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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danae Long on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 486 at San Francisco State University taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Motor Learning in Kinesiology at San Francisco State University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Chapter 1 Classification of Motor Skills ApplicationDiscussion motor skill performance of a type of human behavior perform skills in an open environment by adapting to certain aspects of his or her movements to changing characteristics in the performance environment motor skills activities or tasks that require voluntary control over movements of the joints and body segments to achieve a goal motor learning emphasizes the acquisition of motor skills performance enhancement of learned or highly experienced motor skills or reacquisition of skills that are difficult to perform or cannot be due to injurydisease motor control how neuromuscular system functions to activate and coordinate the muscles and limbs involved in performance of a motor skill study this when a person is still learning a new skill are the legs and arms coordinated motor development concerns either or both learning and control but mainly the relationship throughout life motor skill performance is influenced by motor skill performance environment and physical and psychological characteristics of the person performing the skill Skills actions movements and neuromotor processes skill activity or task that has a specific purpose or goal to achieve denote some degree of competence or capacity to perform a task consistently achieve a goal for a task highly skilled individuals showing greater capacity to consistently achieve the goal of the task than less skilled participants achieve under a wide range of conditions and circumstances than lesser counterparts degree of efficiency movement indicates specific patterns of motion among joints and body segments locomotion the goal of transporting the body from one location to another manytoone relationship different movements all for one goal throwing side overhand lower onetomany one movement could be used to achieve different goals walking movement can be used to run neuromotor processes lie within the central and peripheral processes that underlie control of movements and actions one muscle might be activated in the same way from one moment but lead to a different movement if context changes why learn people learn actions when they begin to learn or relearn motor skills people adapt movement characteristics to achieve a common action goal people evaluate motor skill performance movements and neuromotor processes with different types of measures gross motor skills large musculature usage and require less precision than fine motor skills aka fundamental motor skills walk jump throw fine motor skills great control of small muscles handeye coordination handwriting typing drawing sewing discrete motor skill clearly defined beginning and end points flip light switch play piano continuous motor skills arbitrary beginning and end locations repetition driving swimming serial motor skill aka sequential motor skills repetitive movements characteristic of continuous skills and the specified beginning and end points shift gears in manual environmental context specific location where skill is performed supporting surface objects involved and people involved in performance situation closed motor skill everything is stationary pick up cup from table when sitting open motor skill everything is in motion surfing externally paced time the movement with external features Gentile s twodimensions taxonomy environmental context and function of the action taxonomy classification organized according to relationships among components of whatever is being classified regulatory conditions features of environmental context to which movement must conform to achieve goal walking with or without a crowd obstacles speed different surface stationary or in motion intertrial variability whether regulatory conditions associated with performance change or stay the same from one trial to the next walk through a room where objects are different every time nonregulatory conditions environment context that have no influence or only an indirect influence on movement characteristics weather color of equipment body orientation refers to changing or maintaining of body function body stability no change in body location standing drink from a cup body transport walk run require the body to move from one place to another active and passive changes of body locations object manipulation maintain or change the position of an object holding or using the object Chapter 2 The Measurement of Motor Performance ApplicationDiscussion performance outcome measures result of a motor skill Distance someone ran walked How many free throws were made within a specific time performance production measures assess specific parts of motor control system to measure performance Force EMG velocity Reaction Time Movement Time and Response Time reaction time RT the time it takes for a person to prepare and initiate a movement only related to the time before movement begins RT used to identify environmental context someone may use while preparing for the ac on RT assess anticipation capabilities How long it takes a player to recognize their opponent s patterns Movement time MT is the time between start and completion of a movement response time RT is the sum of RT and MT RT and MT are independent variables simple RT situation has one signal and requires one response lift a finger from keyboard when light is on choice RT more than one signal and subject must respond differently to each respond lift index finger when red light is lit lift pinky when blue light is lit discrimination RT more than one signal but only one response lift finger if red light is on no movement if blue or green light is on electromyography EMG records time at which muscle has increased activity after stimulus occurs premotor time time between the stimulus signal and beginning of activity motor time time from increase muscle activity to observable limb movement Error Measures Accuracy spatial accuracy distance space temporal accuracy time dimensions repeated error determines whether movement inaccuracy is due to inconsistency or bias consistency problems lack basic movement for the skill bias person has the skill but can t adapt to the performance situation absolute error difference between actual performance and goal magnitude error average error on each repetition within a series of movements general index of accuracy performance bias person barely misses a shot bias as to where the ball lands in the goal constant error deviation from the goal variable error standard deviation of the constant error score for the series of repetitions radial error the hypotenuse of the right triangle formed by intersection of Xaxis and Yaxis assess bias and consistency by looking at groupings of locations bias one golf ball in the hole the rest are bundled up in a corner consistency one golf ball in the hole the rest are scattered rootmeansquared error RMSE measures error in continuous skills to find error between performance and criteria for performance move a cursor along a specific pathway drive a car down a narrow road Kinematic Measures kinematics describes motion without regards to force or mass motion capture records movement while a person is performing skill records movements of tracking device displacement changes in spatial relocation when someone carries out a movement velocity rate of change in object changes position in relation to time acceleration change in velocity during movement directly proportional to velocity linear motion refers to motion in a straight line and the entire body moves the same distance over a same period of time walking angular motion rotary motion revolves around an axis with specific body segments around joints foot movements during walking kinetics focuses on force in the study of motion use force plates force transducers and strain gauges to measure force electromyography EMG measures electrical activity in muscles electrodes are attached to the skin over muscles to send electrical signals to a computer of polygraph recorder tells us the beginning and end of a movement observe sequence of muscle activation in multiple muscles whole muscle mechanomyography wMMG detects and measures lateral displacement of muscle belly after maximal percutaneous neuromuscular stimulation PNS via electrical current potential to measure muscle fiber composition near infrared spectroscopy NIRS determines level of oxygen in muscle electroencephalography EEG measure brain electrical activity assess brain disorders 4 to 16 electrodes are used frontal temporal central parietal and occipital EEG recordings relate to rhythms beta is fastest at the cortex alpha waves are quite during awake states theta is second slowest and occur during sleep delta is slowest occurs in deep sleep PET scans show blood flow or metabolic activity in the brain doesn t require radioactive isotope into bloodstream fMRl uses magnetic fields to realign the body s hydrogen atoms to create images of body tissue detect blood flow changes and can show active brain areas at a specific time MEG asses magnetic fields created by neuronal activity good for damaged brain tissue TMS assess activity targeted at determining motor activity excites or inhibits activity in the cortex which causes temporary disruption Chapter 3 Motor Abilities Ability and Motor Ability ability is a trait that determines a person s ability to perform a specific skill motor ability is an ability related to the performance of a motor skill individual differences depend on the degree to which a person has motor abilities that are important to that skill same level of experience and practice in tennis but one player who exhibits better motor skill is likely to perform better general motor ability hypothesis different motor abilities depend on the individual s ability specificity of motor abilities hypothesis different motor abilities within individuals are independent good balance ability doesn t imply good reaction time Balance and Timing Activities balance postural stability maintaining equilibrium while stationary or moving static balance maintain equilibrium while stationary such as standing sitting or kneeHng dynamic balance maintain equilibrium while in motion walk or run Berg Balance Scale BBS has 14 types of static and dynamic tests of balance balance is a multidimensional ability that is related to task or skill in which balance is involved timing is important in motor skills because we need to start and end movements at specific time such as hitting a baseball internal timing dancer must perform at a specific rhythm without music allaroundathlete is rare individual is good at different activities because the fundamental skills are similar soccer and cross country since both require running for a long period of time Taxonomy of Motor Abilities Fleishman created a taxonomy of human perceptual motor abilities to have a tool to describe performance in the wide variety of tasks perceptual motor abilities and physical proficiency abilities physical proficiency abilities include static strength dynamic strength explosive strength trunk strength extent strength dynamic flexibility gross body coordination gross body equilibrium and stamina
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