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Week 2 Notes

by: SC_Kara Beemer

Week 2 Notes 1000

SC_Kara Beemer
General Psychology
Dennis Miller

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About this Document

Covers all of Chapter 2 and half of Chapter 3
General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by SC_Kara Beemer on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/07/15
Chapter 2 Research Methodology 21 What is Scienti c Inquiry o Psychological myths o ESP ability 0 Psychics o Bigfoot 0 Why is it important to detect myths o Psychological myths can be harmful o Psychological myths can cause indirect damage 0 Acceptance of myths can impede our critical thinking in other areas 0 Scienti c method systematic and objective approach to answer research questions 0 Theory explanation based on observations 0 Hypothesis prediction based on theory fThen Must be falsi able can be rejected Must be parsimonious simple making few assumptions 0 Research test of hypothesis 0 Support or refuse to support theory 22 What types of studies 0 Research designs differ in which the researcher has control over the variables 0 Variable something in the world that can vary and that researcher can measure 0 Researchers must de ne variables precisely via operational de nitions 0 How do psychologists answer questions 1 Experiment test casual hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables 2 Descriptive studies observe and note behavior objectively a Naturalistic observation researcher remains separate from situation and makes no attempt to change or alter results b Participant observation researcher asks questions makes presence known c Case study speci c situation 3 Correlational studies examine how variables are naturally related in the real world a Scatter plot b Perfect negative 10 Medium negative 07 No correlation 0 Medium positive 05 Perfect positive 10 rhme Problems with Correlational Studies 0 O Directionality problem which variable caused change in the other Third variable problem does another unmeasured variable cause the correlation lllusionary correlation perception of correlation when none exists EXAMPLES Unmarried men are more likely than married men to spend time in a mental hospital or prison than married men People who sleep about 7 hours at night are less likely to die within the next few years than people who sleep either more or less The more often parents spank their children the worse their behavior Experiment tests casual hypothesis by measuring and manipulating variables 0 O 0 Independent variable changed manipulated Dependent variable measured If the IV consistently in uences the DV then the IV is assumed to cause the DV Experimental group treatment group Control group comparison group Groups should be equal on everything except IV Avoid selection bias True experiment vs Quasi experiment Random assignment Gender Personality Raceethnicity Does our data have validity O O 0 Construct extent to which variables measure what they re supposed to External degree to which ndings can be generalized to other people settings or situations Internal the degree to which the observed effects are due to the IV and not compounds Chapter 3 Biology amp Behavior 31 How does the Nervous System operate 0 Dementia a decline in mental ability severe enough to interfere with daily life 0 Problems with memory communication amp language ability to focus amp pay attention reasoning amp judgment and visual perception 0 NOT a part of normal aging Alzheimer s disease a type of dementia 0 Symptoms worsen over time 0 Someone with dementia doesn t always have Alzheimer s but everyone with Alzheimer s has dementia 0 Warning signssymptoms Memory loss Challenges in planning or solving problems Difficulty completing familiar tasks at home work or leisure Confusion about time or place Trouble understanding visual images and special relations Decrease in vocabulary amount of words used on a daily basis Problems with words in speakingwriting o quotWhat is that word I m searching fortrying to sayquot Misplacing things and being unable to retrace steps Decreased or poor judgment Withdrawal from work or social activities Changes in moodpersonality Lose perception of consequences 0 What is Alzheimer s Characterized by plaques and tangles Plagues deposits of protein fragment beta amyoid in spaces between cells Tangles build up of tau protein inside cells quotgum upquot and clog neurons causing strange neurocommunication Risk factors 0 Age family historygenetics cardiovascular disease early in life No cure 0 Certain treatments can slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life 0 Focus on prevention 0 Minimize head trauma 0 Diet and exercise for heart health 0 Maintain social connections and intellectual activity 32 What are the Basic Brain Structures 0 Brain activity can be measured directly 0 Electroencephalograph EEG Measures brain s electrical activity 0 Positron Emission Tomography PET Injected with harmless radioactive substance See what parts of the brain are more active 0 Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging fMRl Measure different brain sections See what parts of the brain are more active


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