EBIO 1010 Introduction to Kingdom Animalia and Sponges
EBIO 1010 Introduction to Kingdom Animalia and Sponges EBIO 1010-02
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Claire Jacob on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EBIO 1010-02 at Tulane University taught by Doosey, Michael in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life in Biological Sciences at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 02/29/16
Introduction to Kingdom Animalia What does it mean to be an animal? ● cells have a nucleus and organisms are multicellular ● heterotrophic (must digest other living things to create energy) ● capable of sexual reproduction: undergoing meiosis ● only group capable of flight ● adapted to diverse habitats and lifestyles ● cell wall is not rigid ● embryonic development ● tissues All organisms have some challenges: ● homeostasis (keeping the body in a constant neutral state) ● find and digest food ● find mate and reproduce ● circulate nutrients ● get rid of waste Kingdom Animalia Subkingdom Parazoa Phylum Porifera Subkingdom Eumetazoa “Radiata” radial symmetry “Bilateria” animals like you and I! Evolution of the Animal Body Plan ● symmetry, tissues, body cavity, patterns of development, segmentation (can see it in utero) 1. Evolution of Symmetry ● sponges lack symmetry ● eumetazoa→ can divide body into approximate, equal halves ● radial→ jellyfish, anemone ● bilateral→ body has right and left halves that are mirror images Radial: ● sessile (don’t move) ● can sense food and mates in all directions ● easy prey hard to defend self ● solutions: ○ capture prey ○ external fertilization ○ have motile larval stage Bilateral: ● cephalization sensory organs at front ● more mobile ● actively seek food 2. Evolution of Tissues ● sponges lack defined tissues and organs→ most basic animal 3. Evolution of a Body Cavity ● during embryo produce 3 germ layers ○ ectoderm skin ○ endoderm gut ○ mesoderm middle layer (bone, muscle, body cavity) ■ fluidfilled cavity isolated from outside environment ● human body cavity is filled with gas 3 body plans: ● acoelomate= no body cavity ● pseudocoelomate= body cavity between mesoderm and endoderm (roundworm) ● Coelomate= inside of the mesoderm Coelom an internal body cavity → advanced organ systems are made possible by the coelom know open vs. closed circulatory systems 4. Evolution of different patterns of development ● basic pattern: mitotic cell div. (cleavages) of the egg form blastula (hollow ball of cells) Bilaterians 2 groups: ● protostomes (first mouth) develop from or near blastophore ● deuterostomes (second mouth) anus develops from first blastophore 1. Spiral cleavage vs. radial cleavage 2. developmental fate of cells a. protostomes are determinate b. deuterostomes indeterminate… this is how you get identical twins! 3. formation of coelom Advantages of a coelom: ● allows for fluid circulation ● fluids are relatively compressible ○ acts as a hydrostatic skeleton ● mouth the anus ● more space for internal organs ● more space to store gametes ● segmentation new ways to move, segments can be repeated 5. Segmentation ● allows for redundancy ● mobility and flexibility many groups have it… does not create monophyletic groups because it is a convergent trait! Traditional Classification of Animals 36 phyla in metazoans still being modified Phylogeny is an ongoing science Make sure to read and comprehend table 33.1 Phylum Porifera: sponges no tissues, no symmetry Subkingdom Parazoa ● porifera: has pores ● no organs ● 7000 marine species ● sessile: usually attached to ocean floor ● can regenerate Has 3 functional layers: 2 layers of epithelial cells enclosing a gelatinous mix ● 1. outer epithelium→ H2O enters in ostia and exits through osculum ● 2. Mesohyl spicules, spongin (similar to our collagen), amoebocytes ● 3. Choanocytes (collar cells) ○ flagellated contributes to H2O circulations on inside ○ engulf and digest food Sponge Reproduction ● asexual ○ fragmentation ● sexual ○ release egg and sperm (very unlikely to successfully reproduce in this manner Amoebocytes→ cells in mesohyl that can perform various functions ● digest, transport, and store food ● transport sperm to eggs Spicules→ rigid calcium/silicon based support structures ● help sponges keep shape ● help classification and taxonomy Choanocytes→ feeding cells ● collect food ● move H2O ○ obtain O2 and excrete waste (mostly ammonia) Water enters through ostia (outer pores), flows through spongocoel (central cavity), and exits via the osculum