week one and two
week one and two LIFE 102
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Halamka on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to LIFE 102 at Colorado State University taught by Jennifer L Neuwald; Tanya Anne Dewey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 124 views. For similar materials see Attributes of Living Systems (GT-SC1) in Entomology at Colorado State University.
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I'm pretty sure these materials are like the Rosetta Stone of note taking. Thanks Hannah!!!
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Date Created: 09/07/15
BIOLOGY 6 Lecture 4 review Lipids are macromolecules not composed of monomers Polar and nonpolar bonds or groups Elements vary in how electronegative they aregreedy for electrons Nonpolar covalent bonds atoms are similar in electronegativity polar covalent bonds atoms differ in electronegativity lonic bondsatoms are extremely different in electronegativity oxygenchlorinefluorine carbon cc and ch have similar electronegativity non polar covalent groups with 0 or n are going to be polar covalent Lecture 5 proteins most diverse functionsstructure support transport storage communication movement defense and catalyzing reactions Nucleic Acidsstore transmit and help express hereditary info Proteinsdiverse functions Enzymatic defensive storage transport receptor contractile and motor over 50 of dry mass of cells is proteinextremely diverse functionally10 s of thousands of proteins each with a unique shape and function Proteinsmonomers are amino acids diversity of proteins formed from 20 amno acids polymers are poypeptides bonds between amino acids are peptide bonds one or mor polypetides folded into a specific structure is a protien 5 components asymmetrical carbono carbon 0 amino group carboxyl group hydrogen R side chain properties of the side chain unique to each amino acid 0 carbon but organized into 3 categories AMINO ACIDS Nonpolar side chainshydrophobic side chainR group polar side chainslots of oxygen or nitrogenhydrophilic electrically charged side chainselectrically chargedacidic and basichydrophilic carboxyl group of one peptide and amino group of another combine in a dehydration reaction to form a covalent peptide bond notice carboxyl and amino end polypeptide backbone and side chains polypeptide is the polymer but not a protein so what whats a protein protein structure proteinone or more polypeptides folded into a specific shape and shape is important Primary structure1the sequence of amino acids ultimately determine secondary structure2hydrogen bonding between parts of the polypeptide backbone o helix and B strand tertiary3attractions between side chainweak bonds but many form strong interactions for shaping quaternary4aggregation of polypeptides change to primary structure results in change to protein shape and function disruptions that cause it not to form or fall apart is denaturization proteins take n structure more or less on their own but sometimes require special conditions for proper folding chaperoninsthe changing rooms of protein folding NUCLEIC ACIDS DNA is a nucleic acida polymer Gene is a sequence of DNA that codes for a particular protein DNA molecules are chromosomes contain many genes two nucleic acids DNA and RNAwork together to make proteins the monomersnucleotides 5 carbon sugarribose and deoxyribose Nitrogenous basepyrimidinesactu and purinesAG phosphate groupspredictionwhat kind of reaction linds nucleotides into a nucleic acid dehydration phosphodiester bonds create a sugar phosphate backbone 5 end and 3 end NUCLEIC ACIDS RNA is single stranded DNA forms a double helix antiparallel and complementarymakes it the perfect molecule for replication each strand can be replicated from its complement BIOLOGY DAY 3 Lecture 3 Water and Life look up crash course goofy guy with glasses Water is a polar molecule because it has a charge 4 special emergent properties of H20 Cohesion Hydrogen bonds result in strong cohesion between H2O molecules Results high surface tension Adhesion hydrogen bonds also mean that H2O adheres to the other polar surfaces that it forms hydrogen bonds with High Specific Heat hydrogen bonds result in water resisting temperature changeswater has very high specific heat Kinetic energymolecular movementthermal energy higher kinetic energyhigher thermal energy Average thermal energytemperature transfer of thermal energy between bodiesheat Calorie heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius Specific Heat amount of heat that must be absorbed to change the temp of one gram of Why does it have high specific heat it takes energy to break chemical bonds Water molecules have lots of hydrogen bonds Water resists changing templarge bodies of water moderate terrestrial temps and aquatic temps and moderated avoiding large temp fluctuations is important to life water has high heat of vaporizationmore energetic molecules escape the water surface first carrying lots of thermal energy with them important for dealing with heat stress in terrestrial habitats Floating Icesolid water is less dense than liquid water Very important ecologicallyaquatic systems would not survive and polar ice caps would sink when frozen hydrogen bonds hold water molecules farther apart than in the solid phase A Solventdissolving agent water will interact withdissolve any polar or ionic molecule Hydrophilicwater lovingany substance that was an affinity for watertypically polar and ionic substances Hydrophobicwater hatingany substance that does not have an affinity for water typically non polar substances ACIDS AND BASES dissociation of pure water is rare but important H is used to indicate hydronium ion H and OH are very reactive Concentrations of H and OH are in equilibrium in pure water Concentrations of H and OH can drastically change the functions of biological molecules Additions of acids or bases changes the concentrations of H and OH so they are no longer in equilibrium Acidscause an increase in H concentration Basescause an increase in OH concentration pH scale is a log transformed scale of H and OH molar concentrations higher H concentrationlower pHacidic lower H concentrationhigher pHbasic 7 is the middleneutral Buffers minimizes the amplitude of changes carbonic acid buffers human tissues by adding or removing H ions from solution Ocean acidification what happens when CO2 concentrations increase in water Read chapter four BIOLOGY DAY 4 Acids and Bases Notestrong acids and bases completely dissociate weak acids and bases dissociate in water to some extent but not completely what happens to H concentration in the solution when NH3 is added what happens to the pH BUFFERS a solution that resists change when an acid or base is added CARBON THE BACKBONE OF LIFE all life on our planet is carbon based Important Organic Moleculescarbohydrates lipids proteins nucleic acids MillerUrey experiment How did complex molecules form complex carbon molecules from water and gases could create amino acids this way
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