Psychology 202: Package of All Notes to Week 8
Psychology 202: Package of All Notes to Week 8
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Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates Class 1 is not included in my note taking we went over the syllabus and that was it What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Read the book either right before or right after the corresponding lecture to ensure that you get all the material on a specific topic at the same time You can always go back and review if you don39t understand the first time you read through it It39s easier to learn the same material at once rather than trying to go back and remember the lecture when you read the book several lectures later Thursday April 3 2014 Corresponding Readings Textbook p 125 Vocabulary Psychology adapted from a mix of the principles of Philosophy and Medicine Psychology in the modern era is the study of the brain and behavior using different scientific methods including but not limited to observations self report psychological measures and implicit measurements This can be subdivided to the brain naturwissenschaften and mind geisteswissenschaften Naturwissenshaften a German word meaning nature knowledge to make Geisteswissenschaften a German word meaning spirit knowledge to make Transcendentalism ames 18421910 The idea that something exists spiritualism outside what can be seen and observed through science Pragmatism ames 18421910 the idea that when you know something that it is for the benefit to be able to act upon that knowledge and use it accordingly For example further experiments or to be able to apply knowledge found in research for society39s needs Cognitive Module Associated with personal psychology during the Cognitive Revolution The example of loving the children and wanting what39s best for them was given in the lecture Behavior Associated with personal psychology during the Cognitive Revolution The example of raising the children feeding clothing teaching etc was given in the lecture Behaviorism studied by using animal research which consisted mainly of observation It is the idea that behavior can be explained without regards to thoughts or feelings the blank slate theory was developed along with behaviorism Blank Slates the idea that children are born as blank slates implies that the only thing that affects the identity of a child is how they are raised It says that children can be raised to be whatever the child39s parents want them to be whether it be a doctor police officer etc without the idea that genetics play a role in the actual outcomes of children39s lives Fitness Associated with personal psychology in the Cognitive Revolution fitness is the ability for offspring to survive to reproduce Social Psychology the young field engaged in the question of how people could have participated in the horrors of WWII which led to studies in conformity obedience and authoritarianism This time period after WWII is often referred to as the Golden Age of Psychology Eugenics Positive and Negative the idea coined by Galton which encouraged people who were fit to breed this is known as positive eugenics and for those who are unfit to refrain from breeding negative eugenics ohns Hopkins University founded in 1876 when there was a massive donation to the university by Iohns Hopkins Rather than clergy running the board of trustees the university had industrialists and had the pragmatic mission that Knowledge was for the betterment of society The Cognitive Revolution a movement that began the cognitive sciences The Revolution took place in the 1950s The Cognitive Revolution included many different types of sciences but for the purpose of this course we are focusing on the cognitive psychology part of the revolution Cognitive Psychology consists of cognitive neuroscience social cognition personality psychology evolutionary psychology and positive psychology It is under personal psychology that we see fitness behavior and the cognitive module all of which are defined above Experiments Conformity Solomon Asch 19071996 The experiment conducted by Asch was one that included many actors and one research participant During the experiment the entire group was asked a question Each of the actors selected the incorrect answer on purpose This experiment introduced conformity when it was found that the research participant would select the incorrect answer as well even knowing that is was wrong in order to fit in with the group Obedience Stanley Milgram 19331983 Milgram conducted a study that involved research participants who believed that they were giving other human being in the room next door shocks by pressing a button They were not giving anyone shocks and the experiment strictly tested whether humans would just follow directions instead of following their own thoughts which is defined by obedience This experiment found that some of the research participants went all the way to pressing the button that would actually kill a person although some people would drop at different markers along the way This research experiment was conducted after WWII when it was still being questioned how people could blindly follow orders under Hitler Authoritarianism The Stanford Prison Experiment conduced by Philip Zimbardo 1933 The Stanford Prison Experiment was conducted in an basement at Standard University All students who participated did so willingly and the students were divided up into prison security guards and prisoners Philip Zimbardo himself was the head of the mock prison set up The experiment was canceled after only six days when it was found that the psychological affects on the participants in the study were causing a strain on their well being The participants who were assigned to be prison guards quickly got used to the idea that they had power over the prisoners who suffered greatly psychologically and some had to be let go even before the six days were up because of the study s affects on the idea of being a prisoner and the unfair treatment that the guards were willing to administer People to Know Wilhelm Wundt University of Leipzig 1879 Wundt had a 68year career in Psychology was trained in medicine and was the first to open an experimental psychology lab in 1879 Word of caution here do not confuse this with the first observational psychology lab that was opened by ames ames lab was opened before Wundt s because Iames wanted to be first to have a lab for psychology in history but they are not the same thing Wundt is also associated with the German words above as well as being considered one of the two founding fathers of Psychology Iames being the second Wundt also wrote throughout his entire life up to about two pages a day Wundt is also the only person in this lecture who we were given a first name for although the others are in the textbook Iames 18421910 had a deep mistrust of absolutes and was a pluralist Iames eventually trained in medicine and opened the first demonstration lab at Harvard in 1875 Founded Functionalism and was worried about making sure that Psychology was kept in a way that kept men in the light of human beings and not purely objects of study Iames is also the founder of transcendentalism and pragmatism These terms are defined above according to lecture and for more on the specifics of the words themselves see the textbook Hall 18601944 studied child development and education in order to benefit society and opened the USA s first experimental psych lab as well as started the APA Again let me call to your attention the fact that while here we have another first experimental lab it is not the same as the labs mentioned previously Wundt did not live in the USA and therefore while Wundt did have the first experimental lab Cattell had the first experimental lab in the States The APA is the American Psychology Association B F Skinner most well known for Skinner boxes These imply what you can teach an animal to do in order to get food Skinner also wrote a book about Behaviorism titled Verbal Behavior An example of this would be teaching a mouse to run through a maze in order to reach food at the end of the maze Pavlov 18491936 Worked with Watson on Behaviorism and blank slates although that had more to do with Watson Make sure you know that he is in correlation with Watson and Behaviorism as far as lecture notes go Refer to readings to make sure that you don39t need to understand anything form the reading about Pavlov Watson 18781958 developed the idea of behaviorism and blank slates with Pavlov Watson took Hall39s place teaching at ohns Hopkins University Watson got his PhD at the University of Chicago and worked hard to turn psychology into a hard science He took the highest ranking job in psychology at just 30 years old after his boss retired disgracefully He was the second at Iohns Hopkins to retire disgracefully after Hall Noam Chomsky reviewed B F Skinner39s book Verbal Behavior in 1959 This review by Chomsky effectively ended the idea of Behaviorism which left the door open to the start of the Cognitive Revolution Galton 18221911 related to Darwin as Charles Darwin39s half cousin He was obsessed with human mutation and adaption and found that intelligence ran in families He developed the idea of eugenics meaning well born and spoke of incentives for families with lots of eminence to mate with each other to form an ideal society This idea led to the development of the terms Positive Eugenics and Negative Eugenics Eugenics both positive and negative are defined above in the vocabulary section Charles Darwin 18091882 was the co founder of evolution This idea of evolution he helped to develop talked of species that out lived other species to reproduction due to their fitness positive mutation Darwin was not the only to discover evolution We will discuss who helped in a later lecture however Darwin is the one that people remember and the more important of the two for this particular lecture We will also discuss fitness positive and what that means in a later lecture but this is the most basic definition of evolution for now Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 2 350pm Updates This lecture was basic information about the scien t139fic process and psychology but make sure you know each de nition as they will continue to pop up throughout the course and are important to remember What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Use these notes to make ashcards Use the bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Write down everything you hear in lecture It39s always better to have too much then not enough If you can39t write fast enough learn how to write in acronyms even if you are the only one who knows what it says You can always go back and write in what your acronyms mean after lecture if you don39t think you can remember them Tuesday April 8 2014 Corresponding Readings p 2963 Vocabulary The Scientific Process the technique of testing a testable hypothesis developed from a theory It is a method used for understanding phenomena in the world around us examples for the scientific process can be found in the lecture slides Theory an explanation for how things work or exist in a certain way Theories that are reputable have correlation with existing observations and create a testable hypothesis Hypothesis predictions about an occurrence under a certain environment that can be predicted ahead of time Data the proven facts and observations found in an experiment Construct a phenomenon in the world that scientists choose to study this is something that is not completely tangible that strike a scientist39s interest For example anxiety intelligence hunger shyness and love are phenomenon that occur in the world that in the state of the feeling itself cannot be studied However using the scientific process they can be turned into something that can be tested Operationalize this is the idea of turning something like love and hunger into something that you are able to test Operational Definition the definition of the phenomenon that scientists wanted to study based on the procedures used to identify it Examples given were how much someone eats hunger or how much a person studies for an exam Validity when the measurements received in an experiment match up with the variable you are trying to measure we say the data is valid Reliability when the measurements received in an experiment are the same under the same environmental conditions even if it does not exactly correspond with the variable trying to be measured we say the data is reliable How We Measure Things there are four ways of measuring things for the purpose of this class These include Implicit measures the example given for this was the implicit association test observation Tse amp Bond 2002 psychological measures Eisenberg et al 2003 and self report Central Tendency being able to find the middle of a set of data or observations in an experiment Mean the average of a set of data To find the mean add all of the data together and then divide by the number of data Median when the numbers are ranked in order the median is the middlemost number Mode the number that occurs most often in a set of data Research Design making sure that the type of experiment you use is capable of providing data that will be relevant to the question you are trying to answer Simple description measuring a certain characteristic or characteristics of a group Correlation matching up relevant information Prediction a correlation between something that has happened in the past and based on that information understand what could happen in the future Explanation understanding cause and effect Experimental Design further tests when explanation cannot be understood Independent Variable a variable in which the value does not depend on any other variable often denoted as x Dependent Variable a variable in which the value does depend on other variables often denoted as y Experiments Tse amp Bond 2002 this experiment gave anti depressant medication to college students who did not have depression and were considered mood normal This experiment is an example for the observation type of measurements The purpose of knowing this experiment is to understand different types of observation and data collection For this particular experiment make sure you know that two types of data collection took place 1 was a survey the roommate filled out and the 2nd was an observed conversation that took place with the participant who had been given the medication and someone working in the study The student was unaware that this person was an actor The participant was also unaware of the affects the medication would have on them so as not to be bias in the experiment Eisenberg et al 2003 participants were scanned in an fMRI while playing a virtual game of catch The parts of their brains that lit up were watched as they were eventually excluded from the virtual game of catch It was found that the part of the brain that was activated was the same as that which lit up with physical pain This is why if you are suffering form pain such as breaking up with your significant other it will help to take Tylenol The purpose of knowing this experiment was to understand the psychological way of measuring things Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates The 13 Midterm is next Thursday The midterm material goes though Tuesday39s lecture although please note that all midterms are cumulative and even after the midterm you should continue to review this material What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Learn how to skim the long readings If you have time read the whole thing If you have to be quick at least go through and read the bolded words and their definitions Recognize what has been talked about in class and see how the book expands on any relevant material Make sure you understand any experiments that took place and key figures in psychology Reading is important but understanding is more important It39s better to read part of a reading and understand than to just go through the entire thing and have no idea what you just read by the end of it if you can break large readings into small readings so you have time to think about what you just learned Thursday April 10 2014 Corresponding Readings Video on Blackboard Vocabulary Evolution History all species must adapt over time through reproduction and mutation to fit into the environment in which they live If the mutations are fitness positive the species will survive and continue to reproduce If the mutations are unhelpful the species is less likely to continue to reproduce and continue on The newest generations always carry the most copies of helpful mutations Speciation when one species splits into two to fit different environments This is now new species are created Facts to Know there is no external purpose for human nature that has been naturally selected Adaptions do not need to be good only adaptive The Naturalistic Fallacy associated with the Is Ought Problem which was developed by David Hume 17111776 OughtIs Problem moral position determines factual claim IsOught Problem factual claim determines moral position Factual Claim when something is natural or unnatural Moral Position when something is good or bad this is your own personal decisions and can be determined based on values how you were raised etc Adaptive Evolution there are three components in order for adaptive evolution to take place The first is that there has to be come way for the trait to be inherited The second is that not all creatures in the same population can be the same there has to be some sort of variation The third is that within this variation there has to be selection or traits that are better than others Adaptation everyone has mutations but adaptions are mutations that are considered fitness positive we are constantly evolving and it is clear that none of us are the same Remember that mutations are not always bad and that while many are not very good deleterious most are neutral mutations in terms of affecting us The smallest group are mutations that actually benefit us which are considered adaptive Exaptation a trait that was originally developed to serve on particular purpose but ultimately came to serve another Feathers are an example of an exaptation they were originally meant for warmth and ultimately are used for sexual attraction as well as for ying Atavism Latin for great grandfather s grandfather Atavism is when one trait skips a generation only to appear in another Examples of atavism are whale legs and human tails Vestigial Traits vestigial traits are traits that stick around even through they no longer serve any function Examples of vestigial trails are wisdom teeth in humans and the appendix Spandrel a spandrel is an evolutional byproduct Belly buttons are evolutionary byproducts of the umbilical cord which is essential for survival In the Intelligence lecture we will discuss how knowledge of mathematics etc is an evolutionary byproduct the theories to why we have intelligence and what that means for our species GenesEye View the gene not the individual is the most important part of reproduction Genes will continue to be passed down through generations only if it helps the survival of the gene and even if it is at the cost of the individual the gene will be passed down even if the parents die in the process Genetic Inclusive Fitness the success of the genes that have been passed down to offspring The best determination of whether the spread of your genes has been successful is to observe grandchildren Recent Human Evolution in the past 6 million years the brain has tripled in size EEA The Environment of Evolutionary Adaptiveness EEA is the environment that forced different adaptions and mutations to occur Parental Investment Theory women want good genes and parental investment help taking care of the children within their mates The fact that human children require so much care and attention for the first part of their lives has made parental investment theory more prominent in our species Female Strategies concealed ovulation In primates fertility was advertised while in modern humans it is concealed One theory is that it forces the med to be around the entire month with one particular girl The second theory is that it prevents women from using timing based birth control Women39s Dual Motivations throughout a woman39s fertility cycle women tend to prefer more trustworthy and feminine male faces when not ovulating and more dominate and masculine when they are Male Strategies the more women a man is with polygyny the larger the body size difference Men39s Top Five these are the top five most important things for a man to have in a mate 1 Intelligence 2 Good Looks 3 Humor 4 Honesty 5 Facial Attractiveness Women39s Top Five these are the top five most important things for a woman to have in a mate 1 Humor 2 Intelligence 3 Honesty 4 Kindness 5 Values What Determines Female Attractiveness youth beauty as well as a girl39s baby likeness This baby likeness is defined with big eyes small chins small noses blond hair and full lips Timelines 6 million years ago our last common ancestor with chimps 2515 mya homo line evolves 600300 kya our line separates form the Neanderthals 240 kya the first of the most modern humans anatomically 30000 kya the Neanderthals died out All but Africans have Neanderthal DNA 1740 Common Descent 1809 Transmutation of species 1859 Natural Selection is developed and Origin of Species by Darwin is published 1871 Sexual Selection Theory is developed 1971 Sociobiology is developed 1970s Evolutional Psychology and the Cognitive Module are developed Experiments The TShirt Study Gangestad amp Thornhill 1998 80 men were given t shirts to wear to bed for two nights without washing them 82 women then came and were able to smell them and rate them on wether they thought the t shirts smelled pleasant or sexy It was found that the women preferred the more anatomically symmetrical men without realizing it although this was only true when they were ovulating People You Need to Know Theodosious Dobzhansky 19001975 famous for saying Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution This is more of an interesting fact and you do not need to remember Theodosious Charles Darwin 18091882 said in 1838 He who understands baboon would do more toward metaphysics than Locke In response to Wallace39s spiritual force belief Darwin argued that every piece of evolution that seemed to be unexplainable could in fact be explained by sexual selection or natural process and that there is no need for any spiritual forces or metaphysics Finally he differed with Wallace in believing that evolution does not have a specific purpose or direction Wallace decided that he would not accept everything that the theory of evolution implied Wallace argued that mathematics art music wit and other human faculties could not be accounted for in natural selection and that spiritual force had to be a part of the theory He argued that spiritual forces were a part of the fact that 1 Inorganic matter was what life had been created from 2 Consciousness had developed with the help of spiritual forces and 3 Mathematics and other human faculties were the result of spiritual intervention in evolution Wallace also believed that that ultimate direction of evolution was for the human spirit and its development Wallace was mentioned in previous notes as the co founder of evolution This is where we learn that most people don39t even know that Wallace worked on the development of evolution because of his belief in the spiritual forces Darwin had even commented that he would go further than Wallace because of this belief however Wallace refused to believe that evolution could occur the way it has on its own Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates Midterm this week meaning no notes on Thursday All material covered on midterm 1 is included through Ls lecture which is on Emotion The midterm will also cover the readings including the video that has been posted on blackboard There are two more midterms after this all of which are cumulative What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Study with a buddy Learn the material as well as you can before meeting up and then quiz each other It39s easy to give yourself credit when taking practice quizzes because you were close or quotI knew that When you think you39re ready have someone ask you questions so you can see what you think you know verses what you actually know This is best done a few days before the midterm so you have a chance to review the material you get stuck on rather than the night before Tuesday April 15 2014 Corresponding Readings p 421467 Vocabulary Error Management Theory In terms of courtship women tend to be more skeptical when it comes to male tactics and debate more the question of commitment Men tend to overestimate whether a woman in into him based on self report and lab studies This is because for them it is better to overestimate than to underestimate For women if they underestimate the commitment of a man they are in more trouble then if a man overestimates Three Things to Remember 1 Evolution and Social Construct 2 The Naturalistic Fallacy 3 To Ask Why a Developmental Psychology when b Personality Psychology who c Neuropsychologyzwhere d Evolutionary Psychology why How We Can Build NYC we are able to transmit culture with each other and by working together and documenting information we are able to continue forward as a culture nation etc instead of everyone staring over when they are born Transmitting Culture this requires intelligence and Theory of Mind which is the ability to understand others and their viewpoints and ways of thinking Transmitting Culture Tradeoff the benefit is the fact that it is low cost and we have cumulative information The ip side is that we have to be able to trust others who came before us and who are teaching us these cultural ideals The best way to work with this is through the Pretige Bias When we see people who are successful it is a good idea to imitate them and when someone gets imitated a lot that is a good cue of success over a long period of time This can also lead to a silly maladaptive runaway process Emotion Historical Position Bertrand Russel stated The degree of one s emotions varies inversely with one s knowledge of the facts Hot feelings emotion feminine chaos and intuition Cold facts rationality masculine order and truth Emotion A rapid and automatic cascade of subjective experiences psychology responses and cognitive appraisals 3 Models of Emotion 1 The Common Sense View 2 The ames Lang Theory 3 The Schacter Singer View Common Sense View Perception of stimulus subjective experience Run away bear example IamesLang Theory perception of stimulus emotional specific psychological response subjective experience Schacter Singer View 1962 perception of stimulus general arousal cognitive label subjective experience Subjects were injected with suproxin and group 1 was told it would make them amused and group two said that is was nothing but a vitamin The groups were then assigned to the emotions of euphoria or anger The euphoria patients were put into a room where an actor was telling them to have fun while the ager participants were asked a bunch of insulting questions It had been theorized that feelings are merely interpretations of body sensations It was found that subjects who were told that it would make them amused didn39t attribute their feelings to the situations but to the drugs The patients who were told the drug was a vitamin didn39t attribute their feelings to the drug and instead expressed their euphoria or anger Facial Feedback Hypothesis people can be happier and more amused simply by faking a smile Injections of Botox can decrease self report of emotional experience brain activation of emotion and decreases the ability to process emotional language and emotional understanding Adaptation a psychology reaction to a stimulus in an environment Exaptation a characteristic that has evolved but is not an adaptation Pride adaption boosts testosterone and oxygen intake for attack Exaptation communicates high status and dominance Experiments Misattribution of Arousal this was done on the Capilano suspension bridge A woman would approach people on the bridge and on the parking lot and ask them to take the survey She found that people were four times as likely to call her after she gave them her number on the bridge when she would ask them to take the survey on the bridge then in the parking lot This was because the men attributed arousal to the girl and not about the fact they were on a massive suspension bridge Antonio Damasio s Card Sorting Task people with brain damage were able to recognize that one deck of cards was more risky than another however they were unable to stop themselves from picking from the riskier deck This comes as a result of a problem in emotional decision making Emotional decision making is a large component of our decision making and is not irrational People to Know Paul Ekman conducted that largest cross cultural psychological study in the 1960s using the 6 core emotions He used the recognized faces of emotions and determined that they could be identified around the world and that language barriers didn39t affect how people described the faces shown to them Phineas Gage had a railroad stake driven through his head and survived It changed him however and he became more of a jerk drank a lot and lost the ability to make decisions based on emotion Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Ask questions There is no stupid question only stupid answers as they say and if you have a question likely someone else in our 314 student lecture has the same or close to the same question You won39t know unless you ask which will only hurt you when midterms and the final comes around If you aren39t comfortable asking in front of everyone just be patient after class and talk to the professor privately Tuesday April 22 2014 Corresponding Readings Text p 317363 Vocabulary The Social Brain Hypothesis The idea that our brains grew three times the size over the last six million years in order to keep track of the amount of people knew could know in our social circles The brain is adaptive to hold social information and mathematics etc is a byproduct of that intelligence Gossip which is 80 of conversations that take place is more important than homework when viewing it from a survival standpoint Dunbar s Number This is part of the social brain hypothesis Dunbar s number is 1478 about 150 meaning that we have the ability to know 150 people well enough to consider them close and a threat not a threat When you have groups of humans example military groups average church congregation etc the amount of people on average does not exceed 150 Language This is part of the social brain hypothesis It is thought that language was developed in order to increase our social networking and the ability to know if we can call someone a friend or a foe Runaway Sexual Selection Theory The idea that males and females are attracted to each other based on intelligence so in sexual selection males and females continued to grow more and more intelligent through the generations in order to better appeal to the opposite sex for reproduction It is thought that now that C sections have been developed and other medical technology that human brains may begin to grow again since the size of a woman39s pelvic bone does not matter Why Human Brains Stopped Growing the infant could only have so large of a head in order for the infant and the mother to have better chances of survival through birth and the developmental period If the heads got too big survival rates would go down which was not productive in the spectrum of passing down genes Predicting IQ Intelligence Quotient intelligence quotients IQs are usually defined as follows 115 is the average college graduate 70 is considered cognitively delayed and 160 is Genius level George W Bush was a graduate of Yale and had an IQ of 125 Bill Clinton had an IQ of 149 and it is thought that Iohn Q Adams had an IQ of 165 IQ as a Valid Measure IQ is found to correlate positively with grades obtain in high school job performance income and longevity It has been found to correlate negatively with crime and car accidents This is used through the construct operational definition experimental measurement which is defined in previous lectures The construct is Intelligence and IQ predictive validly is the operational definition Crystallized Intelligence Crystallized intelligence is thought to be knowledge that you learn and the ability to use in it the correct situations For example crystallized knowledge is learning definitions to words or how to do math equations in one particular way Someone who has crystallized intelligence is book smart Fluid Intelligence Fluid intelligence is cleverness and logical reasoning and is not the same as knowledge Fluid intelligence would be how you respond in a given situation based on rightwrong or past experiences This is more street smart and not facts that you have memorized Theories of Intelligence there are two theories of intelligence the entity view and the incremental view Both of these views are defined below Entity View the idea that intelligence is fixed that that there is no increasing one s intelligence or decreasing one s intelligence Someone with an Entity view will believe that either you know something or you don39t and that no amount of hard work or studying will help your intelligence If someone with an entity view misses a question on a test they continue to do poorly on the rest of the test after knowing that they missed that question because they no longer believe that they are smart enough to do it Incremental View the idea that intelligence is always increasing and the people are always learning new things through studying If someone with an incremental view takes and test and misses a question they can recover and still do well on a test Time Line 19051916 The Intelligence Quotient IQ test is developed by Binet 1916 Terman notes that there is an intellectual weakness that cannot be improved by education among non whites 19171919 Goddard notices that US Blacks Southern Whites and immigrants from S and E Europe have a low IQ 1924 Immigration Act of 1924 determines quotas for particular nationalities 1933 Hitler comes into power in Germany 1945 Truth about Holocaust surfaces and Eugenicists remains quiet for a bit 1965 Iensen Publishes How much can we boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement 1994 Herstein and Murray publish The Bell Curve People To Know Iames Flynn found that there had been a sharp incline of intelligence from 19421992 There were 5 possible explanations 1 Presentday schooling and test familiarity when finally taking the exam to determine intelligence 2 Nutrition 3 More access to information as the times progress Vocabulary can be a measure of intelligence and the more access to information we have the more our vocabulary can increase 4 Scientific spectacle of the 20th century 5 Lower disease load When people are having to spend less time worrying about getting sick they can spend more time other things that in turn can increase intelligence Francis Galton Recall that Francis Galton was the founder of Eugenics and was Darwin39s halfcousin Refer back to previous lectures to review Galton tended to measure things such as ear sizes uniforms in the British navy and intelligence Galton developed the Bell Curve The bell curve is a symmetrical curve with the highpoint usually in the middle or the mean and standard deviations that extend away form the mean The standard deviations will always extend in a way that allows the first standard deviation to cover 68 of the population the 2nd will cover 95 of the population and the 3rd will cover 997 Studies BlackWhite IQs studied whether the blackwhite IQ differences were due to genetic differences which they found to be not true genetics had nothing to do with it A series of studies were used to come to this conclusion 1 Found that in a mixed race mostly European all the way through almost entirely African that there was no difference in whether someone s IQ was high or lower depending on where they fell on the spectrum 2 Moore 1986 took middle class black and white families and randomly assigned them to black children that the family adopted It was found that the black children adopted by the middle class black family had an IQ of 104 while the black children adopted by the middle class white family had an IQ of 117 It was concluded that the children matched the IQ of their adopted families 3 At an orphanage it was found that white orphans had an IQ of 103 and black orphans had an IQ of 108 4 During the war black and white American soldiers came back married to German girls The white soldiers and their German wives had children with an IQ of 97 while the black solider and the German wives had children with an IQ of 965 which is considered just about the same Stereotype Threat the idea that someone will do poorly or do well on certain tasks based on what they know the stereotype is about their gender to ethnicity 1 Steele and Aronson 1995 gave black and white students question from the GRE The black students performed below the white students when told that the test was measuring underlying intellectual ability When the students were told that it was a simple problem solving test the gab between the white students and the black students disappeared In general it was found that having to indicate you ethnicity affected the outcome of the black students test scores while it did not alter the test scores of white students 2 When a golf test was described to a group of college boys as a athletic intelligence test white college students did better and when the golf test was described as natural athletic ability the black students did better 3 When women have to indicate their gender before a test it is found that they do worse then when they do not have to indicate their gender a Iohns et al 2004 added a condition where women were taught about the stereotype threat and they performed better when told about the treat Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Review a little every day even after Midterms This course is cumulative throughout the entire term so even after a midterm continue to review your notes ashcards so you are still fresh on the material when learning new material and taking future midterms Thursday April 24 2014 Corresponding Readings Text p 365419 Vocabulary The Autism Spectrum Autism High Functioning Autism Asperger s Syndrome Normal 1 Mirror Test Pass 24 months 2 Sally Ann False Belief Task Pass 4 years 3 Reading the Mind in the Eyes Systematizing the need to create a systemic way of doing things Empathizing the ability to distinguish other s thoughts and feelings and to therefore act appropriately NatureNurture There are two sides of the spectrum black slates are completely Nurture way of viewing child development while genetic determinism is a completely Nature way of viewing child development In reality both Nature and Nurture play significant roles in child development and it is not just one or the other Nature it is said that environmental stimulus affects babies psychologically when in the womb Blank Slates Recall IB Watson and his development of the idea of Behaviorism in 1930 Watson and Behaviorism have been covered in detail in prior lectures In the Blank Slate theory it is a completely Nurture way of viewing child development 1 Steven Pinker s The Blank Slate introduced the idea that babies are born with a set of learning mechanisms 2 Recall Galton and eminence people who aren39t great shouldn39t breed 3 Dangers of Blank Slate argument excessive blame for failed parents or the release of psychopathic criminal under the assumption that they should have been reformed through nature Genetic Determinism the idea that genes Nature are the only determination in how a child will be and how they develop with no thought to the Nurture side of the spectrum SelfReport of Children in correlation with the methodological limitation of Piaget39s Stage Theory When dealing with young children alternative methodologies are needed There is a language barrier and a limited attention span Newborns can distinguish languages spoken by their mothers 68 hours old The children suck harder if they like are interested Slows when board and then speeds up when something new catches their interest Epigenetics above the genome One way of looking at epigenetics is that the genome is the computer while epigenetics is the software that tells the computer how to run Some genes can be turned on and off within the genome and the genes that are expressed are referred to as epigenetics People To Know Iames Piaget 18961980 formed the Piaget Stage Theory which was made up of four stages that defined development See below under stages theories for a complete explanation of Piaget39s Stage Theory Studies Theories Piaget39s Stage Theory 1 Sensorimotor 02 years Development of object permanence the ability to understand that an object exists even when not in sight as well as the development of separation anxiety An infant also takes in the world through direct sensory and motor contact 2 Preoperational 26 years The child cannot reason logically but can use symbols to indicate specific objects they are referencing The child develops the ability to pretend and is considered egocentric 3 Concrete Operational 712 years Can think logically leading to the ability to add and subtract as well as can understand conversation 4 Formal Operational 12 years Adult The adolescent can think in hypothetical terms as well as can reason abstractly Pros and Limitations of Piaget39s Stage Theory 1 Pro the theory is testable unlike developmental theories before Piaget39s 2 Theoretical limitation explains only the stages and not the process through the stages 3 Methodological Limitation everything relied on self report of children SallyAnn False Belief Test tests Theory of Mind which is the knowledge that not everyone knows the same things as you and that people can have different thoughts SelfRegulation Self recognition is essential to survival In the video it is shown that when given a mirror chimps first attack the mirror thinking it is another chimp but can final realize that they are looking at themselves Humans can recognize themselves in a mirror at two year using the Mark Test Other animals that can recognize themselves in a mirror are orangutans gorillas dolphins orcas elephants and Bonobos Monkeys cannot Delay of Gratification Walter Mischel and the Marshmallow test Four year olds are left by themselves and if they can wait fifteen minutes to eat it they can have two 23 of the children could not wait fifteen minutes Children would sing or cover their eyes to try to resist They would also make the reward less desirable such as saying it is a cotton ball This test predicts that in ten years there is a large correlation with this test and with lower drug use higher SAT scores higher popularity more self control and social skills better planning and coping skills as well as higher education levels Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Get plenty of sleep Science has shown that sleep helps create memory while you sleep How do you expect to remember everything the night before the test if you don39t sleep and engrave it all in your brain Space out your studying and make you get sleep in order to make those new connections so you can do great on your next Psychology midterm Tuesday April 29 2014 Corresponding Readings p 365419 Vocabulary Genetics DNA tells our bodies how our cells are to be made in our bodies Epigenetics the turning on or off of some genes known as gene expression within our bodies based on the environment an individual is exposed to This is why in twins one can have cancer while the other could remain healthy They both have the same genome but different genes are actually expressed Homosexuality Because one of the main purposes our genes is to be passed on homosexuality is not likely to be genetically selected for There are some theories one being the environment that the fetus is exposed to in the womb When a mother is pregnant with a male she produces antigens in order to protect her from the negative affects that would come from the testosterone The antigens stay even after the boy is born and if she has more than one boy then they are exposed to less testosterone than the first boy and more of the antigens that are being produced There is less testosterone throughout the key development stages the more boys a woman has and the chances of homosexuality increases Implication of Brain Not Being Developed until 25 1 An imbalance of heart and brain 2 Risk Taking Behavior 3 Minors and Crime Responsibility 4 Peer In uence Risk Taking Behavior All different types of risky behavior alcohol drugs etc all peak between 1620 years of age Reasons impulse control reward evolutionary adaptive peer in uence Impulse Control Reward Reward systems are at their peak at the adolescent age There is a peak of dopamine production during risky behavior and it just feels better Recall the card picking task children will pick from the risky decks Evolutionary Adaptive Crime and Minors Brains are not fully developed until the age of 25 and yet we start using the justice system for people at age 18 Is epigenetics also a factor In the courtroom arguments will be made that it39s not him it39s his upbringing genes epigenetics what is there left to blame 9 Some metaphysical self Peer In uence peer in uence is more important than a child39s parents after the age of five and in the past peer in uence has been underestimated Experiments Dutch Famine 19441945 18000 people died during the Dutch Famine as a result of a harsh winter the Dutch do not usually experience and the Nazi blockade that was occurring at the same time This provided a natural experiment that scientists could use to study starvation Children born during the famine were unsurprisingly underweight When the children grew up they were more likely to experience higher than normal levels of diabetes obesity cardiovascular disease and psychological disease This is because their bodies were used to not having food when they were in their mother39s womb When they grew up they had plenty to eat and their bodies weren39t made to handle it However their children also suffered from these diseases as well as their grandchildren Changes in DNA were actually discovered quite recently Emotional Recognition Test both teens and adults were given the test while in an fMRI machine All the of adults responded correctly for each emotion show while teens tended to only get half of them right The fMRI showed that when adults determined what emotion a face was displaying the frontal logic and reasoning part of the brain lit up For teens the emotion portion of the brain was more active The brain grown from bottom up inside out and the prefrontal cortex where executive functioning is located is the last region of the brain to develop Epigenetics amp Mice this is not in the lecture but was talked about in class The experiment started out with two groups of mice The first groups were exposed to a chemical to smell and then were shocked The second group of mice received the same treatment with a different chemical Two generations after the first group had a natural fear of these chemicals still had a natural reaction of fear to these chemicals There were changes found is the DNA evidence that epigenetics is constantly working People To Know Iudith Rich Harris was kicked out of the Harvard graduate school for not having the attitude a Harvard graduate student needed Later she wrote a paper on peer in uence that won her an award form the man who kicked her out of the graduate program Wrote a book called The Nurture Assumption which made three main points 1 Much apparent parental in uence is due to genes 2 Other parental in uence is restricted to behavior at home 3 Peers have tremendous in uence William Damon Stage Model of Friendship Level 1 age 46 Social Engagement Handy Playmate Sharing A friend is someone to play and do activities with Level 2 ages 810 Social Engagement and Support Mutual Trust and Assistance A Best Friend who you are going to be friends with Forever Level 3 ages 1115 Social Engagement and Support and understanding Loyalty Intimacy Someone who understands you better than anyone and who would stand up for you Erikson Stages of Psychological Development 1 Hope 01 years 2 Will 24 years 3 Purpose 46 years 4 Competence 713 years 5 Fidelity 1424 years 6 Love 2540 years 7 Care 4564 years 8 Wisdom 65 years Dunbar Recall Dunbar s Number About 150 Dunbar s Circle of Friends 1 5 people closest people to you a significant other counts as two 2 10 people will stay home with you when you are sick 3 35 people a group of friends to play sports etc 4 100 people acquaintances Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Always eat breakfast before taking a midterm Even if you don39t normally eat anything before lunch you brain runs on carbs which have been totally used up in the night and is not running on empty Don39t expect to do any major thinking before getting something in your stomach preferably a piece of toast or something along those lines Thursday May 1 2014 Corresponding Readings None Vocabulary Kohlberg s Stages of Moral Reasoning Level 1 Pre conventional Morality Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment Orientation Stage 2 Individualism and Exchange Level 2 Conventional Morality Stage 3 Good Interpersonal Relationships Stage 4 Maintaining the Social Order Level 3 Post Conventional Morality Stage 5 Social Contract and Individual Rights Stage 6 Universal principles Moral Dumbfounding the inability to explain rationally strong moral reactions that people feel in a particular situation Social Intuitionist Theory of Morality Rather than rational decision making moral judgments tend to be determined using unconscious intuitions of right and wrong and emotion Morality produces cooperation based off of social relations Teamwork and cooperation are the most useful adaptions in evolution and allows a species to achieve more in a group than just personal achievements Difficulties of Cooperation organisms are designed to pass along their own genes despite the costs that may occur and are extremely selfish Best off when everyone cooperates and then organisms are selfish Group Coordination Problem organisms have the tendency to give less take more and it is difficult to establish cooperation Prisoner39s Dilemma Temptation of Defection the most adaptive thing to do in a species that is cooperative is to be a cheater which everyone will be after a while Cooperation is sustainable using 1 Kin Selection 2 Direct Reciprocity 3 Indirect Reciprocity 4 Culture Natural Selection amp Math adaptions are based off of the mutations that lead to the best chances of reproduction These outcomes can be modeled and predicted using math Evolutionary Stable Strategies ESS 9 The Prisoner39s Dilemma Kin Selection Gene is seeking to be passed along with to thought to its host rBgtC Where r apparent genetic relatedness B benefit of the recipient C cost to the actor How do you know if you are related to someone lust guess based on social cues Direct Reciprocity best chances for an organism in a cooperative species is to Tit for Tat Indirect Reciprocity based on reputation and requires cognitive abilities to remember reputations Remember Dunbar s number about 150 Fairness and Cheating humans have become aware of cheaters and over different cultures have developed a cheater detection system Everyone is very protective of their reputation and that keeps cooperation in line Moral Emotions issues of fairness and cheating are dealt with using emotions not logic and reasoning Reason is uses only for an explanation of why we feel the way we feel Humans have complex moral emotions empathy guilt shame pride righteous anger disgust etc and have developed third party punishment Disgust co opted for moral hygiene Helps keep right and wrong straight People were more inclined to clean when morally disgusted Human Eusociality cooperative rearing a child requires 1013 million calories of energy other than what they acquire by themselves Humans share child rearing unlike chimps Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates There are no notes for Tuesday of week 6 as it was Midterm 2 What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip Turn these notes into ashcards Use bolded words for the front and the definitions for the back Read the book either right before or right after the corresponding lecture to ensure that you get all the material on a specific topic at the same time You can always go back and review if you don39t understand the first time you read through it It39s easier to learn the same material at once rather than trying to go back and remember the lecture when you read the book several lectures later Thursday May 8 2014 Corresponding Readings Textbook p 567615 Vocabulary Moral Decision Making Recap from the Survey that had been assigned to be due before this lecture Harm Care to care and protect others Fairness Cheating tit for tat treating others according to their actions Authority Subversion recognizing legitimate leaders Loyalty Betrayal the feeling of loyalty and betrayal toward your personal group nation or family etc Sanctity degradation the feeling of disgust toward something such a food things or actions by another person States based on the situation a state is a momentary experience one has Traits a disposition that you take with you when encountering different situations think of it as a long term state Humorism Greeks and Romans thought that temperament that people displayed were determined by the following humors found in the body Phlegm Rational phlegmatic Blood Happy sanguine Yellow Bile Angry choleric Black Bile Sad melancholic Id the idea that we pursue pleasurable things and avoid things that causes us pain at all costs our animalistic urges Ego right in between Id and Superego and is driven by reality and is the conscious self Superego our conscience and expectations that we have inside for ourselves Freud39s Structure of Personality Superego 9 Ego 6 Id We have a host of defense mechanisms in our personalities 1 Denial In Class Example Homosexuals saying that someone else is gay and that they are not Displacement In Class Example redirecting toward something more acceptable in society 3 Intellectualism 4 Fantasy In Class Example Retreat from reality 5 Compensation 6 Projection In Class Example Projecting something onto someone else 7 8 9 1 N Reaction Formation In Class Example exaggerating the opposite tendency Regression Repression 0 Sublimation In Class Example socially acceptable displacement The only productive defense mechanism Putting anger etc into something useful MyersBriggs Type Indicator determines whether you are extraversionintroversion sensingintuition thinkingfeeling and judgmentperception ExtraversionIntroversion whether or not you are the life of the party extraversion or the one who likes to sit in the back of the class and not be seen by anyone Introversion People who are extraverts get their energy from being around people and do better when in a group Introverts like to be alone and need to have time and space to themselves It is rare to be completely one or the other so introverts sill like hanging out with friends and extraverts still need some time to themselves Sensing Intuition the method in which you gather information Thinking Feeling the method in which you make decisions udgment Perception this is the most poorly named of the groups Iudgment describes people who like to have schedules and things planned ahead of time while Perception is for people who like to leave things open and are up for last minute planned activities Openness intellect imagination curiosity creativity when openness is high there are artistic interests substance use occupational creativity and politically liberal Conscientiousness order duty deliberation self discipline health and the length of a life you live academic performance and when conscientiousness is high there is a low criminal activity Extraversion sociability assertiveness activity affability when extraversion is high there are higher reports of happiness peer acceptance dating variety and leadership Agreeableness trust nurturance kindness cooperation when agreeableness is high there is low heard disease peer acceptance dating satisfaction Neuroticism anxiety depression vulnerability to stress when neuroticism is high there is anxiety and depression romantic dissatisfaction and poor occupational outcomes Pathogen Prevalence Cultural Difference and the Big Five 75 of the people in Africa had to deal with so much disease that they did not reach cognitive potential Disease is much higher in warmer areas such as along the equator People can be much more extraverted in low pathogen places as they can explore and interact without fear of disease Higher pathogen load causes lower rates of extraversionconformityconscientiousness lower rates of female promiscuity and higher rates of spicy foods since garlic etc are designed to keep disease low Experiments Srivastava et al 2003 surveyed 132000 internet users and found systematic change over the lifespan This may not have to do with the lifespan however and may re ect more on the generations that were surveyed People to Know Sigmund Freud 18561939 from what is now the Czech Republic Freud was born to poor Iewish parents and become a doctor one of the few professionals available to ews Developed that Talking cure in order to treat one of his patients Anne 0 Most of his patients were Middle Class and Upper Class Housewives Lots of phrases we say today were developed from Freud who coined the phrase In Denial He developed a structure of Personality which is made up of Id Superego and Ego see in Vocabulary for definitions to these terms Carl lung 1867 1961 Born in Zurich Switzerland worked with Freud but eventually broke away from Freud39s ideas 6 years after becoming his student The story goes that when lung and Freud first met they talked for 8 hours straight while Freud39s wife brought them food and beverages They finally split over the ideas and thoughts they had about sex and religion lung was very spiritual and pro religion while Freud did not believe in religion Gordon Allport The FiveFactor Model of Personality In 1936 Allport found over 18000 English words that described how to distinguish the behavior of one person from another Within the 18000 words they could be divided into five groups known as the Big Five The Big Five include openness conscientiousness extraversion agreeableness and neuroticism see the vocabulary section for definitions for the big five Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates None What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Study after lecture Going over notes right when you get home from a lecture helps you to remember it better Even if you just scan the newly taken notes for a few minutes it39s better than going home and promptly forgetting everything your professor just said This way as you go over the notes you may recall something that your professor was talking about that you didn39t make clear enough in your notes for you to return to it later and remember what it was Tuesday May 13 2014 Corresponding Readings 513565 Vocabulary Aril After WWII April 4 1945 the first concentration camp is found by US troops April 12 1945 Eisenhower visits the concentration camp April 16 1945 Eisenhower forces the people living in the surrounding town to go visit the concentration camp Obedience in relation to Milgram s experiment generally compliance decreased if the people who were doing the shocking became psychologically closer to their victims and shockers became psychologically further from the experimenter If a way out was provided such as examples of other shockers refusing to continue instructions given over the phone or disagreement between multiple experimenters the shockers were more likely to stop before reaching the full power of the shocks The Mob Mentality Deindividuation when in a group a person39s own accountability seemed to decrease There were also reductions in what a personal normally does and self awareness Illusion of Transparency We generally overestimate how much we are seen or known by others For example we think that people can tell when we are lying immediately although this is not always the case or when we teach we have to find a way to explain something in terms that other people can understand because they do not have the same knowledge as we do BetterThanAverage Effect we usually rate ourselves as above average in many things such as driving leadership getting along with others teaching abilities and study habits People focus on aspects of life they are good at and are usually told about their strengths and not their weaknesses The SelfServing Bias attributing success to internal dispositional factors and attributing failures to external situational factors Other people operate solely on internal factors For example When you do well on a test it39s because you39re smart and when you do bad it39s because the teacher is terrible or the test was ridiculous When someone else does well on a test they are smart but if they do bad it39s because they are stupid Fundamental Attribution Error using the internal factors excessively when explaining the behavior of others Experiments Mullen 1987 according to accounts in newspapers the more people that were present at a lynching the more violent the lynching was Rehm et al 1987 fifth graders could be made to act more aggressive just by putting them in matching orange t shirts than when they were just in street clothes Darley and Latane 1986 Student Seizure experiment Groups of students were allowed to communicate over intercoms when one student who was an actor in the experiment pretended to have a seizure and made the corresponding noises When students believed lots of other people were listening they were slow to respond When they believed it was just them or one or two others they were quick to call for help Ross et al 1977 Two students one was the quiz master and the other was the quiz respondent The quiz master was able to make up the questions and got to ask them to the respondent When the third party is asked who is smarter they say the quiz master ignoring the fact that the questions may not be fair People To Know Conformity Solomon Asch 19071996 The experiment conducted by Asch was one that included many actors and one research participant During the experiment the entire group was asked a question Each of the actors selected the incorrect answer on purpose This experiment introduced conformity when it was found that the research participant would select the incorrect answer as well even knowing that is was wrong in order to fit in with the group Obedience Stanley Milgram 19331983 Milgram conducted a study that involved research participants who believed that they were giving other human being in the room next door shocks by pressing a button They were not giving anyone shocks and the experiment strictly tested whether humans would just follow directions instead of following their own thoughts which is defined by obedience This experiment found that some of the research participants went all the way to pressing the button that would actually kill a person although some people would drop at different markers along the way This research experiment was conducted after WWII when it was still being questioned how people could blindly follow orders under Hitler Kitty Genovese was stabbed twice outside her NY apartment when on her way to work She screamed and anywhere from 1238 people heard her but none of them called the police The perpetrator left but returned ten minutes later proceeding to stab rape and rob Kitty before one of her neighbors finally called the police She died on the way to the hospital We would think that the more witnesses there are at a situation the more likely that someone would help Not true see The Bystander Effect above Tom Gilovich s The Spotlight Effect Enhancement of the Self asked students to show up late to class wearing an extremely embarrassing t shirt Students estimated that over half the class would notice them showing up late and the embarrassing t shirt when less 20 actually noticed We think that everyone notices us when really it39s just an overestimation Psychology 202 CRN 37657 T R 4 550pm Updates These notes also include my video notes for Social Psychology 3 The Movie can be found on blackboard There is a midterm week 8 on Thursday so there will be no notes for that day What You Need to Know Notes that you need to know are in black Any notes that I have added for clarity on the topic will be in green Hopefully this makes things a more clear for you all and if you have any ideas in how I can format these notes to make things even easier send me an email at buseruoregonedu Study Tip use this material to make ash cards Use the bolded words for the front and their definitions and explanations for the back Study after lecture Going over notes right when you get home from a lecture helps you to remember it better Even if you just scan the newly taken notes for a few minutes it39s better than going home and promptly forgetting everything your professor just said This way as you go over the notes you may recall something that your professor was talking about that you didn39t make clear enough in your notes for you to return to it later and remember what it was Tuesday May 15 2014 Corresponding Readings 513565 Vocabulary 3 TopicsThings to Remember 1 Ask why resist your intuition and trust science 2 Nothing is written 3 Naturalistic Fallacy 4 Confirmation Bias Testing A Hypothesis When testing a hypothesis the correct way is to by attempting to falsify it you confirm it Confirmation Bias people have a tendency to like the information that confirms what they believe in without regard to whether the information is actually true People also tend to ignore information that contradicts what they believe in the confirmation bias is our own filter of information It is the cause political dissonance con ict Examples include being stopped at every red light or horoscopes First Impressions First impressions set a schema shape confirm subsequent impressions are interpreted within that schema Groupthink The tendency for groups to too easily minimize con icting opinions and reach a consensus agreement lecture notes It includes diffusion of responsibility confirmation bias and conformity Conditions for Groupthink adapted from lecture notes 1 Overestimation of the group39s power and righteousness a Illusion of invulnerability b Unquestioned belief in a group39s inherit morality 2 Close Mindedness a Ignoring or rationalizing away doubt b Stereotyped views of opposition 3 Pressures toward uniformity a Self censorship b Illusion of consensus c Direct pressure to be loyal d Mind Guards Overcoming Groupthink work on critical thinking in every situation especially with groups Have people bring in fresh perspectives and consider the consequences The Halo Effect we see people who are attractive as being more intelligent honest nicer better lovers and warmer Cognitive Dissonance holding two con icting ideas and the discomfort that it brings We have a motivational desire to reduce dissonance and can be used to change people39s minds An example is Aesop39s fable of the Fox and the Grapes The fox tried and tired to get the grapes that were hanging form the vine When he was unsuccessful he decided that they were sour grapes anyway which is where the phrase sour grapes comes from The Overjustification Effect the groups that were underpaid in the Festinger and Carlsmith study rated the tedious task that they had to perform as better than those who got paid a lot of money because they had no external reason for having completed the task or encouraging others to perform the task They internalize their argument and decide that the task must have been better than they originally thought The Ben Franklin Effect if you do a favor for someone you will likely end up liking them more because you have to justify to yourself why you would do them a favor in the first place lust World Hypothesis the world is essentially just and bad things happen to good bad people Summary we have a psychosocial urge for always being right which result in errors in the thinking system Confirmation Bias We seek only to confirm what we already believe Doubt not only the external authority doubt yourself It takes courageous self criticism and intellectual honesty to be open minded when you have a brain that is struggling to keep itself safe and closed Lecture notes Experiments Kunda 1987 studied the links between breast cancer and drinking caffeine Female coffee drinkers were more likely to accept evidence that there were no connections and were more skeptical about the study than males Festinger and Carlsmith 1956 Had two groups perform a tedious task then both groups had to persuade a third party to do the tedious task The first group was given 1 and the second group was given 20 before each group was asked to rate the task This resulted in the over justification effect which can be seen above in vocabulary Lord Lepper and Ross 1979 Took two groups of people who for and against capital punishment Both groups read an article that supported capital punishment and one that was against capital punishment The group that was for capital punishment found that the study that was for capital punishment had a better argument and more convincing evidence while the group that was against capital punishment found that the study that was also against capital punishment had better arguments and evidence By the end of the study each group had grown even firmer in their original views Anderson Lepper and Ross 1980 asked who made the better firefighter the one from a movie like setting or the ones that are more like reality When asked no one knew An essay was provided that said the movie like firefighter was better and everyone said that it was true When an essay was provided that said the reality like firefighter was better half still stuck with the original essay First impressions Lerner 1965 subjects watched other subjects being shocked The subjects who were not being shocked developed a negative opinion of the subjects being socked saying that they deserved it The higher the worldviews people have the more negatively that they feel more negatively toward underprivileged groups Tuesday May 20 2014 Corresponding Readings None Note These are my notes from the movie Flight from Death which was shown for class today The movie is posted on blackboard and the following are some key points I believe are important If you have not seen the movie I recommend you watch it these notes are strictly to jar your memory not catch you up on what you missed Flight From Death Cognitive Problem we have an awareness of death There is a story recorded on stone tablets that dates back to ZOOBCE about avoiding death Scientists are sill working on ways to avoid prevent etc death 54 million people who are alive right now will die in the next 12 months Ernest Becker39s book The Denial of Death was published in 1974 Culture A shared belief about reality We need culture because we are meaning hungry people We can control others with money paying someone to do a job Social Death Resorting to violence dismissive attitudes to those who believe different things than we do We can confirm our beliefs by changing others Political con icts etc are psychologically driven Studies have shown that when we are reminded of death we tend to have more aggression to those who are different in beliefs from us Mortality Salience Hypothesis the first test was done in Tucson AZ with court judges A girl was brought in for prostitution for the judges who had been reminded of their own death set bail for the girl at 450 while judges who had not been reminded set bail at 50 In other experiments using the Mortality Salience Hypothesis it was found that those who were death reminded did not use symbols incorrectly such as the American ag or a Crucifix In a third study after being reminded about death a group of students prescribed twice as much hot sauce for someone to try than those who had not been reminded of their own death The fear of death is universal September 11 2001 attack on differences political beliefs etc and on symbols buildings Terror Management theory urge for revenge and protection as well as to invest in and defend worldviews The psychological concept to master death by killing others More killed for God and Country than for any other reason Vietnam search and destroy Banish death but we can never banish chance Illusion ways to explain the human existence Unconscious denial is where we get in trouble Degree of unlived life dying before we life Main Question What are we to do with life Individual movements and process of life would we do it all again We didn39t come into nor will we leave life by our own will the only thing we can do is to meet it with courage
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