Lecture Notes, Week 1
Lecture Notes, Week 1 210
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
EFB 210 Diversity of Life 9315 Biodiversity variation at all levels of biological organization Genetic diversity variation in the genetic makeup between individuals within a population and between populations Organismal diversity taxonomic hierarchy and its components from individuals to species genera etc Species Richness number of species in a given sampling area Species Evenness how abundant each species is relative to total number of individuals Ecological ecosystem diversity ecological differences between habitats and biomes Spatial Patterns of Biodiversity Alpha diversity diversity in a certain areaecosystem number of species present Beta diversity differences in species diversity between ecosystems Gamma diversity overall diversity for different ecosystems in a broad region Speciesarea relationships species area curves arger areas tend to have more species than smaller areas can be used to determine sampling effort best sampling plot and sample size for experiment see Island Biogeography patterns tend to follow systematic sometimes predictable mathematical relationships Approximately 15 million described species refers to every kind of biodiversity save for viruses Estimated to be 13 million extant species Range 35million 1115million Major uncertainties lie in particular taxonomic groups fungi bacteria inverts functional groups parasites habitats or biomes soils bottom of the ocean Methods of Measuring Biodiversitv A Extrapolation 1 Canvassing experts Estimating overall species based on opinions of experts in many taxonomic groups Caveat bias from expert Assumes experts know groups well enough to make reliable estimates 2 Patterns of species description Using patterns ratesproportions of species description in a taxonomic groups to estimate cumulative unknown species Assumes representative samples are used and patterns stay consistent over time amp space 3 Wellstudied areas Using area where species is fairly wellknown to estimate over larger areas Assumes areas where tota species numbers are well known and good rep of those that are not 4 Wellstudied groups Using wellknown groups mammals and their proportion to overall species in wellstudied areas to estimate overa numbers Assumes ratios of numbers of species in wellknown groups remain constant across space B Models of Richness Trends 1 See SpeciesArea Curve 2 Species Biomass Model Bellcurve plot of Biomass vs Species Richness Affected by Stress and Competition C Diversity Indices quantitative measures of diversity that take into account both richness amp evenness Ex ShannonWiener Index Simpson Index chosen index depends on question being asked Importance of Biodiversity A Directuse Values 1Food 2 Medicine 3 Biocontrol use species to control other invasive species 4 Industrial Materials wood resin ivory 5 Recreational harvesting brings in billions of dollars of revenue 6 Ecotourism revenue into community B Indirectuse Values 1 Ecosystem services Carbon Sequestration Food Webs Nutrient Cycling Poination Soi Formation C Nonuse Values 1 Option value leaves possibility available saved for future use or won t use at all 2 Bequest value leave intact for future generations 3 Existence value human value placed on living things Panda Bald Eagle 4 Intrinsic value value independent from human judgment of worthmonetary value D The Precautionary Principle Biodiversity elements genes species with potential use should not be lost because we currently don t know their value right now Loss of biodiversity is typically irreversible o Fl 0 O 0 0 5 no o V q Fl quot1 PI PI Plants Protists Fungi Viruses amp Vertebrates Inver
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