Aerospace Materials&Processes AE 510
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Sid Klocko on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AE 510 at Kansas taught by Richard Hale in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/186814/ae-510-kansas in Aerospace Engineering (AE) at Kansas.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Behavior and Manufactu ng Properties of Material Structure of main Behavior and Mnnufaniuring Pmpmies of Materials Awmic bands Mellie Strenth Heat mat nt cavalent and ionic DuImIily Prmpitation hardunillg Cryaualline Elmicity I Annaling aux Ham 39 Timparing Pam cryutallim Fatigue Thermal mmim 31m ireLimit Pnlymu chains Creep Electrical wnmwtivily Allnying IChphem 1 7 and SI 39Dnushnm Magnatic snowmen Rail mmmn Fracture Dxidn on Comminn ichamer 2r Cmnsinn Lumin nnu Chapter 3 Fillen Chapters 4 7 and BI FIGURE La in Par An oullina Dfihu buhdwul Serope Kalpakjian Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 3rd Edition AddisonWesley publishing Co 1995 Orbllal electron chematic Representation of the Bohr Atom N Atoms have orbital electrons electrons in outermost lled shell are valence electrons Protons and electrons equal and opposite charged amp Atomic number identi es number of protons in nucleus Atomic mass is sum of masses of protons and neutrons William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 D 1111 Ke 29y TAMOH39HC number Num1c we1ght Nnnmrtal 1 55 e1 m 1 52 ea 54 1 b5 6 6 es 1 1 a 71 Rayeeanrsmm La 0 1 Dy M P an F1 1311 Th Dy Hn Ev Yb Lu 131w 14n1quotl1439 1411 I I 7 N WA 17304117491 89 90 k1 93 94 1 95 9a 97 l 98 1 99 100 101 m2 103 UV ule 591198 N H7 Pa U Np 1 PH AH Cm Bk l Ci LS lm Md N0 Lv 1121 1323 12311 72w 1211111242 1243 17471 1247 1291 17in 173111256 2541 1257 Group 0 Inert gases lled electron shells stable electron con g Group VIIA Halogens one electron short of stable structure Group VIA two electrons short of stable structure Groups IA and 11A ali an 39ne e hmetals one and tWo electrons in excess of stable resp Groups 11123 to IIB transition metals partially lled d electron states one or tWo el in next s e Groups IIIA IVA VA intermediate characteristics by virtue of valence electron structure Most elements metal classi cation and are electropositive cap able of giving up a few valence el REELlllGll FU39Lc F Amanm Equilibrium condition atom spacing fixed unless bonding energy overcome l l i 1 Ll Rsmnswu lo39rg r 3 39T RquotP quotL VEV by l 5 a l inmuw sepeial on y gt E l Memomv39 emrahon r39 gt U D n E i 4i 39 S Nut avemy A J Ji r E g l r x 7 Amme energy EA I TJ NUaLlMP tome r I my Dependence of repulsive attractive Dependence of repulsive attractive and net forces as lnction of interatomic and net potential energies as lnction of interatomic separation for two isolated atoms separation for two isolated atoms William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Electrostal z homing lumi I Ionic Bonding Sodium Chloride M M i l l l l Schematic H H M H M Electrons mm quotr mcnce electrons to nonmetallic atoms all atoms become stable con gurations but become ions with positive and negative charge bonding forces are electrostatic high bond energies high melt point hard and brittle good insulators electrical and thermal transparent cleave rather than deform William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Shared electron Methane Schematic Snared electron from hydrogen Electrons snared eg glass and polymers Strong diamond or weak bismuth bonds usually high melt point depends on bond strength hard good insulator transparent cleave rather than deform William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 en raves f Metallic Bonding Q 0 Q Q nonvalence electrons assume these are not bound to any atom but are free to drift throughout metal Shield ion cores from repulsive forces Bonds may be weak or strong high packing density good conductors electrical and thermal due to free valence electrons opaque deformation with ductility William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Bonding Energies and Melting Temperatures for Various Substances Hummg Ifm lgl JIMmg Aflnmz39 lmum mu I mnm uluu39 Baud11g 39I39ij SHINHun l lfllHH39IWJ mult r39uW DC I Nlll mm 153 ml UH Mgr mm 239 280 C I K si 151108 47 HIU m 9 2 mlWE EHly 71 I70 71 gt355 4 i8 lti 07 7 m I Al Tungsten 321 77 34 560 M quot39quot 79 Int 97 42 I535 V Hll 205 88 31 V V l39 77 18 ms mu im lu Jain 139 H 7 H 03 101 H I y Nu H 34 136 779 V quot3959quot up 31 1 2 052 o William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Crystal Structures Atoms situated in repeating or periodic array A11 metals many ceramics and certain polymers form crystal structures Hard sphere model unit cells For metals three simple crystal structures Face centered cubic structure copper aluminum silver gold Packing Factor 074 volume of atoms in cell total volume of cell 394 atoms per unit cell Coordination number 12 of adjacent atoms William D Callister Jr Materials Science and En ineerin An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Example Calculate the volume of an FCC unit cell in terms of the atomic radius R Solution In the l39l1 unit cell lllHKII uf ll Vii 717 hr Alums Iom lt one unullmr uunss u litre diagonal the lcngtlt ul39 whith is lll Sinus tho mm 9 is n LlllC its volume is 113 hl lc l u ix the ell edge length From the right lriimglc m the L39th 12 n 7 HR of solving for a u 21w The FCC unit ell nlume V may be 39nmpulorl from I 11 li RVE Inl xquot William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Example Show that the atomic packing factor for the FCC crystal structure is 074 Solution The AMquot is de ned as the li m lim Ulisnlid splu re volume in 1 unit itll or 1 7 tulul splicrv volume V lolul unit cell 01111116 1 Both the low sphere and unit cell volumes may he 111ml llcd in terms til the atomic radius Rl l39lie volume for a sphere is 1M 21ml sincv l lttI39K are four alums per FCC unit tell the total l IC sphere volunlv ix 4 If i 1 nn 11Rquot 3 3 From laxzunplc Problem ill the total unit cell volumnt ilt VL HaleNE lhrrcfure llic ammk packing limor is 1 1r 1 Arr L V1quot 071 i 1 716 V 2 William D Callister Jr Materials Science and Engineering An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Body centered cubic structure chromium iron tungsten Packing Factor 068 volume of atoms in celltotal volume of cell 2 atoms per unit cell Coordination number 8 of adjacent atoms ijV William D Callister Jr Materials Science and En ineerin An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Hexagonal close packed structure cadmium magnesium titanium zinc Packing Factor 074 volume of atoms in celltotal volume of cell 6 atoms per unit cell Coordination number 12 of adjacent atoms William D Callister Jr Materials Science and En ineerin An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985 Similarities in FCC and HCP Face centered cubic and hexagonal close packed have same packing factor and can be represented by closepacked planes of atoms The difference is in the stacking sequence WEYWEY M v i i iv i j h m 33099 Hexagonal Close Packed Face Centered Cubic rm William D Callister Jr Materials Science and En ineerin An Introduction John Wiley amp Sons Inc 1985
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