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Circulatory System (closed and open)

by: Janice Prieto

Circulatory System (closed and open) BIO 220-01

Marketplace > La Salle University > Biology > BIO 220-01 > Circulatory System closed and open
Janice Prieto
La Salle
GPA 2.65
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About this Document

Here you will see the differences between systems and how they both work.
Structure and Function of Organisms
Geri Seitchik
Class Notes




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janice Prieto on Monday February 29, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 220-01 at La Salle University taught by Geri Seitchik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see Structure and Function of Organisms in Biology at La Salle University.


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Date Created: 02/29/16
Circulatory System: Open vs Closed The circulatory system transports material, respiratory gases, hormones, etc. It also maintains body temperature, the bodily fluids, and carries the cells of the immune system to help defend the body. Animals like Sponges, Hydras, Flatworms, and Round worms don't have any circulatory system. Then there are the rest of the animals who do have a circulatory system, they have one of two. They have either an Open Circulatory System or a Closed Circulatory System. What are the main differences between the two? Well...  The fluids have different names and compositions.  The OCS is less effective than the CCS.  They both have veins and arteries but the CCS has capillaries too.  OCS is open ended while CCS is not.  The heart of an OCS has holes called ostia where the fluid enters.  The heart of a CCS don't have ostia. Open Circulatory System An open system allows fluid to leave the system and be picked up again, it's open at both ends.  Fluid (Hemolymph)- The composition is INDISTINCT from interstitial fluid. The respiratory pigment (Hemocyanin) dissolves in fluid not cells.  Hemocoels- These are large spaces or cavities where the hemolymph is dumped to perform exchange between the circulatory system and body cells.  Pumping organ ("heart")- It contains holes called ostia through which fluid enters. It's also surrounded by a sac called the pericardium.  Chambers- The Atria is the receiving chamber and the Ventricle is the distributing chamber.  Vessels: Veins and arteries both open ended Closed Circulatory System The fluid never leaves a closed system, it is not open ended all the vessels are connected.  Vessels: Arteries, veins, and capillaries, all close ended.  Fluid: The fluid is called blood, which is DISTINCT to the interstitial fluid. The respiratory pigment (Hemoglobin) is found inside the red blood cells. 2 Blood is kind of complicated. It's considered to be a connective tissue made up of plasma(90% made up of water), red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. In vertebrates all red blood cells are intact nucleated cells except for mammals. In mammals they are enucleated , this is because they loose the nucleus at maturity and can't divide.  Red blood cells: These mainly carry oxygen and some carbon dioxide. They have an average life span of 120 days.  White blood cells: These have more functions such as- anti- inflammatory, helps out with allergies, and they are the cause of specific immune responses. All cells are intact and nucleated.  Platelets: These are what cause the blood clotting mechanism when, for example, a capillary is injured. Hemostasis is basically the stopping of bleeding, but bleeding is not required to activate it. There are three events in Hemostasis. 1 Event: Blood Vessel Spasm  The injured area causes sympathetic innovation and the platelets/tissue surrounding the area release hormones to cause throbbing. 2 Event: Platelets  Platelets become sticky and adhere to the walls of a vessels at the site of injury and become like a plug. 3 Event: Clot (most effective)  For this event a series of chemical reactions. I. Ca , blood clotting factors, and tissue thromboplastin all work together to convert prothrombin to thrombin. II. Thrombin converts Fibrinogen to Fibrin. III.Fibrin forms a web that covers over the area of injury where anything can get caught up. 3  Fibrinolysin dissolves the clot in a process called Fibrinolysis. 4


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