place or another as the dependent variable variable they are collecting data about Play sounds for the baby and will record where she looks around the room to see how well she can make sense of the sounds How do you know if the baby heard the words After familiarization the baby is bored so when they are done leaming something they show a novelty preference Transitional probabilities the ways in which units cohere together based on probabilities how often they were heard together The probability of the transition fort 9 p in tupiro If babies can show us evidence of statistical leaming then the babies are able to recognize when the elements are associated with one another and can keep track of common associations and they can use this ability to find units and pattems We think statistical leaming is used for language acquisition Neonates means newbom method is called event related potential ERP Will measure brain activitity Want the baby to be asleep They can hear and leam when they re asleep They don t move around and are easier to test Add a new syllable in place of the old ones there will be a brief spike in brain activity Even newbom babies brain recognizes when there s a regulation of a statistically defined pattem 8 month old study unfamiliar natural language babies seemed to recognize familiar Italian words and then scrambles words or sounds statistical leaming also works with real speech that babies hear in the real world and not just computer generated speech another study with 8 mo olds How do we know statistical leaming deals with language acquisition Tested babies with familiarization stream speech but instead of testing for nonwords or scrambled words she took words and played them in sentences for kids Does the baby recognize that it sounds like a word to them And then other parts don t sound like words to them Yes they recognize the words vs partwords Statistical leaming yields in the babies mind something like a word and when they hear that word again they think yeah that makes sense to me 17 month old study Switch design associate one word with an object and another with another object and then you switch them around Babies look longer at the switch when words are associated This is important for real world word leaming Auditory SL statistical leaming is not limited to speech Think about baby s ability to pay attention to pattems you might wonder about visual pattems Visual statistical leaming Very difficult to distinguish the pattern Implicit leaming you get the sense something is going on and your guess is correct Explicit leaming you know what s going on and why this is correct Babies can t tell us what the pattern is They provide evidence from their looking patterns that their leaming is implicit Used a lookingtime method that relies on tendency of babies to get bored and perk up attention when they see something new Transition from things that are familiar 9 unusual lead to differences in looking times They are the dependent measure in the study Babies can notice pattems they can do visual statistical leaming Domain general statistical leaming device Not specific to one kind of stimulus work for audio and visual Function with the onset of visual experience Exp 1 do infants identify TPs transitional probability in visual sequences The units organized by TPs Have 3 kinds of test sequences The babies should look at the random set Conclusions Auditory SL facilitates word segmentation leaming of speech sounds and word leaming and questions Week 4 Notes 52914 131 PM 42214 for eld notes if you need to split up the videos explain this on your field notes ethnographer discuss if the child points to something in a different room note what they may be pointing to that the camera does not pick up If the phone rings dad comes in make sure to note who else is present in the environment If mother talks to grandma on phone talk to how mother shifts when she s talking to grandma vs child Note if the child tries to talk to us try not to encourage them to tell you long stories Recap on last weeks guest lecturer Adam Chong Lack of experience 9 loss of ability to distinguish between sound contrasts not present in a given language Three contrasting sounds three different forms of t and in English we only recognize one Children are able to hear differences from other languages this happens for about 10 months and then they loose that ability Ability to hear while inside the womb Mostly what the mother is saying and the underwater sounds They can hear tones The R amp L sound in Japanese is not really discovered Infants bom with ability to discriminate between sounds not in native language Children aren t just leaming the sound of their language Child directed speech also has a role in providing due to social indexical information What s a ap When t sounds like a d Pat 9 patted and t sounds a bit like d Why do we call it a ap Can change the sound without it changing the meaning The ap is what your tongue does Are children able to hear the ap in patted and recognize it s from pat They thought that pad and patted were related words They didn t see pat as familiar when they heard patted They also studied this in 15 year olds they are still having trouble with it Johnson Auditory SL is not limited to speech We see something similar with VSL visual Relationship between ASL and VSL Infants can leam pattems in sequences This may be how children are acquiring language Ongoing stream of sound at some point you realize a pattern going on Statistical leaming is for language acquisition Infants are rational constructive leamers But he doesn t really agree with this Rational constructive leamer they leam patterns starting to build what reality looks like They are rationally constructing reality His original belief is that there s this generalized mechanism Children don t need universal grammar but can leam through recognizing regularities statistical leaming All the researchers are trying to make sense of universal grammar Transitional probability the probability of seeing a certain patteming of words The ways in which units are at the syllable level How often words are heard together What is a word A word is a symbol Ow Mmhmm Uhhuhuhuh Gimme o Is it a word or a communicative noise Do they fall into standard grammatical categories 0 Are they word substitutes Symbol communicates a meaning or concept A word has Phonological form Meaning Grammatical category Either a noun verb adjective Grammatical distribution Occurring in a grammatical context Morphological structure sometimes What is a word meaning Predictable relation between a phonological form and an objecteventrelationship in the world referent Social convention Concept Modes of signification Peirce Index form has a natural association or inferential relation to meaning Ex of a natural association smoke You see smoke it s an index that there is probably fire present More examples smoke thunder footprints Icon form resembles meaning Examples buzz hum bang gesture for ying Symbol form of sign is arbitrary no direct relationship to meaning Children leam words FAST A conservation estimate of the size of an adult English speaker s vocabulary 60000 words First 10 English Words In O Grady we are focusing on American children leaming English People Mommy Dada Baby Gramma Animals dog duck kitty Small objects ball keys bottle truck Substancesfood milk cheese juice Obtaining goals hi more no Social interaction peekaboo byebye Spatial terms up down on Not everything children leam early on are what we as adults consider words they will often leam things as expressions I do it Gimme So big Oh boy Gou out All gone Good girl 42414 Children s first words in English are usually nouns What counts as a word What does a child treat as a word What kinds of things can serve as words Gestures o Namy 2001 taught arbitrary words gestures nonverbal sounds and pictograms to young infants and asked if they could treat these things as words Tones o Woodward and Hoyne 1999 used a squeaker o The youngest infants 13to 18month olds leamed the novel mapping across all symbol types Older children 2026 month olds did not 0 At 20 months infants are leaming that people name things with phonological words not gestures pictures Differences in early word leamers referential children have lexicons dominated by object names expressive children have fewer object labels more names for people and socialregulatory phrases This is a continuum not two different categories of leamers Noun bias Nouns are overrepresented in children s early vocabularies Input bias or perceptual bias Is the speech directed towards children overwhelmingly focused on nouns Input parents Westem prompt children to produce nouns and name things e g what s this Perceptual Cohesion 0 Children are more likely to pay attention to objects that have a discrete boundary where an entire object is more likely to be labeled then a part of an object Continuity 0 Children expect things to not disappear and reappear Biases that children will show very early on Solidity 0 They will collide with one another not blend with one another Things have solid boundaries Contact 0 An inanimate object shouldn t move spontaneously unless it s contacted by something else Trying to understand the assumptions children make about inanimate object Underextensions Words used for a more restricted set of referents than is appropriate in adult speech Ex if they referred to their dog as Rex that is an underextension These are less noticed than overextensions duck act of pushing duck off edge of bathtub car vehicles seen from particular window in home phone only when telephone rings cookie only when in highchair Overextension words used for a more general set of referents than is appropriate might be linked in ways that do not form a natural set moon moon half of a grapefruit hangnail dishwasher dial lemons dog dogs sheep horses What causes these errors Are children s categories different than adults and sometimes bizzare Are they using the terms that have in creative ways placeholders for words they don t yet know Comprehension errors far fewer than production errors How would you ask if a child thinks that cat dog Or is cat applying to dog How do they test that Child uses the wrong word that likely stands out this is why they are usually more noticeable Do children try to communicate beyond their own category These are fundamental questions about relationship between language and thought How do children leam language Easy answer show them the thing and tell them the name that stands for it But it s really not so easy radical indeterminacy of translation Quine In theory this is not so straightforward of a task Leaming nouns 3 leaming biases About what words refer to Whole object assumption 3999 gavaga1 whole animal not a part or a property Type assumption 9 gavagai kind of animal not single individual Basica level assumption 9 gavagai animals that look like or move like the model one not all animals or dissimilar animals Mutual exclusivity Things sound have only one label Apply a new label to an unnamed object clearly this can be overtumed in bilingualism for example but it is an initial bias Other things that help bootstrapping taking the language that you already know and using that to help you make guesses with other words in a particular utterance that you don t know Using frames consisting of known words to narrow the scope of possible meanings for unknown words Possible frames Kubar 1 want kubar 1 want to kubar 1 want to eat kubar He poured kubar around the park Look The kubar is eating grass She is kubaring She kubared onto the couch Alignment Pairing items that differ in the dimension of interest Highlights difference Other interesting things Preposition errors of omission vs commission Cut knife or cut for knife for cut with knife demonstrates to the child that something should go there but they don t know what pronoun reversal children may use the word you to refer to themselves and me to refer to the other person why are you and me hard to leam Child hears you when people are talking to himher and Ime when people are talking about themselves 50 reverse pronouns sometimes How do children leam new words Crosssituational learning multiple exposures Fast mapping single trial learning Children can leam from a single exposure to a word if it s very clear Smith amp Yu 2008 Presented 1214 month olds with pairs of 6 novel objects and 6 novel words Pairings were ambiguous within trials but unambiguous across trials Infants leamed labels after seeing pairings in multiple trials Measured by gaze to named object Children looked more at the named object they leamed across these different presentations of leaming opportunities Quantity model If children hear a word enough times in enough contexts they will leam it Quantity of parent speech predicts vocabulary growth Giving more leaming opportunities Quantity of parent input matters But is it the whole story Young children can t make full use of linguistic cues How do children leam their first words in these messy environments Models of word leaming Crosssituational Effect of repeated exposures Yu and Smith Epiphany Quality of parent input matters not all exposures equally useful children can leam from a single exposure visual and social cues are important Quality of the visual and social context some seem better than others some contexts seem more transparent provide more support for word leaming however not sure what variables infants are using leaming opportunities varying Week 5 Notes 52914 131 PM 42914 What can increase children s early leaming of nouns These are the words that children first seem to leam they are concrete and subject to cognitive restraints We know that the quantity of parent input matters quantity of speech is a predictor of child s early leaming There is a correlation between how many words a child hears a day vs how much they are leaming When you look at a population of children the amount of speech they hear early on people talking to them interacting in different way affects then 1020 Young children can t make full use of linguistic cues Very early on young children can t make full sense of linguistic cues You need some amount of knowledge of the different words in your language Giving better leaming opportunities Cartmill s study Quality of parent input matters One of the videos was good for the meaning of book because there was a book and was pointing to it for the other video there was no book in sight so it s harder to leam the word even if you repeat the word many times if they don t understand the meaning of that word Not all exposures equally useful Children can leam from a single exposure Fastmapping Quality of the visual and social context One of these context is better than the other Some contexts seem more transparent easy to understand Provide more support for word leaming However o Not sure what variables infants are using Use success of word leaming opportunity to indicate quality Operationalizing the measure of quality Human stimulation paradigm Using us to generate data about how the world works The likely hood of guessing what the word is using that as a measure of quality Ease of guessing matters more than number of exposures High quality instances drive leaming of novel words in adults This study showed that it took the natural variations in how clear the presentation of a word was and varied those in a sequence This study found that you have to have a highly transparent instance in order to leam Each participant was shown 5 muted videos with the same nonsense word e g vash No cumulative leaming from low informative videos such as the video with the girl on the stairs but no book in sight Highly informative videos necessary for leaming to occur e g the video when the mom asked the child to get the book from the bookcase But is this how CHILDREN leam What role do parents have in word leaming Children were videotaped in their homes from about a year to when they start to enter school Stimulus construction Most frequent concrete whole object nouns Test items most frequent 10 words for each parent Fillers 5 nonconcrete nouns from each 0 E g tomorrow two outside 810 video clips like the ones we viewed in class Does quality vary Quality varied across clips Average quality varied across parents Quality predicts vocabulary Not a perfect relationship but it s predicting about 12 of the variance in children s vocabulary How much parents talked was also a predictor Maybe parents who talk more produce more transparent opportunities But found out that s not the case parents who talk more don t provide better input Important to note they are trying to build this model from the bottom up SES socioeconomic status and parent input SES correlates with the quantity of parents SES does not predict quality Quantity DOES relate to SES What makes a good wordleaming opportunity Object presence easier to guess when the object is there your accuracy is significantly higher Parent visual attention are parents looking at the object while she s labeling it It s easier to guess things if a parent is looking at it when she s talking about it Gesture does this increase the accuracy of guessing Yes If you look across time for high informative and low informative it isn t that the object isn t there the whole time sometimes the object will come into video then goes out Time charts interesting how the speci c context for a particular word may be much more narrow if you hear a word you are looking to see what happened right then Verbs Recognizing patterns Talked about in O Grady book Important part of how children are leaming the structures of the language they will speak Marcus et al familiarized infants to strings of syllables with AAB pattern Tested on AAB vs ABB pattern Familiarization strings of 3 reps 0 Ga ga ti Ge ge ti Ga ga ti Test 12 strings 0 Re re nu re re nu VS na li li Na li li same set of syllables but with a reversed pattern What did they nd They would play these strings and see how long infants looked at them They looked longer at the AAB strings when the strings were different they looked longer at those They can differentiate between AAB and ABB Comprehension of structure precedes production Tested 15 and 18 month infants on comprehension of is Ving Used is vs can can can precede a verb but not in this frame Infants listened longer to the passage containing the correct structure than to ones containing can ving This was not a familiarization task when you get them bored with something then present them with something new Not what happened here they were more interested in the ones they were more familiar with The point is do these show a difference Is there something that they re picking up on where they know that these are not the same As structure develops utterances get longer MLU Mean length of utterances Looks at number of morphemes in average utterance at a particular time point 93 0 shoe lmorpheme 93 0 give shoe 2morphemes 93 0 two shoes over there 5 morphemes because the plural s morpheme counts in shoes 93 o I wanna put new shoes on the dolls ll morphemes because of wanna and plural on the shoes and dolls 5114 Some questions what kinds of structures are there do children leam a series of small rules or several big ones What things are easy and come early What things are hard and come late Subjects come before verbs which come before objects linear orders that you hear the words in a sense Grammatical categories verbs nouns adjectives The labels what these things are Constituent structure not so much what these labels are but the relationships higher up in this hierarchy The idea that a constituent may have things dealing with a noun and things dealing with a verb The grammatical structure There are different levels of structure Things about the literal order that children hear in a sentence The grammatical categories can relate to each other in ways that are meaningful in a sense What do children s earliest strings of words look like Hi go more These are called pivot words words around which you can pivot This is a stationary construction Pivot words hi go more Open words are the words that children substitute into these blanks Pivot Grammar Children are extending the length of their utterances early on by using a limited number of frames with open slots that can be filled by different nouns or verbs Itembased leaming leaming a frame that is an item and then you leam what can go with that You can predict what new combinations the child might make Is this all you need May be a guess of how children are forming their first constructions They will use these frames over and over swapping in and out new words How do you extend beyond these frames Think of those as pivot word and open slot We know children transition from this to 9 open slot to open slot Children have an understanding that objects go after verbs and subjects go before verbs They are doing something where they are abstracting above the pivot words seeing what things have in common Leaming verbs Do children leam one big rule about verbs e g in English put subject in front of the verb or many little rules specific to different verbs Some evidence that children may begin with small rules and then generalize Verbs have different requirements Agents that are doing things or things that are done to children understand this distinction very early Verbs tell you something different about the ways they should be used Take different numbers of arguments have different numbers of slots Different kinds of verbs intransitive transitive ditransitive More likely to keep the frame they heard the verb in the same then they are to change it There s an understanding that verbs have stricter rules Verb that takes 1 argument transitive verb There s a subject but the action isn t done to someone else I am doing something I am sleeping I am crawling You can t crawl something else but you can crawl Transitive someone that does the action and something that it affect The pictures are identical but implying different things They use the information that s present in the frames One involves one person doing something to another person second one is not something that is done to someone Children can pick up on this really early and can use it to look at novel verbs Is there a processing constraint telegraphic speech if there was a dog at the park you would say dog part is a shortening of a longer sentence do children under produce elements in a sentence because they have too many cognitive demands 0 Probably but they do so selectively Omit unnecessary items first Children are not simply overloaded they are make strategic choices with limited means Forming questions Dif cult for children to understand the closeness in linear order is not the same with the association of who is doing a particular feature Someone is pushing the duck Pooh knows who Can you ask him who Asking about the subject of the sentence is not a problem But asking about the object of the sentence is a problem When children are making questions they will make systematic errors Passive sentences are particularly problematic Week 6 Notes 52914 131 PM 5 6 14 At average when do children start gesturing Before they are a year old 812 months Start to gesture before they start to use words Gesture is now being used as a way to identify speech delay A child is explaining that she believes there is less water in the container on the left because the level of the water is lower Her gesture is noteworthy because she is producing a gesturespeech mismatch A mismatch is very speci c The information that s being communicated in speech which is different then what is being conveyed in gesture Emblem why can you understand it without speech lt s a universal within a culture Homesigner s gestures resemble their parents gestures True or false False Their gestures are more complex and languagelike than their parent gestures A homesigner is not a signer They use a fully structured language They invent their own system of communication because they are profoundly deaf and their parents do not teach them sign language and the child has no access to the spoken language Use their hands to create their own system of communication but is not a fully structured language The gestures they use for verbs are separate than what they use for nouns When a task is difficult describing something from memory or reasoning through a complex problem gesture increases When you re looking at someone talking and the task becomes increasingly difficult they gesture more Gesture can help reduce a cognitive load Gesture is just as much for cognition as for communication Gesturing can re ect thought and learning but it cannot in uence it False Gesture is not sign language doesn t follow rules is produced with speech 90 of the time is rarely combined into long sequences like sentences emerges spontaneously and is hard to stop Gesture is part of language Doesn t rely on visual input Blind people gesture you re NOT just learning to gesture by watching other people gesture This is something spontaneous Tightly linked to speech timing as you produce contours in speech gestures seem to follow those When speech is disrupted gestures seem to be disrupted as well these 2 together seem to form an integrated linguistic system Gesture serves multiple functions Gesture is both for the self and others We gesture on the phone Kinds of gesture Gesture Types Deictic pointing and holding Conventional emblem putting your hand out to tell someone to stop No yes stop Representational making a walking gesture with your ngers or drove the car Emphatic really accenting the contours of his speech Gesture integrates with speech Over first year of life children begin to produce gestures that are Synchronous with speech produced at the same time Semanticallyintegrated with speech Gesture and Speech Relationship to speech Reinforce Disambiguate narrows down the meanings of things and it s a good thing Add information to speech Which of these would constitute a gesturespeech mismatch It is adding The two of them provide more information then either of them does on its own Gesture often communicates things not found in speech Sometimes children produce gestures that communicate info that is not found anywhere in their speech Supplement relationship Gesturespeech mismatch Children who produce more mismatches are those who are about to get the problem correct 5814 Extra credit 40 points used across all of the quizzes There will be a choice of additional questions for assignment 4 Describe the nouns the child uses are they making errors Can choose 2 of these for 20 points Summarize and condense the articles you have read Arguments and predicates Arguments are the main players in the action Doer the subject the agent the person the animal etc whoever is performing the action Doer done to Giver given recipient Predicates are the action Verbs other verblike things These are the actions that are occurring eg the girl sang girl argument singing predicate The girl hit the ball to the boy the girl argument hit predicate ball argument to the boy argument Give predicate me arg the ball argument Give mepredicate the ball argument so I can throw it predicate Pointing indicates an object but if you made a gimme gesture you would gloss that as give it to me The main point of the article was Speci c types of gesturespeech combinations predict speci c kinds of structures in 3 Notes for skimming Title Headings Topic sentences Abstract Method Conclusion Introduction Look at the figures which will summarize all the results Which of these is NOT a gesturespeech combination discussed in the article Clarifying They talked about reinforcing disambiguating and supplementary Mama point to cup would be an example of what kind of gesturespeech combination Supplementary What kind of structure is this Argument Argument Mama is not a verb and pointing to a cup is not a verb If the child pointed to a cup and said gimme then we could call that an argument predicate We are looking at the meaning behind the gesture Speaking is also an action The act of communicating is always a predicate but you need to focus on WHAT the child is communicating If the child points to the television when action is going on this is considered a predicate We usually assume that points refer to objects more than actions Which of these is an example of an argument predicate structure Both b and c Fall down point to fallen lamp on oor And ate up this is the predicate show empty plate object Which of these is an example of a predicate predicate structure let me this is also a verb stirring gesture stirring is one verb Gesture often communicates things not found in speech From the article we see that these combinations can Precede and predict linguistic changes Complementing vs supplementing speech In the video about Halloween costume cape motions and showing the fork were reinforcing And talking about red tights red shoes Example of supplementing speech When the parent was asking what was I holding And looks as if she was holding the pitch fork Gesture during language development Gesture precedes and predicts developments in early language Vocabulary Pointing vocabulary predicts vocabulary growth we will look at this in assignment 4 how many different things did the child point to Think about the total number of different meanings that the child is conveying May be in uenced by parent pointing Also by pointing children may be seeking input When the child is communicating they are affecting the conversation between them and the caregivers They may be seeking information from the caregiver 0 Parent is providing the verbal label to what the child is indicating 0 One way the child can change their leaming environment 0 Children can use gestures to communicate about the work and to seek more information about it Ozcaliskan and GoldinMeadow Read this for the quiz Background observation children s earliest sentencelike gesture speech combinations precede and predict the age at which children start producing twoword utterances in speech this was before the study Main research question Do children s gesture speech combinations predict speci c kinds of sentencelike constructions that will emerge in speech Participants 40 kids Design They looked at 40 kids over time longitudinal study Ages and length of observations 14 18 22 months each video session lasted 90 minutes finding 1 number of gestures grew over time in all cases the number of combinations grew identi ed 3 different types of combinations in gesture are you conveying 2 diff arguments argument argument e g Mommy point to cup argument predicate open hold up jar predicate predicate eg help me twisting gesture and in speech argument argument Mommy cup argument predicate open it predicate predicate help me open it Finding 2 more argumentargument combos produced in GS than in speech alone at 18 months as the child get s older they will produce more in speech alone as adults we produce more predicatepredicate Discussion potential problems Groupbased data vs individual trajectories Some children may not follow this pattem they may be producing first in speech and then gesture So as a follow up they looked at the individual data to see at what age they produced different things Conclusions Children produced constructions first in GS and then in SS Remaining questions what other kinds of constructions might show similar effects Is it true for supplementary GS relationships Reinforcing combinations pointing to a truck and saying truck Gesture speech combinations may be linked to speci c constructions in speech Take home message gesture selectively predicts language development Week 7 Notes 52914 131 PM Assignment 4 Identifying what is a gesture Point to book yes Look at book not a gesture is an action Shake book depends on the context could be a gesture or an action Chew on book Not a gesture Throw book Run around room this is not counted as a gesture Nodding or shaking your head yes used to convey meaning If a child said do it slowlier would that be an error on a word level or structural level structural level error Has to do with overapplying a rule laughs or can say laughs during 5 1314 Prosodic contours can be used to distinguish huh from huh the things that are different deal with where the pitch goes up or goes down what method did Bryant and Barrett use showed parents pictures of infants in different situations reaching for a light socket or standing up for the first time and asked how they would speak to the infants baby talk treating infants as conversational partners interpreting actions that are communicative adjusting methods of speaking that are simplified 0 all of the above 0 These are things they mention within the list People in some cultures avoid speculating on what infants are thinking because thoughts assumed to be unknowable true Bryant study what methodology did they use They showed ID speech vs AD speech ls baby talk universal Is it necessary No they didn t even talk about it Solomon look at different types of baby talks in different societies and looked at autism Seemed like baby talk wasn t useful in all the situations Did it use the same definition of BT as the Bryant article Was it all prosodic contours or were there other things going on Solomon was talking about baby talk as a broader phenomenon wasn t look at acoustic but other features of interaction that was accommodating speech towards infants BT wasn t useful for autism Baby talk is not universal it varies by culture In papa new guinea Was it necessary Not necessary People in different cultures talk to people in different ways Even if you don t speak a particular language they are better at interpreting speech directed towards infants good evidence that people are clarifying their speech to infants 5 1514 Syntax thinking about words what do words mean what does the child mean when they say a particular thing Morphology different parts of words and how the presence or absence of those tell you about what the child thinks of linguistic order Word order Constituent structure what pieces of an utterance goes together if something moves around then what would it take with it Language clustered together Some areas of linguistics Phonetics and phonology the study of speech sounds and sound systems Syntax the study of sentence structure About rules and the structure that cancan t be used Semantics and pragmatics the study of meaning Pragmatics is about language use You can take the same sentence and use it in different contexts Phonetics the study of speech sounds If one sound is next to another does it change that sound Voicing s versus 2 Your mouth configuration is the same but whether or no engaging your vocal folds Sue versus 200 Bills versus bees Phonetics doesn t deal if these sounds are meaningful this is the study of the rules that govem the use of different sounds Phonology the study of sound systems What are the allowable sounds in a language What ways can they be combined Bat vs pat b and p are two different phonemes What sounds are allowable in the language you are leaming Syntax the study of sentence structure Syntax is about system and rules but more about structure on the rearranging units of meaning level 1 saw the woman with the telescope I forgot how good cheese tastes ambiguous as to whether this is about the tasting or if it about the cheese Syntax allows you to have in nitely expanded structures Expand and embed things within sentences is about syntactic rules Semantics the study of linguistic meaning John believed that the Earth is round John doubted that the Earth is round They are different doesn t deal with structure Deals with the word put in there and the semantic meaning of the word Pragmatics the study of language use More about the context that you use those words The other school On UCLA you may think of USC But if you were at Santa Monica college you may not read it that way Using contextual information to interpret the meaning of the sentence yet the sentence is the same Descriptive vs prescriptive Me and J amesJ ames and I went to the store Who did Peter talk to To whom did Peter talk Syntax allows you to have infinite creativity with language Syntax has rules and is hierarchical You have 2 things more closely associated with each other Most intuitive piece of syntax is word order SVO subject verb object English SOV subject object verb Korean Turkish VSO verb subject object Arabic Check to see if your child switched word order More about Morphology Morphemes smallest units of meaning Two kinds Free morphemes things that can exist independently without being combined with anything dog hippopotamus Bound morphemes pre x suf x in X have to be attached to something else The plural s o The smaller units that are talked about morphology Morphemes are meant to be combined 3 types Compounding 2 or more free morphemes Combining adjective nouns and verbs Something s that are once combined don t get separated again This is fairly rare Derivational bound free morphemes Bound and free morphemes combine to change meaning often grammatical category o When you think about the bound morphemes they are usually productive ln ectional bound free morphemes Bound and free morphemes combine but never change grammatical class Constituents and hierarchical structure Constituent group of words that form a syntactic unit Smallest possible constituent in an utterance is a word Something that is a unit Are children making errors in an argument In a sequence that contains a verb with something else Think about the levels of structures that children are making errors Week 8 Notes 52914 131 PM 52014 What can we leam about language development from looking at children with no language input Two studies of late exposure Newport 1990 Deaf individuals differing in when they were first exposed to sign language Curtiss 1974 Is there a critical period for leaming language After they have aged out of that period of time is it more difficult for them to leam language Isolated or lost children Children have no usable language model Deaf and have no access to sign language homesign Socially isolated and hear no speech eg Genie Some are socially welladjusted they are loved and hugged others abused being isolated not being interactive Not able to use language that surrounds them as a model Studying the kinds of language they produce can tell you The effects of not getting enough input early on What children bring to the table themselves Homesign Kind of gestural language invented and used by a single individual Single child using gestures to communicate outwardly but not producing the same system Profoundly deaf children who are not taught a sign language Parents encourage them to leam to read lips and vocalize Try to improve their hearing where they could access the language their parents were speaking They were trying to mainstream the children didn t want them to join a different community away from them Didn t try to isolate the children from their language Before cochlear implants They are only producers they are not recipients in this language Use gestures to communicate but system isn t shared meaning they only produce they don t receive Parents are gesturing in less structured ways Children are creating a much more structured system What happens when homesigners are exposed to sign later in life Newport reading Newport studied ASL pro ciency in deaf leamers who had started leaming ASL at different times Native leamers exposed to ASL from birth Tests Production task Showed a number of different videos of events Trees falling on top of a car etc Asked people to describe them in ASL Look for different features of syntax and morphology Word order There are times where you want to highlight the thing the boy pushed e g the watermelon the boy pushed you are emphasizing this vs the boy pushed the watermelon Agreement between subject objects and verbs o I walk but the boy walks 0 make sure there s agreement between number of things implied in the subject vs the verb 0 In ASL there s a word for give you can give to one person two people number of different ways for marking that Use of classi ers 0 To have a placeholder that has some of the features structural feature of the language to indicate where people are in events Verb in ections for aspect and number 0 Was something completed or in the process of being done 0 Multiple individuals or single individuals Derivational morphemes those that change categories 0 Cow like cowlike which changes a verb into an adjective Comprehension test present sentence in sign language then ask people to recreate the event that she described For word order native leamers late leamers and early leamers Skill in word order as a function of age of first exposure to American Sign Language Easy to understand where you put the verb Where do you put the subject The object However when you look at the morphological syntactic features then native leamers are producing far fewer errors and late leamers are missing a bunch of elements Leamers exposed early from life are doing a bit better than late leamers but a little worse than native leamers For leaming little rules about language what needs to be modi ed modulated based on context the native leamers are doing really well etc conclusion Children who are exposed to their first language late in childhood have a hard time picking up on the subtleties of linguistic rules Errors lateleamers make frozen forms things leamed as phrases without an ability to break them down e g gimme in infants variable use of sign morphology inconsistency within an individual omission of obligatory morphology these seem to persist even after they finish acquiring their language What about second language leamers Newport s tests of 2nd language leamers 46 subjects varying in when they were first immersed in English moved to the US played English sentences half grammatical half nongrammatical participants were asked to say whether the sentence is grammatical might omit an article a or the people exposed to a second language early in development 24 made fewer errors than people exposed to a language later in development also included people from ages 1720 what she found was that they made errors essentially all over the place they are still late leamers but they didn t continue to decline there is an important period where you are still prepubescent and once you move into an adult it s harder to leam small syntactic rules about language leaming late is problematic same kinds of problems present for leaming second language after childhood some different kinds of errors leaming 2nd language late shows same problems as exposed to 1 language late age of acquisition matters Why are young children better language leamers Children are more open to receiving new knowledge Lack of interference Neural plasticity something about the way the brain is growing laying down connections in more uid ways Different types of memory constraints 0 Maybe children have more memory constraits than adults do and maybe it helps them focus on not trying to keep too many things in mind 0 May take one or two examples to leam a rule vs adults being able to leam 20 different things 0 Their limitations in memory may help them making stronger hypothesis in these rules 0 Different types of perception What happens if a hearing child is not talked to Isolated children Hearing children who were not spoken to Locked away Abusive institutionalized setting children weren t being spoken to interacted with Parents incapacitated could have been severely disabled and couldn t interact with them J enie example of their being a critical period She seems to leam a vocabulary quickly and progressing in a typical language development but when it came to a step beyond that to form questions modify nouns and verbs she wasn t able to acquire those features Some features of languages that is difficult to acquire if you re not exposed as a child 522l4 Don t go over 10 pages for final paper Hw5 the way that the child uses a particular type of interaction leaming environment gesture Write a new introduction amp new conclusion Submit final paper to tumitin One hard copy in class finals week and one copy at noon the day of online Presentation include the age of your child and some kind of example Can be example from the transcript Selfevaluation tum it in separately Final quiz OPTIONAL Can replace one of your scores Can children create language on their own What language is Nicaraguan sign language related to none of the above it is an independent language that didn t come out of any of those languages what kind of people first arrived when the Nicaraguan school for the deaf opened Children who were homesigners They were using a gesturebased system at home with their parents to communicate but not using structure signed language Still communicating with their families and friends How did NSL get started It emerged spontaneously from home signing children interacting with one another During the process of them communicating with one another the system they used started to become increasingly structured What kinds of things characterized the homesigners vocabulary Many words signs but idiosyncratic The children who first came developed their own systems at home and they each essentially used a different system What kinds of things characterized the homesigners syntax Some Not a fully structured language They would use consistent word order but idiosyncratic one person may use one word order it varies by individuals Homesign has Consistent word order within an individual But they might not be the same Ways of designating thematic role who did what to whom Diff individuals have ways of designating who is the doer and who is it done to Chase always takes 2 arguments you can t chase without chasing something Recursion Questions Ways of designating questions Negation Head shake Pastfuture Ways about talking about the past future These are all things homesigners are able to do may do them in different ways Doesn t mean that homesigners are incapable of communicating Not doing it in a very structured way shared with individuals How did Senghas test the use of NSL Nicaraguan sign language She asked them to retell a story She showed them a video and asked to retell the event from the video Senghas describes the process on NSL creation similar to a rapid Creolization Creolization Process Starts with Pidgin language Lenguaje de Signos Nicaraguense LSN Simpli ed form of language between people with own native language Happened a lot during the slave trade They exhibit a lot of same properties as home sign seem to have a system of unique words In terms of having words for things and limited structure Homesign is similar to pidgin Creole Idioma de Signose Nicaraguesnse ISN this is modem day NSL has increased structure and is not changing very much Children hearing pidgin language will impose additional structure on it They will hear this language with some words from French or English and they will impose more structure on it They see pattems rules and they like to apply those If the input a child is using uses one structure or no structure a child will take this irregular input and make it more regular Process of leaming the language from the children who take this language that is fairly irregular and impose this structure on it Becomes more complex over time as children nd ways of systematically communicating who did the actions were they malefemale etc As children entered the school at different times what they were leaming changed They are entering school over time first deaf children encountered only other homesigners Their individual system was not yet shared with anyone else Together started to leam each other s signs and invent some new one The school was not trying to teach the students sign language they were trying to speech them Spanish to integrate with the community The children in their free time were trying to interact with one another Not a full language yet they start to borrow and create new signs Deaf children entering a few years later encountered a partially shared system They are encountering this group who are already using signs to interact with another System that is shared in between individuals but not yet fully structured Like a baby being bom into a community that speaks pidgin They perceive and use more rules than the people who were originally in this school thus the system they share becomes more structures Deaf children entering a few years after that encountered a shared system with some structure Age at entry vs time of entry Tested effect of two different variables How old the children were when they entered 0 Young lt66 Medium 6710 old 101275 I May have difficulties in leaming the small rules when they get older What year they entered 0 School founded in 1979 before 1983 and after 1983 I Will affect what version they are leaming when they enter the school Measures of linguistic complexity Story retellings from 25 NSL signers Senghas measured Number of arguments per verb 0 Not number of verbs 0 Not number of roles they communicate o Is the number of roles associated with a single verb 0 Tiger is chasing and puppy is being chased breaking it up and using 2 diff verbs o E g she threw the ball How many verbs does that sentence have 1 verb How many arguments 2 o The girl was throwing and there was a ball which was being throw I Breaks apart event into 2 separate event I Someone is doing a thing and being done to Not part of the same verb Number of inflections per verb 0 E g including info about number aspect orientation 0 Aspect is the event in process is it completed 0 ln ected verb any change you make to a verb 0 If you have girl to throw ball That would be a verb that is unin ected If you used throw to talk about a bunch of different things this shows it wasn t ever in icted o Throws throwing or threw are all in ections of that verb Numbers of in ections showing agreement 0 Are these in ections correct The girl throws the ball The 2 girls throws the ball Throws is in ected but no longer agreeing Agreement does that verb match the other things in the story you re telling OOOO Pay there was a girl and 2 boys and she paid Or you can say she paid both of them This shows agreement between number of recipients and the verb What mattered Number of arguments per verb Both age of exposure and year entering Number of inflections per verb both Number of in ections showing agreement both verbs with 2 or more arguments young medium or old student who entered the school in ections per verb students who entered later showed more in ections agreement per verb being a young leamer is helpful and entering a system that is partially structured allowed young leamer to have more structure people who encountered a partially leamed structure then improved that interaction is key to language have to perceive language as well as produce it is interactional process that allows regularization and the emergence of structure encountering structure is only helpful as you encounter structure you create more structure children can take something messy and nd order in it they can cut through inconsistencies and make that into a structured and regular system but they can t do it on their own Interacting with other individuals to find ways of systematically communicating events Interactive process at the core of the structured systems Book Notes 52914 131 PM 52714 Guest lecturer Judith Kroll Myths about Bilingualism Many reasons to leam another language Both of a bilingual s language are native regardless of intention or requirement to use one language alone Hypothesis is that the other language produces competition Bilinguals are a model of cognitive control Enable them to negotiate their cognitive lives more generally The bilingual is a mental juggler both languages appear to be active regardless of the requirement to use one language alone Bilinguals need to make this selection over and over again We see this when bilinguals read and when they listen to speech Bilinguals seem to activate both languages regardless if their listening reading or planning speech 3 discoveries about bilingualism 1 Both languages always active and competing 2 the native language changes in response to leaming and using an L2 Consequence is that as the L2 changes Ll changes 3 consequences of bilingualism are not limited to language but re ect a reorganization of brain networks that hold implications for the ways in which bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition more generally claim bilinguals become better multitaskers better at ignoring irrelevant information even when bilinguals are reading in one language alone the affect of the knowledge they have of the other language in uences their performance these crosslanguage interactions are persistent even when bilinguals are reading one language alone if they encounter a word with a mis match they should it Deals with the way the two languages interact with one another Study done with deaf signers Decide if 2 words in English were semantically related to each other When deaf readers were reading in English the shape of the sign translation affected the speed of reading Evidence is quite pervasive on whether or not the 2 languages are active There is a consequence for language use particularly for the native language The native language changes in response to a second language If you look at the electrical activity revolted coming from your scalp you can tell something about the information that you just processed Person wears a hat and this activity is ampli ed and then averaged over many trials Can look at brain waves to see what s happening when someone is a the early stages of beginning to understand what they heard or what they plan to speak Your brain recognizes when a word doesn t make sense in a sentence Used ERPs to examine the earliest time course of crosslanguage activation in bilingual speech planning Name pictures in L1 then L2 and then name picture in L2 and L1 What should happen second time you perform it You should be better Asked if they would see benefits if they named the same picture in the other language On right when they speak English Blue line is when English happened first Red line is when English followed chinese More negativity with blue line than the red line When you have repetition if you re facilitated by this then you would expect a reduction of negativity in the ERP In L1 is the opposite if they have just spoken their second language and suddenly have to switch to L1 they see an increase in negativity rather than decrease They are being hurt by the fact that they had to speak their second language then the native language is momentarily not quite there When you use one language for a period of time then switch to another language native will be modulated Found that this lasted for the entire experiment they were still showing the effect the 20th time they spoke chinese Think it suggests that one component of regulating native language is local Does inhibition of L1 depend on the context of language use In studying abroad they suffer when speaking English Students who study abroad know more Spanish and are able to produce more Spanish than students in the classroom But they produced less English They find that you recover the English and the Spanish is maintained Extreme examples when people are cut off from language use The effect of L2 on L1 affects in many levels Native Spanish speakers began to parse Spanish as if it were English Began to adapt English form into Spanish uses Native language is not xed changes across your entire life changes in the context that you re using and you see this at every level used The native language is not constant Bilingualism has a profound affect on the native language The most string results are at the cognitive level that bilingualism changes your mind and brain with respect to the way bilinguals negotiate cognitive competition A normal part of aging decline in executive function Bilingualism does modulate the rate at which that decline occurs If you look at the age at which a person with Alzheimer s bilinguals tend to be 45 years older Bilinguals are able to get away with the symptoms Exercise other parts of their brain Bilingual affects the part of the brain that enables cognitive control Stroop test used widely because it imposes a con ict The color of the word and the word is telling you 2 different things Bilinguals do better on the Stroop test Idea is that bilinguals are somehow able to modulate the con ict more ef ciently than monolinguists Simon task Switch the position of the button and where the square is Expect that people suffer a bit when they do this experiment Looks at the effects of Simon interference over the lifespan If you re bilingual you have more difficulty in resolving con ict but it s modulated relative to monolinguals If elderly are challenged by declines cognitive ability young children have difficulty in understanding what s arbitrary and what s not what s perceptually overwhelming Bilingual children less likely to be sucked in by perceptual illusion that one block was taller than the other Word size task congruent You can have big object and a tiny object hippopotamus with a large name and bee has a small name But what about big object with little name car and little object with a big name butter y They found that 2 of the bilingual groups at age 5 they were better than monolinguals Bilingual infants were better at following the switched cue than monolingual babies at 7 months they weren t speaking but were in uenced by the exposure Bilingual babies are coswitching in their babbling Babies are very attentive Bilingual babies as young as 4 months can discriminate what language is being spoken simply by looking at a face Not something speci c about the language something about how bilingual babies are able to allocate their attention to critical information in their environment that allows them to leam Bilinguals more efficient than monolinguals can solve same cognitive power with less brain power Notes from the Readings GoldinMeadow ch 13 Chapter 1 Children must learn how units of their language are combined Infants need to learn particular features of the sound structure of their native language in order to be able to find words in the stream of talk that is addressed to them Long before infants use voice in changing ways they begin by crying reflexively and to make vegetative sounds All natural languages are structures A word does more than communicate information it stands for something It is a symbol dog is term in English for a furry four egged creature but there is nothing about the form of the word that makes it a good label for furry creature proto words ex child says brmmmbrmmm when he plays with a toy truck Does not always have to be verba gestures work as well child smacks lips when feeds her fish children who produce incorrect form foots have extracted plural morpheme s and added it to the noun foot Words in English contain relatively few morphemes Children speaking English do not learn morphemes of language until after they combine words into sentences Word order is an important device used by languages to convey who did what to whom Grammatical morphemes Chapter 2 Possible to describe what children do when they acquire language Harder task is to figure out how they do this Child39s language may change dramatically during development Chapter 3 Diff types of languages pose diff types of acquisition problems for learners Languages offer children diff patterns for structuring communication and these patterns have widespread effects throughout child39s language Across the globe children combine words into strings Children not only sensitive to regularities of form within sentence but also across sentences Ochs amp Schieffelin Language socialization socialization through the use of language and socialization to use language inguistic socialization concerns the learning of the use of language in a way to maintain and appropriately and progressively change one s position as member of society socialization function of input language is linked to the message content of utterances addressed to children Language of socialization age 4 and continues through adolescence Socialization is an interactive process Idea that reality is constructed through social interaction Distinguish study of language socialization from study of language acquisition Language acquisition understanding what constitutes linguistic competence at diff developmental points In contrast language socialization has goal of understanding how people become competent members of social groups and role of language in the process Process of acquiring language affected by process of becoming competent member of society Sapir Whorf particular grammatical forms and domains Anthropologists culture amp language deeply tied to one another Members of a social group have tacit understanding of grammatical discourse and lexical structures as tools for signaling particular social meanings eg that a particular activity or affective disposition is in play How and how much a child participates in routines vary with the age of the child and cultural configurations of caregiver chid interactions Baby talk displays simplification O Grady Ch 1 Small Talk Children can make and hear contrasts among dozens of speech sounds Most children start producing words between the ages of 8 and 12 months and many children have 10 words in their vocabulary by the age of fifteen months Meaningful words are the building blocks out of which we create sentences our principal message carriers By the age of 3 basics of sentence formation are in place Two ways to study child language Experimenta involves conducting experiments to test an idea Naturaistic observation of children39s speech in ordinary everyday situations This can include keeping a language diary Children start using words and learning meanings before they master all of a anguage s sounds Ch 7 How do they do it There is the popular idea that children learn language by imitating their parents but this won39t take us far because there are major parts of language that cannot be imitated such as sentences Unlike words sentences are created as the need arises It39s also unlikely that parents teach their children to speak by explaining things to them or by correcting them when they make a mistake Most of what we know about language is subconscious we know it but we don39t know that we know it and therefore cannot explain it to anyone else Recasts when a parent is trying to agree with the child and didn39t actually try to correct them but nonetheless sets a good example for them No matter how many recasts children heard it didn39t seem to speed up their learning of articles It seems that recasts are helpful but they are not necessary Parents speak to their children in a special way called motherese speech characterized by slow careful articulation and the use of basic vocabulary items short sentences and somewhat exaggerated intonation Children need to hear sentences that they can understand without knowing a lot about the language they39re trying to learn If the capacity for language is inherited then there should be such a thing as inherited language disorders too Think of the brain as a black box and the part of the black box concerned with language learning is sometimes called the acquisition device Grammar the knowledge of a language View 1 the acquisition device is just for language acquisition Bootstrapping the acquisition device gives the child some information to get started eg a language must distinguish between nouns and verbs if a word refers to a concrete object it39s a noun There are linguists who see language as a highly complex formal system with abstract rules and are many other linguists who think that language has to be understood in terms of its communicative function There is still a lot about language which needs to be learned Generalization involved drawing a general conclusion from specific cases Glietman amp Newport Reading Some parts of the capacity to learn language is innate but it is also learned Language function heavily affected by specific environmental stimulation 1 language learning proceeds uniformly within and across linguistic communities despite extensive variability of the input provided to individuals 2 the child acquires many linguistic generalizations that experience could not have made available Language use in children goes under elaboration between the ages of 2 5 Complex sentences appear and the function morphemes bound morphemes like ed etc make their appearance Alterations in linguistic environment Modest natural variations in Motherese 0 Simplified speech Radical change in the presence versus absence of any conventional linguistic input Similar radical change in the presence versus absence of the visual nonlinguistic world during language learning An Egyptian king Psammetichus placed 2 infants in an isolated cabin Experimental intent to resolve the question of which Egyptian or Phrygian was the first of all languages on earth Phrygian emerged as the pure reflection of the language of the soul the original innate language Hard of hearing children could create signed sentences that were structurally organized There is neither delay nor distortion in a blind child39s language growth Significant aspects of language development are dictated by our biology Linguistic earning events in the child39s life are the natural consequences of maturation rather than the outcomes of what children hear and see in the world around them A crucial factor is the age to which exposure to linguistic stimulation begins In order to communicate across language barriers individuals develop a rough andready contact language or pidgin This usually develops into a fuHanguage Language acquisition is a complex interaction between the child39s innate capacities and the social cognitive and linguistic supports provided in the environment Brown Language sociaization process of socialization into language through language and its use in interaction Interactional patterns are also influenced by adult beliefs about childhood and child rearing including the contrast between childcentered versus situation centered societies ochs and schiefflin The developmentalist perspective Infants during their first year develop the ability to engage with others in joint attention The adults credit the infant with social qualities and communicative intentions Pointing is seen as crucial for the development of referential communication Infant pointing is achieved by particular response by the adult to the infant39s pointing labeling Labelling the object being pointed at helps the infant to learn the word but also leads to the understanding that others have communicative intentions Gaze and gesture contribute to joint attention between American mothers and children Mayan society Tzeltal in Mexico where interaction with infants during their first year is relatively minimal Society where interaction with infants is not a priority the other is on Rossel Island Papua New Guinea where interaction with infants is characterized by intensive faceto face communicative behaviors from shorty after the child39s birth Naturally occurring interactions of infants from both places were sampled at 5minute intervals to display snapshots of infant activity at different times of the day The Tzeltal infants more engaged in bodily functions 6 type of attention sharing behaviors involved in developmental trajectory to joint attention pointing reaching indicative gesturing gesturing towards object and signaling to interlocutor showing vocalizing gazing in general infant pointing appears around the range of 915 months joint attention is clearly achieved and the child displays a sense of the other39s communicative intention to share attention over an object or event O Grady ch 2 amp 6 child39s first word usually happens around 12 months old segmentation taking the continuous stream of sounds that make up a sentence and break it down into words Two Learning Styles analytic stye breaking speech into its smallest component parts from the very beginning Gestalt stye memorizes and produce relatively large chunks of speech that correspond to entire sequences of words in the adult language Stress is like a spotlight that draws a child39s attention to particular syllables making them easier to pick out Children focus on the strongweak pattern Ex DOCtor CANde DOGgie The Matching Strategy when an utterance contains a part that matches something you already know the matching part is a word and what39s left over is too Infection changes in the form of a word used to carry important bits of information U shaped learning line describing children39s success over time which resembles a U it starts high then dips down to reflect the overuse of the ed ending then rises up again as children learn the exceptions to the general rule Three ways to create words Conversion 0 Take a word that already exists and start to use it in a new way conversion 0 The verb throw can be turned into a noun That was a great throw Derivation 0 Adding an ending to an already existing word to derive a new word with a new type of meaning 0 er attaches to a verb teacher a person who teaches Compounding 0 Putting together 2 or more already existing words Mailbox blackboard Simplicity of Form Create new words from old words without changing their form Productivity create new words from endings that can be used with many different words Transparency of Meaning create new words whose meaning comes from the meaning of their parts Storemanstoreman Ch 6 O Grady Children are sensitive to the sound pattern of language even before they are born Minimal pairs showing children pairs of pictures whose names differ by just one sound Ex car and gar beat and feet Articuation being able to prounounce sounds Deletion dropping a tough sound Ex blanket 9 banket bump bup Substitution replacing it by an easier one Ex sing 9 ting substitution s t Assimilation a sound tries to become more like its neighbor in some respect Krogh et al Reading 2 categories of constraint constraints on the types of input over which statistical learning operates and constraints based on the state of the learner Artificial language mechanisms for statistical word segmentation transitional probability TP detection suggested that statistical learning via sensitivity to TPs is a possible mechanism contributing to language acquisition Using electroencephalography they measured newborns eventrelated potential ERP negativities to the first second and third syllables in the words Demonstrates that statistical learning is functional even in newborn infants and perhaps contributes to language acquisition even prior to birth Natural Language Sequences of grammatically correct and semantically meaningful sentences in natural speech Infants participated in a post famiiarization test Compared infants listening time to speech in which words and part words were embedded in either simple English or matched nonsense frames Establishing a link between sound and meaning is an essential aspect of language acquisition especially for young language learners Infants Infants can discriminate between structured and random sequences Co occurent statistics inform the observers of the likelihood of 2 events occurring together but leave the observer uncertain of the likelihood of an event occurring given that the other has taken place Conditional probability statistics reduces the uncertainty by measuring the predictive power of one event with respect to another Aduks Visual statistical learning in adults appears to produce flexible representations that can be generalized to new situations Constraints on statistical learning Auditory information is conveyed temporally whereas visual information is arrayed spatially Emberson et al posited that visual statistical learning improved with the slower rate of presentation betcuase it was less temporally demanding on the visual system To explain differences in statistical learning ability across development researchers have appealed to domain genera maturational constraints on perception and memory Statistical learning is automatic in that statistical computations seem to be carried out without conscious intent and often without awareness that any structure was learned But it is not automatic in that it operates better over attended versus unattended input Reason for flexibility and constraints on statistical learning is because the environment contains both variance and invariance organisms need a way to flexibly adapt and generalize to different contexts Conclusion Statistical learning is a means of uncovering structure in complex environmental input Operates in both auditory and visual domains Linguistic and biological anthropoogists say that gesture is important because language is integrated system Statistical earning child is taking in data Infants hear the mother in the womb they start to babble Learn from statistical information Children add the data together Statistical ability in speaking 9 writing Adults not expecting a tone to represent an object in the world in this way adults are like children By the time we are adults we have enough data to make a conclusion O Grady Ch 3 Children want to know the names for the people and things they39ve been seeing since they were born Cohesion preferred objects consist of a connected and bounded region of matter Ball is good example of an object if you throw it the whole thing will move A head is not a good example because it is attached to something else Continuity preferred objects don39t disappear at one point and reappear at another Soidity preferred objects don39t pass through one another They expect objects to be solid and impermeable Contact unless that are animate preferred objects don39t move without being touched Children whose early vocab almost exclusively consists of nouns called referential Children who are less enamored with nouns are sometimes called expressive Overextensions dog may be used to refer to horses cows and other four egged animals in addition to canines Underextension have a meaning that is too narrow Fast mapping when children can learn a new world after hearing it used only once or twice How children learn nouns divided into four types cognitive social linguistic and organizational Coqnitive constraints father driving and points to an animal and says sheep How does child know what exactly sheep is referring to The Whole Object Assumption a new word refers to a whole object The Type Assumption a new word refers to a type of thing not just to a particular individual The Basic Level Assumption a new word refers to types of objects that are alike in basic ways Social Constraints help from friends and family Children have to be in sync with other humans noticing what they notice and thinking what they are thinking Psychologists note that being able to sense the intentions and thoughts of others in this way involves having a theory of mind an understating of how other people39s minds work 0 The Social Strategy to figure out what new words mean think like other people think Being able to see what the speaker sees and being able to understand what heshe is thinking Is not only a vital social skill it is absolutely crucial for learning language as well Linquistic constraints lessons from language Children rely on what they39ve already learned about their language to learn new words Organizational constraint The Mutual Excusivity Assumption things should have only one label 0 Things that are dogs cannot be cats things that are cars cannot be boats By taking the verb s syntactic frame as their starting point they are able to infer its meaning syntactic bootstrapping in action Parents use fewer adjectives than nouns or verbs when speaking to chHdren Learning new adjectives is easy when it describes An object that differs from another object in one way or Two objects that are alike in just one way Preposition indicate relations between words Omission errors when children fail to use a preposition where one is called for Commission errors when a wrong preposition is used Week 4 Readings 52914 131 PM Cartmill et Al The more words children hear early in development the larger their subsequent vocabularies Estimated the referential transparency of learning instances in infant directed speech using a reliable and we vaidated overall measure of referential transparency how easily the meaning of a word can be inferred from nonlinguistic context aone Human Simulation Paradigm HSP Words are learned via a relatively sudden determinative procedure rather than by brute force statistical machinery In the transcription all dictionary words onomatopoeic words eg meow and evaluative sounds eg uhoh were coded as words Smith amp Yu Reading Infants rapidly learn multiple word referent paris by accruing statistical evidence across multiple word scene pairings Cross situationa statistical learning is in the repertoire of young word learners In less than 4 minutes with 6 different word forms and sex different objects infants learned enough to systematically look longer at the objects more strongly associated with the forms than those more weakly associated O Grady ch 4 The development of children39s sentence buiding skills can be roughly divided into 2 phases First phase begins around age of 18 mo sees the appearance of relatively simple 2 and 3 work patterns Second phase begins around age 2 missing pieces are filled in and there is rapid growth in the ability to produce a wide variety of complex constructions Linguists keep track of sentence growth by calculating a child39s MLU mean length of utterance Determing the average number of morphemes Overtime a child39s MLU increases Processing botteneck words should be dropped more often in long sentences Children often use no rather than using not as their negative word Wh words words like who what where why how and when are used to ask questions in English Relative clauses are like sentences because they always contain a verb Learning to build various types of sentences is one of the major tasks of language learning Gleitmann et al Chief limiting factor in acquiring vocabulary of natural languages consists not in overcoming conceptual difficulties with abstract word meanings but rather in mapping these meanings onto their corresponding lexical forms Syntactic bootstrapping an overlapping series of steps through which novices move in representing the lexical forms and phrase structures of the exposure language Nouns overpopulate the infant vocabulary as compared to verbs and adjectives Some sophisticated linguistic knowledge of the exposure language is required to support the learning of hard words Results of HSP suggest that syntactic information subcategorization frame information is a powerful inferential cue to verb me Week 6 Readings 52914 131 PM GoldinMeadow Nonverbal communication The Hand39s role in talking and thinking Nonverbal communication Student waves hand in the air when teacher asks a questions Another shrinks into seat to avoid making eye contact Whether we move our bodies make eye contact or raise our voices send messages about us Argye nonverbal behavior expresses emotion conveys interpersonal attitudes one s personality helps manage turn taking feedback and attention Gesture intimately tied to speech take on the intentionality of speech P 337 5 types of nonverbal behavior Younger children learn and use gestures better older children already figured out that words not gestures carry the communicative burden in their worlds Gesture and speech have a synchronous temporal relationship Children don39t only produce gestures they also receive them Gesture conveys meaning globally relying on visual and mimetic imagery Gesture elaborates on a topic that has been already introduced in speech and also introduces new info that is not mentioned at all in speech Gesture has the potential to contribute to cognitive change indirectly by influencing the learning environment through communication or by influencing the learner through thinking Gesture is an early form of communication children typically begin to gesture between 8 and 12 months Children do not begin to produce beat or metaphoric gestures until much later in development Early gestures are unlike nouns in that an adult must follow the pointing gesture s trajectory to its target to figure out which object the child means to indicate No children from words easier than gestures but some found gestures easier than words Children stop using symbolic gestures as words as they develop Older children figure out that words and not gestures carry communicative burden in their worlds Gesture becomes integrated with speech during the oneword period During one word period 2 notable changes take place with gesture and speech Child beings to produce gesture pus meaningfu word combinations Gesture and speech begin to have a synchronous temporal relationship It is the relation that gesture holds to speech that matters and not merely gesture s presence Gesture continues to play a role in communication over the course of development Gesture amp speech become part of a unified system during the one word period of language development Older children often use their hands to convey information that overlaps with the information conveyed in speech Child says that the amount of the water did change cause that39s down lower than that one while first pointing at the relatively low water in the short wide container and then the higher water in the tall skinny container Child is focusing on the height of water in both speech and gesture and has produced a qesture speech match If the child says the same thing BUT indicates the WIDTHS and not the height of the container with her hands than the child is focusing on the height of the water in speech but on its width in gesture and has produced a qesture speech mismatch Gesture speech mismatch suggests that these are NOT independent of one another Becoming a Gesture Comprehender Children produce gestures and also receive them The gestures that parents produce have an impact on how often children gesture and may even influence the ease with which children learn new words When children CANNOT learn language Gesture can reflect skills that can help children recover from language delay Deaf children who are orally trained often communicate using their hands and these hand movements are called home signs As they get older the deaf children39s gestures bossom begin to take on the functions and forms that are typically assumed by conventional language spoken or signed Home signs resemble language in function and form Deaf children often combine their gestures into strings that have many properties of sentences Deaf children gestures serve nounlike functions that are different in form from gestures serving verblike functions The deaf children39s gestures do not look like their hearing parents gestures Deaf children may have used their hearing parents gestures as a starting point but they go beyond that point Gesture can reveal thoughts not found in speech Gesture offers unique insight into a child39s knowledge Children can express knowledge in gesture that they do not express in speech Children can express knowledge with their hands that they do not express anywhere in their speech We gesture more when listeners are present Speakers change their talk in response to listeners congenitally blind speakers gesture even when addressing blind listeners All the blind speakers still gestured as they spoke even though they had never seen gestures or their listeners They even produce pointing gestures at distal objects Gesture seems to be an inevitable part of speaking Gesturing when speaking is difficult Increased gesture is associated with difficult in speaking For bilinguals speaking the non dominant language is more difficult and they respond by increasing their rate of gesturing Gesturing when the of items in a task increases Gesturing also been found to increase when speakers have options to choose among Gesturing when describing from memory Gesturing when reasoning rather than describing Reasoning about set of objects is more difficult that merely describing them What functions does gesture serve Gesture may be reflecting the speaker39s thought processes rather than causing them Gesture39s role in communication does gesture convey information to the listener Child39s gesture can signal to parents amp teachers that a particular notion is already in that child39s repertoire but is not quite accessible Looking at gesture in the context of speech In certain situations gestures can add nothing to the information conveyed by speech Listeners really can glean specific information from gesture Children39s gestures shape their learning environment Gestures that children produce can influence the instruction they get from their teachers Why do teachers produce gesturespeech mismatches Their mismatches differ from children39s When adults are learning a task their mismatches are likely to exhibit the kind of variability that can lead to cognitive change Mismatching gesture provides the learn with additional information Teachers use gesture to promote learning Gesturing can lighten the speaker39s cognitive load Gestures can help speakers organize information for the act of speaking Gesture does not just reflect the incipient ideas that a learn has it helps the earn formulate and develop these new ideas conclusion Gesturing is a vestige of the evolutionary process that gave us speech Gesture is pervasive appearing in all sorts of situations and over all ages and cultures Oczaliskan and GoldinMeadow gesture is at the cutting edge of early language development Abstract Children who produce one word at a time often use gesture to supplement speech eat point at cookie Gesture serves as a signal that a child will be ready to begin producing muti word sentences Gesture39s role in early languagelearning At certain stage in process of learning language children will produce one word at a time At early stages they fail to combine words with gesture Children use deictic gestures to convey object information eg point at mommy to refer to mommy Iconic gestures to convey predicate information eg fist pounding in the air to refer to the act of hitting Data analysis Meaningful sounds and communicative gestures were transcribed Hand movements were considered communicative gestures if they convey information to a listener and didn39t involve direct manipulation of objects eg banging a peg or a ritualized game eg itsy bitsy spider Communicative acts were divided into 3 categories Gesture acts without speech either singly eg point at a dog or in combination point at dog nod Speech acts words without gesture either singly dog or in combination baby fall down Gesture speech combinations contain both gesture and speech see dog point at dog cookie eat gesture Gesture speech combinations Reinforcing relation when gesture conveyed information was redundant with speech eg dog point at dog cup hod up milk cup Disambiguating relation coded when gesture clarified the referent of a pronominal of relating to or serving as a pronoun eg her point at sister demonstrative this that these those eg that one point at doll or deictic eg there point at table Supplementary relation coded when gesture added semantic relating to meaning in language or topic information to the message conveyed in speech eg push point to couch all gone hod up empty milk bottle 0 Can have multiple arguments without a predicate o A predicate with at least one argument 0 Multiple predicates with or without arguments Children39s speech improved with age Children39s gestures also changed with age Of the 3 types of gesture speech combos supplementary combos were the most revealing because gesture and speech work together to convey sentence ike meanings For an individual child the typical path seems to be produce a construction in gesture speech first and only later produce that same construction entirely within speech discussion As children39s gesture speech combos progressed from one word 9 multi word combos children produce more gesture speech combos where gesture supplemented the info conveyed in speech eg eat point at muffin Gesture provides children with a tool to expand their communicate repertoire and children use this tool to convey complex ideas Shortly after they can convey these same ideas within speech Gesture is first sign of progress on a variety of tasks including early anguage earning Gesture may put less strain on memory than words or signs whose forms must be memorized and recalled at the moment of production Gesture both precedes and signals oncoming changes in speech Week 7 Notes 52914 131 PM Recognizing Intention in InfantDirected Speech Bryant and Barrett Abstract Infant directed speech Recorded native Engish speaking mothers producting 4 intention categories of utterances prohibition approval comfort and attention as both ID and adut directed AD speech and then presented the utterances to Shuar adults South American hunter horti culturalists Performance significantly better with ID speech Function of speech is the communication of intentions Adults talk to infants they exaggerate prosodic cues this exaggerated prosody is called infant directed ID speech Infants prefer to listen to ID speech over AD speech regardless of the gender of voice There is a formfunction relationship in ID speech When speaking to infants adults cannot make use of their full language capacity so they rely on prosodic cues Shuar speakers listened to ID speech produced by American English speaking mothers Basic vocal emotions were recognized 3 experiments speech discrimination subjects listened to single ID an dAD utterances asked to determine if it was directed toward infant or adult Intention discrimination listened to single ID utterances and chose which of 2 categories each exemplified Identical to the second but was in all AD speech o Expected better performance on intention recognition in ID than AD because ID has exaggerated prosodic cues Resuks Expected that Shuar subjects could successfully discriminate between ID speech and AD speech and they were able to discriminate with 73 accuracy overall Acoustic correlates of intention categories similar in ID speech across different languages Study is the first to show that adult listeners in indigenous nonliterate culture can easily distinguish ID from AD speech As predicted Shuar subjects were better able to discriminate between intention categories in ID than AD speech Often confused prohibition with attention utterances AD utterances were unambiguous Vocal emotional communication manifests itself in similar ways across disparate cultures The results are consistent with the hypothesis that ID speech is particularly rich in prosodic cues that disambiguate communicative intentions Rethinking Baby Talk Solomon Human social development based on 3 presumptions Shared developmental trajectory and universal developmental outcome characterizes human species as a whole Social development is experience dependent amp there may be different outcomes by gender socio status or culture Assumed that both the content of social learning and everyday environments are culturally organized o The first presumption has been dominant in research Baby tak speech register way of speaking employed in different social situations Members speak differently when they address someone olderyounger higherlower status BT involves the expression of affection tenderness and intimacy in the context of a nurturing social interaction Simplifying their adult speech caregivers may be accomplishing several tacit goals communicating with the child making salient speci c grammatical features of the language making themselves understood or inferring what the child is intending by attending to what the child is doing and where the child is looking Ochs and Schieffelin 1984 Chomsky made a claim that caregivers speech is degenerate poory executed and formed and presents an inadequate source for the child to reconstruct a language From early assumption it was deduced that in all human societies adults modify their speech when talking to infants Still an open question to what degree the features of BT facilitate language learning of typically developing children Language socialization practices envision children39s socio membership in their communities Local beliefs practices and institutions organize the process of becoming a competent member of a social group Roadville caregivers spoke BT to infants Trackton infants everyone talks about the baby but rarely to the baby Habitus is a set of socially organized historically rooted yet transformable dispositions that enable members to interpret and engage in the flow of social practices that exist in a given culture Side by side interactions gt face to face with autism Example of Jacob who is autistic He spells his answers by pointing to letters Jacob39s mother shows respect by not using exaggerated intonation and heightened praise and not insisting on face to face Demonstrates how Euro American middle class families interact BT affords simplification in typically developing children but does NOT afford simplification for a child with sever autism Week 8 Notes 52914 131 PM Newport Reading Constraints on learning required to explain the acquisition of language particularly maturational constraints 2 hypotheses considered as the nature of these maturational changes constraints on learning particular to language acquisition undergo maturational decay language learning abilities decline because of expansion of nonlinguistic cognitive abilities language learning operatues under set of internal constraints and without it it would be impossible to achieve adult competence Learning of systems like human languages cannot be based soley on the type of input data that children receive Learners in different maturational states don39t achieve the same outcome In language acquisition the child amp not the adult appears to be especially privileged as a learner Evidence of maturational constraints in first language learning Language learning IS subject to maturational constraints Comes from studying ASL Language in different modality and offers opportunity to examine contributions of modality to the structure and acquisition of language Language sometimes acquired under different circumstances of time and input than the typical situation for spoken languages Native earners exposed to ASL from birth by deaf singing parents at home and ages 46 Early earners first exposed to ASL by deaf peers at age 46 when they entered PSD Late earners first exposed to ASL by deaf peers after 12 when they entered PSD or met friendsmarried spouses from PSD Production tasks series of short videotaped events which subjects are asked to describe in ASL Comprehension tasks presents a series of short videotaped ASL signs or sign sentences which contrast the production tasks subjects asked to manipulate an object or choose 1 of 2 pics in correspondence with the meaning of the ASL form Tests of these structures designed to evaluate whether deaf subjects produce and comprehend each of these components correctly according to standards of native ASL grammar Native learners show highly consistent response patterns The later language is learned the less its use is native with crisp and grammatically consistent forms in character Evidence of maturational constraints in second language learning In some nonlinguistic domains maturational effects exist on first learning but not on second learning in the same domain Evidence of the effects of age of acquisition on performance many years later in both a primary and a second language Support maturation interpretation language learners who begin acguiring language at an early maturation state end up performing significantly better in that language that those who begin at a later maturational state What changes over maturation the nature of maturational constraints of language learning Learners of different ages show differing degrees of success in inducing the internal organization of their linguistic input greatest success achieved by the east mature learners In contrast in my cognitive domains children are less capable than adults competence increases over age Inverse relationship between cognitive abilities and language learning ie that learners get worse at language learning and they get better at most cognitive tasks is accidenta due to the fact that language faculty happens to be at its peak early in life In early stages of learning language native learners make different types of errors from late learners Hypothesized that differences derive from differences between adults and children in the way linguistic input is perceived and stored perhaps not from differences in their knowledge of linguistic constraints or in their ability to perform linguistic analyses once input is stored Hypothesis suggests that because of age differences in perceptual and memorial abilities young children and adults exposed to similar linguistic environments may nevertheless have very different internal data bases on which to perform a linguistic analysis The adut s greater capabilities and resulting more complete storage of complex words and sentences may make the crucial internal components and their organization more difficult to locate and may thereby be a counterproductive skill Limitations of percepts and memory in child will make the analysis of certain parts of the system easier to perform summary Language acquisition occurs succesfful only under operation of certain internal constraints or predispositions in the learner Is learned from empirical evidence that some significant internal constraints are require to account for why only children succeed in learning language Sengas Reading The development of Nicaraguan Sign Language via the Language Acquisition Process Introduction Central goals of language acquisition discover what knowledge and abilities children bring to learning situation Nicargua young children deprives of exposure to language inventing a new one Deaf children created own indigenous sign language evolved into a full natural language Unrelated to ASL First generation of signers imposing grammatical structure on their sign language as it develops The development of Nicaraguan Sign Language Pidgin grammatically simplied form of a language used for communication between people not sharing a common language 2 distinct forms of sign language have emerged use a pidgin called LSN which is continued to be used today younger deaf children produced something new called ISN primary sign language from process of nativization or abrupt creolization Age at entry and year of entry age of entry the child39s age at the time of entry into the signing community children exposed to language at younger age achiever greater fluency in language than those exposed later in life deaf Nicaraguans acquire sign language birth very late adolescence procedure subjects present with 2 minute animated cartoon and asked to sign the story to deaf peer examined how many arguments a verb can take inflections which are incorporated into verbs and whether they are used to mark agreement with other words in the narrative number of arguments per verb verbs subjects andor objects can be articulate in 3 diff ways some stated as a noun some with inflectional feature such as a pointing motion some through a means of using the stem of another verb inflection and agreement nic Signing inflect verbs for person or locations 0 signers with lower Age of Entry and signers with later YOE year or entry show more arguments per verb than signs who were older and signers exposed to an earlier form of language verbs with two or more arguments proportion of verbs with at least 2 arguments greater for signers who entered community in 1983 or later and for signers exposed to the language at a young age Inflections per verb number person position and orientation inflection of inflections greater for signers who entered community in 1983 or later and signers who were exposed to language at a young or medium gag Agreement per verb subjects who began signing at a young age used more than TWICE as many inflections showing agreement per verb as subjects who began signing at an old age Subjects signing at medium age ALSO used more than TWICE as many inflections showing agreement per verb as subjects who began signing at an old age NO difference between young amp medium groups in of inflections showing verb agreement Discussion Age at which signers first exposed to sign language has strong effect on abilitity to command more complex structures Exposed at a young age indicate MORE arugments with verbs than signers exposed to language after they were orlder Younger earner use inflectional verb system more to indicate grammatical agreement Age of entry amp year of entry created unusual situation where most proficient signers in community are the YOUNGEST and NEWEST members Older signers may be unable to take advantage of richness of language that surrounds them OR maybe only the younger children enrich the language as they learn it Reanalysis or imperfect learning Signers in 1980 use inflectional markings ONLY those who began signing a few years later and at a young age use these inflections to mark agreement Older signers may have developed inflectional marker for change of person EARLY amp used it for several years before younger signers reanalyzed construction as a way to mark agreement Younger signers MAY have introduced system of inflection amp agreement in one piece in 1983 using PERSON and LOCATION INFLECTION to mark agreement Older signers now turning to the younger more proficient signers as their models may have learned this system imperfectly using the inflection to mark a change of person but not consistently marking agreement across the discourse conclusion Young children are enriching their language as they learn it Week 9 Notes 52914 131 PM Kroll in press 2 languages in Mind Bilingualism as a Tool to investigate language cognition and the brain About bilingualism and implications for language amp cognition Biingua s languages always active Consequences of bilingualism that affect native as well as second language Recent evidence bilinguals develop high level of cognitive control that enables them to negotiate activity of the 2 languages Bilingualism shapes structure amp function of brain across life span Parallel activation of the biingua39s 2 languages Cognates words whose form amp meaning are similar across 2 languages eg piano in Spanish amp English Bilinguals must develop means to control the language not in use The biingua39s language system is adaptive Language system permeable in both directions The permeability of the bilingual language system raises possibility that influence of bilingualism is not isolated to linguistic system but reconfigures cognitive networks as a whole The consequences of bilingualism for cognition and the brain The same neural tissue supports the function of both of the biingua s 2 languages Bilinguals use control networks of controlling areas of brain activated in both linguistic and nonlinguistic tasks more efficiently than monolinguals even when the task is purely cognitive conclusion Bilinguals use language in ways that exercise brain networks responsible for cognitive control Being biingua requires skills in negotiating the discource context for both speakers and listenrs Losing Access to the Native Language while immersed in a second language Kroll et al Adults are notoriously poor secondlangauge learners Successful L2 acquisition language immersion Immersed learners outperformed their classroom counterparts with respect to L2 proficiency L1 and L2 are active simultaneously during reading listening and speaking Studying abroad MAY enhance learning process but little known about dynamics of the cognitive system of the learner in this context Increased use of L1 or L2 achieved by having participants name pictures in one language or the other Study compared performance of 2 groups of native Engish speaking university students as acquiring Spanish as a L2 Sesmeter abroad in Spain vs studying Spanish at university Suggested that having knowledge of multiple languages impacts verbal uency Method Immersed group 25 students from American university sent abroad to Spain for 3 months Classroom group 20 students from same university enrolled in intermediate eve Spanish language courses with no immersion expe ence All native English speakers 2 lingustic tasks Transation recognition amp verba fuency tasks and two cognitive tasks reading span and Simon tasks verbal fluency series of category names animals fruits presented 1 at a time and participants instructure to produce as many category exemplars as possible in 30 seconds Simon and reading span measures individual differences in cognitive processing Simon task view series of colored boxes presented rightleft fixation and had to make a left or right buttom press based on stimulus color not location Analysis Analysed transation recognition using multilevel modeling MLM First modeled participants reaction times in transation nighbor condition results Group differences likely reflect differences in anguage earning expierence ie immersion and not simply differences in L2 profieciency Immersed learners processed L2 more deeply discussion L1 attenuated weakened during language immersion L2 immersion experience where learners reported using the L2 dailty may have reduced functional frequency of the immersed learners L1 Conclusions 0 Immersed learners prevent the L1 while in L2 context Cekaite amp Aronsson language play a collaborative resource in children39s L2 learning Communicative language teaching natural language had a privileged position Immersion classroom Fiction may play important role in L2 learning Assumption that communicate language teaching with focus on meaning is more natural and authentic than reading of fiction and grammar practices Language play is seen as something authentic or deficient Language play seen as educational tool that facilitates L2 learning Language play can be seen as important element in language learning Explore interactional architecture of how language learners focus on form in everday L2 interactions Metalanguage poetics and collaborative performance Provides theoretical links between play and learning Language play exploits poetic and metalingual functions of language towards language and social interaction 0 Everyday convos error repair 9 laughter Language play in classroom verbal performance Oratory teasing gossiping bragging joking language play Second language play in children39s peer group interactions Lang play seen to influence children39s mastery of first language at levels lexical phonological and grammatical Method focuses on language learning as a social and situated phenomenon Setting 0 Immersion classroom for refugee and immigrant children in Swedish school All children were beginning learners Hand raising rare and peer group talk was tolerated Data Record children39s on and off task interactions 3 periods of school year early middle late phase analytic unit language play sequences within children39s joking events large amount of children39s joking playful mislabellings and puns findings joking a way the children secured attention of coparticipants played with language in many ways nonsense variations of words and simple puns chidren employed alliterations parallelisms code switching word elongations onomatopoeia and loud talking phonological and morphological language play in mislabellings simplest jokes misabeing calling something by a wrong name willful violations to act funny children engaged in joking and teasing each other exploiting labelling and mislabeling procedures for entertaining and audience Semanticsyntantic language play in rudimentary puns peer invitations to laugh are not always accepted by peers they may instead align with the teacher rudimentary pun group activity puns illustrate how children transformed language teaching situation into joking exploration repair work and collaborative language playconcluding discussion collaborative language play entailed peer group39s attention to language form lang play is a crucial building blocks of peer run language lessons When and why does language play become funny Being able to play with language can be seen as an aspect of communicative competence 0 When the present children jokingly played with L2 they were involved in a twofold process