Chapter 3 Notes (Of the People, Textbook)
Chapter 3 Notes (Of the People, Textbook) HIST 145
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Notetaker on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 145 at Towson University taught by Dr. Andrew Diemer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see HIST 145 - HIST OF U.S. TO THE CIVIL WAR in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Common Abbreviations Sp Spain or Eng England or Spanish English Fr France or Euro Europe or French Europeans Natives Native Americans or Indians gt leads to lt caused by W with est established bW between Chapter 3 The English Come to Stay 16001660 The Adventures of John Rolfe 1609 heads to Jamestown ship wrecks near Bermuda lands 1610 infant daughter had died wife dies soon after arrival Tbbacco Sir Walter Raleigh introduced tobacco to England Eng imports from Sp colonies Eng eager to grow their own VA s natives grow bitter tasting tobacco gt Rolfe experiments and is successful gt 1617 VA sends Rolfe s to Eng Pocahontas 1613 Eng captures favorite daughter of chief Powhatan Rolfe desires to marry her scared of what people would think gtconverts her to Christianity Marriage established an alliance bw Eng and Powhatans gt ending warfare 1616 Rolfe brings her and son to Eng gtdresses like an Eng lady meets king and queen gtEng believe Natives can be civilized dies in Eng Rolfe returns to VA Settlers took land from Natives Chief Opechancanough new Powhatan leader gt leads attacks on all plantations kills 13 of settlers including Rolfe Rolfe desired to unite natives and Eng gtEng take over Natives gtNatives kill Eng and him gtslavery to continue tobacco growth The First Chesapeake Colonies Eng learned little from failure at Roanoke Planning Virginia 1603 named after Queen Elizabeth I King James succeeds gtJames signs the treaty w Sp ends privateers gtprivateers look to est colonies 1606 James grants 2 charters Plymouth to colonize New Eng London to colonize Chesapeake region Virginia VA Company raised more money than Plymouth o 3 ships leave in Dec arrive in Apr governed by a council of 7 including Edward Wing eld Captain John Smith hate each other another member was executed for working w the Sp Eng hoped to nd another Mexico land rich in gold Work done by Eng criminals sent to New World indentured servants or Eng poor 13 of settlers were Eng gentlemen upper class VA Company sent skilled laborers to colony of little use goldsmiths tailors perfumers Farmers ordinary laborers in short supply Starving Times 0 James River Salty Poisonous in summer gttyphoid and dysentery Sept 1607 12 of 104 colonists are dead Diseases Battles w lndians no food from them Starvation gt eating waste dogs cannibalism Poor leadership Smith didn t promote adequate farming Jamestown was fertile could have supplied food Smith left in 1609 Next leaders send men to est forts where lndians lived gt get attacked by Indians Troubled Relations w the Powhatans o Powhatans part of Algonquians Chief Powhatan conquered other Algonquians gt 20000 lndians split in 36 tribes o Powhatans held John Smith and other Eng captive to make Eng acknowledge his supremacy Lord De La War orders Chief Powhatan to return captives gthe refused gtDe La War orders an attack gt75 lndians killed town and corn eld burned wife and kids of a chief captured kids thrown overboard and shot gt 1610 1646 AngloPowhatan War 3 con icts Chief Powhatan used his marriages to est a presence in other colonies Would have a child then send wife and child back to tribe Used Pocahontas to est a relation w Eng Eng desired a 2nCI marriage w another of his daughters Powhatan saw it was pointless bc Eng didn t respect his authority Toward a New Political Economy Tobacco gt 1 person making 200 1 w 6 indentured servants 1000 Colonists had greater selfgoverning rights July 1619 VA House of Burgesses 1st elected representative government gt Renamed General Assembly during the American Revolution VA Company however went bankrupt gt King James turns VA to a royal colony under his control Toward the Destruction of the Powhatans Eng took all Native land along James River Powhatan had become dependent on Eng metal tools Eng no longer need Indian food ndians debt increases gt lndians attack Eng to set rid of them Eng settlers ood to VA spread to Eastern Shore and north to Potomac River Opechancanough attacks 1644 kills 400 takes many prisoners gtOpechancanough is killed Eng take all land from James River and York River no lndians allowed to enter territory land north of York River set aside for the gtfirst Indian reservation A New Colony in Maryland outpost est in northern Chesapeake Bay to get beavers from Susquehannocks Sir George Calvert First Lord Baltimore Catholic 1632 persuaded King Charles I to grant him the land north of Potomac south of Delaware gt1st proprietary colony colony owned literally by an individual and his heirs charter colonies owned by a group of private shareholders named after Catholic Queen Mary remained hereditary possession of Calvert family until American Revolution 1st proprietary colony Calvert could grant land and make laws by himself Had to compete for settlers gt est a representative assembly like VA gtAct of Toleration no one forced to exercise a certain religion both MD VA est on tobacco economy and shared similar political economies The Political Economy of Slavery Emerges Chesapeake Society Shaped by 1 Weak government 2 Tobacco market 3 Land availability 4 Need for labor The Problem of Labor Supply VA Company encouraged Eng poor and women to emigrate Population 35000 Poor water supply and disease gthigh death rate 90 of immigrants and servants brutal working conditions unlike in Eng term of service 7 years The Origins of Slavery in the Chesapeake 1619 Africans rst arrive in VA 20 shipped by Dutch not sure if they were slaves could have been free signi cant 5 of slaves brought in late 16005 when life expectancy increased Sp and Portugal already using slaves Eng justi cation Punishment for certain crimes war prisoners Reserved for nonwhite nonChristian people gt 2 of England s population African by 17505 Eng believed Africans were monstrous savage and brutish Not a justi cation for slavery but gt racism Slaves and white servants worked together Anthony Johnson 1660 African who owned African slaves in VA No laws separating whites and blacks existed Christian Slaves in Muslim Africa 150018005 North African Barbary States Ottoman Empire capture 125 million Euro and sell them as slaves to other north Africans International law enemies captured in war could be enslaved better option than death Euro slaves used to row boats chained together in ves rowed night and day with little clothing gtEng governments moved small villages inland to protect them from being raided Many young males used as sexual slaves Gender and the Social Order in the Chesapeake Eng Men planting farming tending to animals Women cooking sowing gardening New World Men tobacco elds Women tobacco elds Children tobacco elds Rich men hired women servants to do quotwifelyquot duties 0 Single women sent by VA Company to marry men settlers Women married relatively late mid205 gtfew children gttook many decades for colony to selfpopulate 12 of children died in infancy spouse likely to die in 7 years gt widows inherit husband s wealth gt high on the market for remarriage gt children s inheritance lost to new stepparent A Bible Commonwealth in the New England Wilderness o 1607 VA colony est 0 1620 Eng est colony Plymouth 0 1629 Eng est colony Massachusetts Bay The English Origins of the Puritan Movement 0 1530s Church of England est by King Henry VIII unable to get a divorce from Queen Catherine by the Pope gt replaces Catholicism w Church of Eng gives Catholic Church land to loyal Eng noblemen Queen Mary daughter brings Catholicism back gtburns Protestants gtmany ee Queen Elizabeth other daughter reinstates Church of Eng gtexies return gtadopts Calvinist doctrine and predestination John Calvin Swiss Protestant reformer believed God predetermined which people who go to heaven or hell Puritans accepted this but rejected the Catholic traditions that were kept What did the Puritans Believe Humanity guilty of the sin caused by Adam and Eve 0 Jesus Christ the Son of God sacri ced His life to pay for remove our snns Faithful Christians are forgiven and will enter heaven after they die Difference believed that God already knew who would enter heaven and humans can t do anything about it Difference rejected Catholic hierarchy believed relationship bw God and man is direct w no need for a mediator gt promoted literacy and translating the Bible Puritans wanted to quotpurifyquot the Church of Eng of Catholic Ways Anglicans Church of Eng believed Christians earn their way into heaven by good works Puritans believe salvation is a free gift from God studying the Bible makes you open to receive it The Pilgrim Colony at Plymouth 0 1620 rst Puritan colony est by Pilgrims VA Colony offered them land if they would nance the trip gtMay ower pilgrims and the Speedwell others Speedwell had to turn around 0 May ower Landed in Nov 1620 Landed north of destination gt May ower Compact to govern that land 12 died during winter Spring 1621 Pokanokets teach Pilgrims to grow corn Investors sold their shares to the Pilgrims gt eventually Plymouth is absorbed into Massachusetts The Puritan Colony at Massachusetts Bay 0 1629 Massachusetts Bay Company got a charter from King Charles I o 1630 Boston and 10 other towns founded 16405 2000025000 Eng immigrants to Plymouth Mass Bay Connecticut Rhode Island New Hampshire 0 1660 New Eng and Chesapeake reach 35000 each 0 New England Puritans come to stay sell land bring families Long winters kill mosquitoes and diminish disease Plentiful food and water supply The New England Way 0 John Winthrop 1st governor wanted to est colony based on the Word of God 0 Massachusetts General Court legislative body granted land to each town gteach town est government to distribute land land reserved for new comers or family members distributed based on social status family size 0 Social hierarchy rich are supposed to take care of poor 0 Town meetings attended by adult male land owners Early signs of democracy elements not found in Eng Changing the Land to Fit the Political Economy 0 Property owners could sell their land or leave it to their heirs or buy more land Natives entire group had to consent before land was sold sold land still farmed on and hunted on by them Puritans sold to Eng wood gt cutting down trees gt supplied Eng Navy beaver gt natives over hunted rocky soil unable to growsell tobacco New England Settlements homes must be built within 12 mile from meeting house faied attempt to reel in population settlers had spread out to farmraise cattle 0 Boston Chosen for its harbor water supply defense capacity Settlers sent sonsservants far off to farm gt they est new towns First Houses 1 story no windows a chimney gt 1 12 story few windows unpainted Modern Day Homes 18005 when town centers w stores developed gt neighborhoods and painted homes The Puritan Family Family society in microcosm Secular and religious learning taught home Farmerscraftsmen worked at home Hierarchy male head of household Women had 89 children on average Couples respected the natural affection that grows over marriage Dissension in the Puritan Ranks Roger Williams and Toleration o Beliefs Outwardly rejected Church of Eng and Eng rules whereas colonists conformed to rules Spoke against the king granting lndian owned land Questioned the validity of the Massachusetts charter Argued for complete separation bw church and state 0 Puritans wanted to send him back to Eng to be imprisoned or killed Winthrop warned him gt he ed to Rhode Island gt Rh ls became a refuge colony Anne Hutchinson and the Equality of Believers Women were Spiritually equal received salvation like men Earthly subordinate in hierarchical society Believed good behavior was not a reliable sign of salvation Ordered to leave colony gt ed to Rhode Island Puritans came for religious freedom but denied it to others Puritan lndian Policy and the Pequot War Pequot War lt con icts bw Natives and Eng on Connecticut River valley Pequots traded w Dutch Pequots enemies attracted Eng to come trade gt Pequots ask Eng to est trade post trying to control enemies Dutch Eng 0 Thomas Hooker est Hartford Connecticut gtPequots afraid ask enemies Narragansetts to help get rid of Eng Puritans ask Narrangansetts to ght Pequots 0 Connecticut 90 soldiers and Narragansetts 500 attack Pequots and win burn village 0 1662 Connecticut becomes a royal colony Conclusion All of the North American colonies except New England participate in transatlantic political economy If the Virginia Company had known the Puritans would focus of their religion and not trading making money they probably wouldn t have given them a charter However New England was the most successful in establishing and maintaining colonies
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