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Chapter 10

by: Aimee Garces
Aimee Garces
GPA 3.415
Comparative Criminal Justice
Clarence Stephens

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CHapter 10
Comparative Criminal Justice
Clarence Stephens
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Garces on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJE4174 at Florida International University taught by Clarence Stephens in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Comparative Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Florida International University.


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Date Created: 09/07/15
November 4 2014 Chapter 10 0 Historical Background of Terrorism 0 Terrorism l Traditionally been used as a tool of groups trying to terrorize a population or overthrow a regime either through military means or in a more clandestine fashion 0 3 phases of terrorism since WWII I First Phase 1938196 centered on anti colonial revolts by groups and even small countries 0 Rebels no longer accepted rule by those with economic and military resources ie cyprus Q Asvmmetrical warfare unconventional tactics I Second Phase after 1960 ideological terrorism came into vogue 0 Goal overthrowing or disrupting economic and social symbols of western democracies 0 Led to third phase religious terrorism l Third Phase religious terrorism current phase of terrorism 0 Transformed from a regional problem primarily in the Palestine region to a range of methods of death and destruction 0 Al Qaeda mainly responsible for this transformation 0 Formed to take asymmetrical warfare across borders all in the name of Shari a Q Asvmmetrical warfare is a method of warfare used bv one side in a conflict or war when it believes that it lacks the militarv power of the other and vou must use strateqv or tactics that differ from conventional warfare O The Post 911 era I New terrorism terrorist activity committed by individuals or groups who may not be formally connected to a loose cell based organizational structure with religious motivations using asymmetric warfare tactics I New terrorists are 0 More difficult to detect 0 More Violent Better armed more access to WMD Less likely to be defeated 0 Better financed than their predecessors 0 Better Trained Q Hierarchy is less likely to be infiltrated O O 0 Terrorism in the US 0 Before 911 I 1993 World Trade Center Bombing l April 19 1995 truck bomb explosion outside the Alfred P Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City Oklahoma Left 168 people dead including 19 babies in the daycare center The blast was set off by antigovernment militant Timothy Mcveigh in 2001 he was executed 0 After 911 I 911 is clearly the biggest terrorist attack that has occurred in the US This event led to the global war on terrorism that is currently going on Also led the US to pass such legislation as the Patriot Act and to create the Department of Homeland Security 0 Defining Terrorism 0 Numerous definitions have been proposed 0 Difficulty stems from larger ideological argument about whether the acts committed are criminal or are in the interest of promoting the greater good I Terrorist may not view their behavior as illegal or immoral may even be seen as martyrs in a cosmic struggle l Meaning of terrorism much like crime can 0 Terrorism and premeditated politicallv motivated violence perpetrated aqainst noncombatant tarqets by subnational groups or clandestine agents 0 Domestic Terrorism involves persons or groups committing a terrorist act or acts in their own country having some domestic agenda as the goal I Ex Oklahoma City Bombing of the Federal Building 0 International Terrorism involves citizens or territory of more than one country and has an impact that goes beyond a domestic agenda I Ex 91 1 0 Goals of Terrorism 0 In some cases I One Goal of terrorism is to force a qovernment to reSpond to their violence in a harsh manner in the hope that such repression will lead to discontent amonq the people and ultimately to revolution Q In the configuration terrorism mav be used to destabilize colonial Governments and OCCUpation forces I This the of terrorism often referred to as Revolutionarv dovernments 0 Terrorism is also practiced bv clovernments against their own citizens when thev wish to protect their own political aqenda or economic interests I Mav use their power to harass arrest torture or kill alleqed enemies of the state I may implement covert actions against other countries for political economic or military reasons 0 When these types of activities take place on the part of government it is said to be statesponsored terrorism 0 A frequently stated goal of terrorist groups is to promote a certain religious system or protect a set of beliefs within a religion I This is called reliqious terrorism or iihad and mav be the most common and powerful form of terrorism in our current area I megmwm 0 Whatever the specific goal may be the ultimate goal is to create mass amounts of publicitv for the cause 0 Terrorism does not only include the at but also the effect that is created by their actions Prevalence of Terrorism 0 1982 US government began publishing an annual report called Patterns of Global Terrorism l Provided transnational terrorism information by year religion and individual terrorist groups 0 2004 numbers in report cited a tripling of terrorists incidents as a result the name of the report was changed to Country Reports on Terrorism l A new agency called the National Counterterrorism O The number of international terrorism incidents that have occurred outside the US has risen astronomicallv over the last decade Foreign Terrorist Groups 0 These leqal conditions must be present to receive the designation of beinq a terrorist quUp Foreign Policy 0 The united states uses a foreign policv that desiqnated countries as state Sponsor of terrorism I More Specificallv countries are placed on this list if thev assist terrorist bv providinq sanctuarv arms traininq loqistical or financial sUDport or diplomatic immu into to qroups or individuals 0 Legislation 0 On the federal level two significant law were passing following 911 I The first was the Patriot act which broadens law enforcement authoritv to conduct surveillance on US citizens and resident l The federal Government also created the DHS Q The mission of the DHS is to ensure a homeland that is safe secure and resilient aqainst terrorism and other hazards O Adjudication O Goverments must also deal with terrorism through djudication 0 Even governments that are dedicated to the law have a hard time delain objectively and lawfully with suspected terrorists O The US has developed special courts to deal with terrorism suspects such as those captured by forced in Afganistant Q The Future of Terrorism 0 COncerns l WMDS nuclears chemical or biological weapons I Agents of biological Orign generlly fall intro one of four categroies bacteria viruses plaques or toxins I l Cyber terrorism


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