Popular in Foundations of Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 2010 at Tulane University taught by David Maddox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 130 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Sociology in Sociology at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
09072015 Chapter 3 Personal and social development Terms Personal development development with age of distinctive behavioral styles and increasingly complex selfunderstanding Social development development with age of increasingly sophisticated understandings of other people and of society as a whole as well as increasingly effective interpersonal skills and more internalized standards for behaviors Temperament general tendency to respond to and deal with environmental stimuli Effortful control general ability to inhibit immediate impulses in order to think and act productively Imaginary audience Belief that one is the center of attention in any social situation Personal Fable belief that one is completely unlike anyone else and so cannot be understood Hostile attributional bias Tendency to interpret others behavior as having a hostile or aggressive intentions Moral dilemma situations where two or more peoples rights or needs may be at offs and the morally correct action is not clear cut Preconventional morality lack of internalized standards about right and wrong decision making based primarily on what seems best for oneself Conventional morality uncritical acceptance of societies conventions regarding right and wrong Postconventional thinking in accordance with selfconstructed abstract principles regarding right and wrong Moral transgressions action that causes harm or infringes on the needs of rights of others Conventional transgression action that violates a cultures general expectations regarding socially appropriate behavior Relational aggression action that can adversely affect interpersonal relationships a form of psychological aggression Proactive aggression deliberate aggression against another as a means of obtaining a desired goal Reactive aggression aggressive response to frustration or provocation Induction explanation of why a certain behavior is unacceptable often with a focus on the pain or distress that someone has caused another Long BEFORE school children develop personality Temperament is distinguishable by birth and effects later relationships and interpersonal interactions o A huge determination of temperament is the amount of effortful control a child exhibits Two key environmental factors in uencing personality family dynamics and cultural expectations 0 Family dynamics 0 Important for later development to have children form early and secure attachments 0 Ideal parenting style AUTHORITATIVE high standards but supportive caring and communicative Authoritarian high standards low emotional support a Common in impoverished environments Asian Hispanic 0 Child maltreatment Neglect fail to provide nutritious meals adequate clothing Abuse physical sexual or emotional Indicators chronic hunger lack of warm clothing untreated medical needs injuries and exceptional social knowledge 0 Cultural expectations 0 Socialization kids are taught through experiences how to act Teachers are important socialization agents 0 When school expectations greatly differ from home students may experience culture shock Confused and shy or angry and resistant Big Five Personality Traits OCEAN o Openness o Conscientiousness o Extraversion o Neuroticism As teachers we must keep in mind that students behavior in the classroom willingness to sit still ability to focus isn t entirely under their control and therefore must accommodate all behavior styles Through experience children develop a sense of selfefficacy Selfevaluations based on 0 Comparisons o How other behave toward them 0 If there group membership is successful Identity formation 0 Early adolescence develop the phenomena of imaginary audiences and the personal fable Erikson believed Sense of identity developed by end of adolescence 0 Contemporary belief is that identity formation is a Workin process until adulthood Distinct pattern of behavior that may characterize the search for identity I Identity diffusion no commitments foreclosure a rm commitment to a set of beliefs based on what others have told them l moratorium no strong commitment but is actively exploring identity crisis identity achievement 0 Ethnic identity is strong among many young people Peers 0 Many young people with good peer relationships do better academically 0 Role of Peers 0 O O Socialization quotpeer pressurequot Safety and companionship A forum to learn and practice social skills 0 Types of groups 0 Close friends 0 Cliques moderately stable friendship group of perhaps three to ten members 0 Crowds large looseknit social groups that share certain common interests and behaviors o Subcultures group that resists the ways of the dominant culture and adopts its own norms for behavior Gangs 0 Most gang members turn to gangs for the emotional support they cant nd elsewhere 0 To make a difference in these kid s lives show you really care about them as full people Popularity 0 quotPopular kidsquot high social dominance often not the most liked o Truly popular kids maymay not hold high status positions but are kind and socially skillful and also tend to show concern for others 0 Rejected students actively disliked o Controversial liked by some hated by others 0 Neglected people don t care about them either way As teachers we can help offset feelings of isolation or rejection by being particularly warm and attentive to isolated students Some people believe social cognition to be a distinctly human characteristic quotemotional intelligencequot Relationships Aggression decreases over the course of childhood adolescence but increases during transition from elementary to middle school 0 Physical psychological relational proactive and reactive aggression Cognitive and motivational factors underlying aggression a Poor perspective taking ability I Misinterpretation of social cues Hostile attributional bias I Prevalence of selfserving goals a Ineffective problemsolving strategies I Belief that aggression is appropriate and effective Teachers intervene with victims and aggressor encourage perspective taking 0 Promoting Healthy peer relations 0 Provide numerous opportunities for social interaction and cooperation 0 Help students interpret social situations accurately and productively 0 Teach social skills and provide opportunities for students to practice 0 Promote understanding communication and interaction among diverse groups 0 EXPLAIN bullying and why it cant be tolerated 0 Help change reputation of formerly antisocial students 0 Create a climate of quotRespect for othersquot Developmental trends in morality and prosocial behavior 0 Even young children use internal standards to evaluate behavior Children increasingly distinguish between moral and conventional transgressions Children s capacity to respond emotionally to others harmdistress increases over the school year 0 With increases in guilt and shame and empathy and sympathy With age increasing about moral issues becomes increasing abstract and exible With age children increasingly act in accordance with self constructed moral standards Encouraging Moral and Pro social development in the classroom Encourage perspective taking empathy and prosocial behaviors Give reasons that some behaviors are unacceptable Expose children to numerous models of moral and prosocial behavior Engage students in discussions of moral issues related to academic subject matter Get students actively involved in community service Readings Kamil Article 0 Piaget s most important contribution is NOT the stages of development Autonomy and constructivism are more important 0 For piaget the aim of education was intellectual and moral autonomy o Stimulate autonomy when exchanging point of view with children Rewards punishments reinforce heteronomy 0 Mutual Respect is extremely important When punishment is necessary sanctions by reciprocity El El Temporary or permanent removal from group Calling attention to the direct consequences of an acUon Depriving child of thing they misused Restitution 0 Education today underemphasizes thinking Teaching methods that encourage students to coordinate viewpoints are more effective than traditional methods that aim only getting students to give quotrightquot answers Exchanging viewpoints is indispensible for a child s moral development
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