Give Me Liberty! Chapter 1
Give Me Liberty! Chapter 1
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Date Created: 09/07/15
GIVE ME LIBERTY Chapter 1 A New World Historians no longer use the word quotdiscoveryquot to describe the European exploration conquest and colonization of a hemisphere already home to millions of people The First Americans 0 The Settling of the Americas 0 Residents of the Americas were no more a single group than Europeans or Africans 0 Most were descended from bands of hunters and shers who had crossed the Bering Strait via a land bridge at various times between 15000 and 60000 years ago 0 Throughout the hemisphere maize corn squash and beans formed the basis of agriculture 0 The absence of livestock in the Western Hemisphere however limited farming by preventing the plowing of elds and the application of natural fertilizer Indian Societies of the Americas 0 North and South America were hardly an empty wilderness when Europeans arrived 0 Hemisphere contained cities roads irrigation systems extensive trade networks and large structures such as the pyramidtemples whose beauty stiII inspires wonder o Tenochtitlan pop 250000 the capital of the Aztec empire in what is now Mexico was one of the world39s largest cities 0 Farther south was the Inca kingdom centered in modernday Peru Population of 12 million was linked by a complex system of roads and bridges that extended 2000 miles along the Andes mountain chain Indian civilizations in North America had not developed the scale grandeur or centralized organization of the Aztec and Inca societies in their south No society north of Mexico had achieved literacy Without animals they had no wheeled vehicles Their quotbackwardnessquot became a central justi cation for European conquest Over time Indian societies had perfected techniques of farming hunting and shing developed structures of political power and religious belief and engaged in farreaching networks of trade and communication Mound Builders of the Mississippi River Valley 0 Physical remains still exist from some of the early civilizations in North America 0 Poverty Point presentday Louisiana was a commercial and governmental center whose residents established trade routes throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River vaHeys Archaeologists have found copper from Minnesota and Canada and int mined in Indiana 0 City of Cahokia near presentday St Louis stood as the largest settled community in what is now the US until surpassed in population by New York and Phili around 1800 0 Western Indians o In presentday Arizona the Hopi and Zuni and their ancestors engaged in settled village life for over 3000 years 0 Between 900 and 1200 these peoples built great planned towns with large multiple family dwellings in local canyons constructed dams and canals to gather and distribute water and conducted trade with groups as far away as central Mexico and the Mississippi River Valley 0 Declined probably because of drought Survivors moved to the south and east where they established villages and perfected the techniques of desert farming complete with irrigation systems to provide water for crops of corn beans and cotton O 0000 Pueblo Indians because they lived in small villages or pueblos o On the Paci c coast another densely populated region hundreds of distinct groups resided in independent villages and lived primarily by shing hunting sea mammals and gathering wild plants and nuts On the Great Plains with its herds of buffalo descendants of the prehistoric giant bison many Indians were hunters who tracked animals on foot before the arrival of horses with the Spanish but others lived in agricultural communities 0 Indians of Eastern and North America O O O 0 Hundreds of tribes inhabited towns and villages scattered from the Gulf of Mexico to presentday Canada Lived on corn squash and beans supplemented by shing and hunting deer turkeys and other animals Tribes warred with each other to get goods seize captives or take revenge for the killing of relatives In the 15th century various leagues or confederations emerged in an effort to bring order to local regions Southeast Choctaw Cherokee and Chickasaw New York and Pennsylvania ve Iroquois peoples Mohawk Oneida Cayuga Seneca and Onondaga Formed a Great League of Peace 0 Each year a Great Council with representatives from the ve groupings met to coordinate behavior toward outsiders Most striking feature of Native American society at the time Europeans arrived was its sheer diversity Each group had own political system and set of religious beliefs Indians had no sense of quotAmericaquot all thought of themselves individually The sharp dichotomy between Indians and quotwhitequot persons did not emerge until later in the colonial era 0 Native American Religion O O O The diverse Indian societies of North America did share certain common characteristics Their lives contained religious ceremonies often directly related to farming and hunting Spiritual power suffused the world and sacred spirits could be found in all kinds of living and inanimate things In all Indian societies those who seemed to possess special abilities to invoke supernatural powers shamans medicine men and other religious leaders held positions of respect and authority Indian religion did not pose a sharp distinction between the natural and the supernatural or secular and religious activities Nearly all Europeans arriving in the New World quickly concluded that Indians were in dire need of being converted to a true Christian faith 0 Land and Property O O Equally alien in European eyes were Indian attitudes toward property Numerous land systems existed among Native Americans Generally village leaders assigned plots of land to individual families to use for a season or more and tribes claimed speci c areas for hunting Unclaimed land remained free for anyone to use Families quotownedquot the right to use land but they did not own the land itself LAND WAS A COMMON RESOURCE NOT AN ECONOMIC COMMODITY quotThe Great Spirit gave it to his children to live upon and cultivate as far as necessary for their subsistence and so long as they occupy and cultivate it they have a right to the soilquot Indian leader Black Hawk O There was no market in real estate before the coming of Europeans Indians were never devoted to the accumulation of wealth and material goods Status mattered in Indian societies Tribal leaders tended to come from a small number of families and chiefs lived more splendidly than average members of society Generosity was among the most valued social qualities and gift giving was essential to Indian society Trade meant more than a commercial transaction it was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies of gift exchange 0 Gender Relations O O O O O Differed markedly from Europe Membership in a family de ned women39s lives but they openly engaged in premarital sexual relations and could even choose to divorce their husbands Most although not all Indian societies were matrilineal that is centered on clans or kinship groups in which children became members of the mother39s family not the father39s Tribal leaders were almost always men but women took part in religious ceremonies and tribal meetings Under English law a married man controlled the family39s property and a wife had no independent legal identity 0 European Views of the Indians O O Europeans regarded Indians as either quotnoble savagesquot gentle friendly and superior in some ways or as uncivilized and brutal savages Indian diet was more nutritious Overtime negative images overshadowed positive ones Early European descriptions of North American Indians as barbaric centered on three areas religion land use and gender relations While the Spanish claimed title to land in America by right of conquest and papal authority the English French and Dutch came to rely on the idea that Indians had not actually quotusedquot the land and thus had no claim to it In the Indians gender division of labor and matrilineal family structures Europeans saw weak men and mistreated women Hunting and shing not quotrealquot work Women working the elds quotnot much better than slavesquot Throughout North America Europeans promoted the ideas that women should con ne themselves to household work and that men ought to exercise greater authority within their families Europeans insisted that by subduing the Indians they were actually bringing them freedom the freedom of true religion private property and the liberation of both men and women from uncivilized and unchristian gender roles Indian Freedom Eur0pean Freedom 0 Indian Freedom O O 0 Many Europeans saw Indians as embodying freedom but most colonizers quickly concluded that the notion of quotfreedomquot was alien to Indian societies it wasn t in their dictionary Europeans considered Indians semibarbaric because they did not seem to live under established governments or xed laws and had no respect for authority In a sense they had too much freedom not a compliment While the buying and selling of slaves was unknown smallscale slavery existed in some Indian societies Far more important than individual autonomy were kinship ties the ability to follow one s spiritual values and the wellbeing and security of one s community 0 Christian Liberty 0 Just before colonization Europeans held numerous ideas of freedom some were as old as the citystates of ancient Greece others arose during the political struggles of the early modern era Freedom was not a single idea but a collection of distinct rights and privileges many enjoyed by only a small portion of the population Freedom meant abandoning the life of sin to embrace the teachings of Christ 0 In this de nition servitude and freedom were mutually reinforcing not contradictory states since those who accepted the teachings of Christ simultaneously became quotfree from sinquot and quotservants to Godquot 0 Every nation in Europe had an established church that decreed what forms of religious worship and belief were acceptable Religious uniformity was thought to be essential to public order 0 The religious wars in Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries centered on which religion would predominate in a kingdom or region not the right of individuals to choose which church in which to worship 0 Freedom and Authority o The equating of liberty with obedience to a higher authority suggested that freedom meant not anarchy but obedience to law 0 Early modern European societies were extremely hierarchical with marked gradations of social status ranging from the king and hereditary aristocracy down to the urban and rural poor 0 The king came to rule by the authority of God 0 Less than 5 of the population monopolized English economic wealth and political power 0 quotcoverturequot when a woman married she surrendered her legal identity which became quotcoveredquot by that of her husband 0 Everywhere in Europe family life depended on male dominance and female submission 0 Liberty and Liberties o In this hierarchical society liberty came from knowing one s social place and ful lling the duties appropriate to one s rank 0 The law required strict obedience of employees and breaches of labor contracts carried criminal penalties 0 European ideas of freedom were still similar to the Middle Ages when quotlibertiesquot meant formal speci c privileges such as selfgovernment exemption from taxation or the right to practice a particular trade granted to individuals or groups by contract royal decree or purchase 0 In England members of the House of Commons enjoyed freedom of speech during parliamentary sessions but the right did not extend to ordinary citizens 0 Personal independence was reserved for a small part of the population and this was one reason why authorities found quotmasterless menquot those without regular jobs or otherwise outside the control of their social superiors so threatening The Expansion of Europe 0 Chinese and Portuguese Navigation 0 At the beginning of the 15th century one might have predicted that China would establish the world39s rst global empire 0 China was already the world39s most important trading economy with trade routes dotting the Indian Ocean however the government stopped funding maritime expeditions o The development of the caravel the compass and the quadrant made it possible for the Portuguese to sail down the coast of Africa and return to Portugal 0 Portugal was looking for gold and found it in the African kingdom of Mali on the southern edge of the Sahara O O 0 Like trade with Asia their trade was controlled by Muslim merchants Portugal and West Africa 0 Little by little Portuguese ships moved farther down the coast Established forti ed trading posts on the western coast of Africa Also began to colonize Madeira the Azores and the Canary and Cape Verde I ands Established sugar plantations D slaves Freedom and Slavery in Africa o Slavery in Africa long predated the coming of Europeans Traditionally slaves tended to be criminals debtors and captives in war 0 It was not uncommon for African slaves to acquire freedom slavery was one of several forms of labor not the basis of the economy as it would become in large parts of the New World 0 The coming of the Portuguese sped up the slave process D transatlantic slave trade 0 Portuguese mariners pushed their explorations ever southward along the western coast of Africa 0 Portugal established a vast trading empire with bases in India southern China and Indone a The Voyages of Columbus o Knew the earth was round but drastically underestimated its size D had trouble gaining backers for his expedition Thought he would make it to Asia by sailing west Had no idea about the Americas 0 Along with developing trade with the east he hoped to convert Asians to Christianity and enlist them in a crusade to redeem Jerusalem from Muslim control 0 Eventually sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain 1492 completed the Reconquista the quotreconquestquot of Spain from the Moors African Muslims who had occupied part of the Iberian Peninsula for centuries m 0 Columbus in the New World o Arrived in the Bahamas and went on to explore Hispaniola 0 European colonization of the New World began the following year 0 Amerigo Vespucci declares they found an entirely new continent in 1502 Columbus was already dead 0 Exploration and Conquest o Johannes Gutenberg with the movable type had made possible the rapid spread of information in Europe 0 The Spanish took the lead in exploration and conquest inspired by a search for wealth national glory and the desire to spread Catholicism The Demographic Disaster o The transatlantic flow of goods and people sometimes called the Columbian Exchange altered millions of years of evolution Plants animals and cultures that had evolved independently on separate continents were now thrown together Products New World D Europe corn tomatoes potatoes peanuts tobacco and cotton Products Europe D New World wheat rice sugarcane horses cattle pigs and sheep Europeans also had GERMS o The Indian populations suffered a catastrophic decline because of contact with Europeans and their wars enslavement and especially diseases like smallpox in uenza and measles Overall the death of perhaps 80 million people represents the greatest loss of life in human history The Spanish Empire By the middle of the 16th century Spain had established an immense empire that reached from Europe to the Americas and Asia Atlantic and Paci c highways for the exchange of goods and movement of people Governing Spanish America 0 System of colonial government rivaled that of ancient Rome 0 The Spanish crown replaced the conquistadores with a more stable system of government headed by lawyers and bureaucrats o The Catholic church played a signi cant role in the administration of Spanish colonies frequently exerting its authority on matters of faith morals and treatment of the Indians Colonists in Spanish America 0 Despite the decline in the native population Spanish America remained populous enough that with the exception of the West Indies and a few cities largescale importations of African slaves were unnecessary o In Spanish America unlike other New World empires lndians performed most of the labor and although the Spanish introduced livestock wheat and sugar the main agricultural crops were the same ones grown before colonization corn beans and squash o The opportunity for social advancement drew numerous colonists from Spain Colonists and Indians 0 Like the later French empire and unlike the English Spanish authorities granted lndians certain rights within colonial society and looked forward to their eventual assimilation o lntermixing of colonial and Indian peoples soon began o Mestizos persons of mixed origin justi cations for Conquest 0 They expected these societies to abandon their own beliefs and traditions and embrace those of the newcomers o The establishment of Spain39s empire in America took place in the wake of Spain39s own territorial uni cation Spreading the Faith o The pope justi ed this pronouncement by requiring Spain and Portugal to spread Catholicism among the native inhabitants of the Americas 0 1517 Martin Luther a German priest posted his NinetyFive Theses which accused the church of worldliness and corruption Attempting to cleanse the church Led to the rise of new Protestant churches independent of Rome and plunged Europe into more than a century of religious and political strife o Convinced of the superiority of Catholicism to all other religions Spain insisted that the primary goal of colonization was to save the Indians from heathenism and prevent them from falling under the sway of Protestantism Wanted to transform lndians into obedient Christian subjects of the crown Piety and Pro t 0 To the Spanish colonizers the large native populations of the Americas were not only souls to be saved but also a labor force to be organized to extract gold and silver that would enrich the mother country 0 Instructing the Indians in Christianity and enslaving the natives was justi ed as a means of liberating them from their own backwardness it was freedom 0 Religious orders established missions throughout the empire and over time millions of Indians were converted to Catholicism O 0 Spanish rule witnessed a disastrous fall in Indian population not only because of epidemics but also because of the brutal conditions of labor to which Indians were subjected The conquistadores saw no contradiction between serving God and enriching themselves Las Casa39s Complaint O 1537 Pope Paul III who hoped to see Indians become devout subjects of Catholic monarchs outlawed their enslavement his decree declared Indians to be quottruly menquot who must not be quottreated as dumb beastsquot Bartolom de Las Casas published an account of the decimation of the Indian population preaching against the injustices of Spanish rule Denounced Spain for causing the death of millions of innocent people Detailed the quotstrange crueltiesquot carried out by quotthe Christiansquot including the burning alive of men women and children and the imposition of forced labor quotthe entire human race is onequot Reforming the Empire O O 0 Like other Spaniards Las Casas believed that the main justi cation for empire was converting the Indians to Christianity Spain abolished encomienda system and in its place stood the repartimiento system Residents of Indian villages remained legally free and entitled to wages but were still required to perform a xed amount of labor each year A long struggle ensued among settlers missionaries and colonial authorities for control of Indian labor Exploring North America O 0 While the Spanish empire centered on Mexico Peru and the West Indies the hope of nding a new kingdom of gold soon led Spanish explorers into territory that now forms part of the US Francisco vasquez de Coronado explored much of the interior of the continent reaching as far north as the Great Plains and became the rst European to encounter the immense herds of buffalo that roamed the West These explorations really mobile communities with hundreds of adventurers priests potential settlers slaves and livestock spread disease and devastation among Indian communities Spanish Florida O O O O 0 These explorations established Spain39s claim to a large part of what is now the American South and Southwest First region to be colonized within presentday US Florida Spanish expeditions soon established forts from presentday Miami into South Carolina and Spanish religious missionaries set up outposts in Florida and on the Sea Islands hoping to convert the local Indians to Christianity The Indians explained their revolt by noting that the missionaries had sought to eliminate quotour dances banquets feasts celebrations and warsquot In general Florida failed to attract settlers remaining an isolated military settlement in effect a forti ed outpost of Cuba Spain in the Southwest O O 0 Spain took even longer to begin the colonization of the American Southwest Ohate39s message was plain any Indians who resisted Spanish authority would be crushed Was ordered home and punished for his behavior 1610 Spain established the capital of New Mexico at Santa Fe the rst permanent European settlement in the Southwest The Pueblo Revolt 0 Most of New Mexico39s population were mestizos Relations between the Pueblo Indians and colonial authorities had deteriorated throughout the 17th century as governors settlers and missionaries sought to exploit the labor of an Indian population But as the Inquisition the persecution of nonCatholics became more and more intense in Spain so did the friars39 efforts to stamp out traditional religious ceremonies in New Mexico 1680 the Indians united against the colonizers Within a few weeks a century of colonization in the area had been destroyed The Pueblo Indians had triumphantly reestablished the freedom lost through Spanish conquest Most complete victory for Native Americans over Europeans and the only wholesale expulsion of settlers in the history of North America Revolt arose from the quotmany oppressionsquot the Indians had suffered Cooperation among the Pueblo peoples however soon evaporated 1692 the Spanish launched an invasion that reconquered New Mexico In the 18th century colonial authorities adopted a more tolerant attitude toward traditional religious practices and made fewer demands on Indian labor The French and Dutch Empires If the Black Legend inspired a sense of superiority among Spain39s European rivals the precious metals that poured from the New World into the Spanish treasury aroused the desire to try to match Spain39s success The establishment of Spain39s American empire transformed the balance of power in the world economy During the 17th century the French Dutch and English established colonies in North America English colonies were more strict and harbored less freedom than the French and Dutch settlements French Colonization O O O O O O O The rst of Spain39s major European rivals to embark on New World explorations was France Initially aimed to nd gold and to locate a Northwest Passage Disappointed early on French efforts to establish settlements in Newfoundland and Nova Scotia failed beset by native resistance and inadequate planning and nancing 17th century permanent settlements in North America During the entire colonial period only about 250 complete families emigrated to French Canada Unfavorable reports about America circulated widely in France New France and the Indians O The viability of New France with its small white population and emphasis on the fur trade rather than agricultural settlement depended on friendly relations with the local Indians Lacking the voracious appetite for land of the English colonies and relying on Indians to supply furs to trading posts the French worked out a complex series of military commercial and diplomatic connections the most enduring alliances between Indians and settlers in colonial North America Did not appropriate substantial amounts of Indian land nor conquered native inhabitants militarily and set them to forced labor Religious toleration for all Christians Denied that Native Americans were intellectually or culturally inferior to Europeans O 0 Like other colonists throughout North America however the French brought striking changes in Indian life Spread of disease Participation in fur trade drew natives into the burgeoning Atlantic economy Indians were swept into the rivalries among European empires M tis children of marriages between Indian women and French traders and of cials Encouraged Indians to adopt the European division of labor between men and women and to speak French The Dutch Empire O O O O O 1609 Henry Hudson searching for a Northwest Passage but instead stumbled upon the New York Harbor Hudson and his crew became the rst Europeans to sail up the river that now bears his name Found abundant furbearing animals and Native Americans more than willing to trade furs for European goods In the early 17th century the Netherlands dominated international commerce and Amsterdam was Europe39s foremost shipping and banking center Golden age or rapidly accumulating wealth and stunning achievements in painting philosophy and the sciences Dutch Freedom O In the early 17th century they enjoyed two freedoms not recognized elsewhere in Europe freedom of the press and of private religious practice The nation attracted about half a million migrants from elsewhere in Europe These newcomers helped to populate the Dutch overseas empire Freedom in New Netherland O O 0 Despite the Dutch reputation for cherishing freedom New Netherland was hardly governed democratically Main population center was a forti ed military outpost Although the governor called on prominent citizens for advice from time to time neither an elected assembly nor a town council the basic unit of government at home was established Colonists enjoyed more liberty especially religious Settlers employed slaves on family farms or for household or craft labor not on large plantations as in the West Indies Women in the Dutch settlement enjoyed far more independence than in other colonies Married women retained their separate legal identity Could go to court borrow money and own property The Dutch and Religious Toleration O 0 As early as the 1630s at least 18 different languages were said to be spoken in New Amsterdam whose residents included not only Dutch settlers but also Africans Belgians English French Germans Irish and Scandinavians Dutch long prided themselves on being tolerant of religious differences but only in private Settling New Netherland O O O In an attempt to attract settlers to North America the Dutch West India Company promised colonists not only the right to practice their religion freely in private but also cheap livestock and free land after six years of labor The company adopted a plan of quotFreedoms and Exemptionsquot offering large estates to patroons shareholders who agreed to transport tenants for agricultural labor During the 17th century the Netherlands sent 1 million people overseas to populate and govern their far ung colonies 0 However New Netherland remained a tiny backwater in the Dutch empire 0 New Netherland and the Indians o The Dutch came to North America to trade not to conquer Less interested in settling the land than in exacting pro ts from it Determined to treat the native inhabitants more humanely than the Spanish Justi ed their imperial ambitions in part as an effort to liberate the New World from the tyranny of Spain and the Catholic Church 0 Despite their differences the Spanish French and Dutch empires shared certain features All brought Christianity new forms of technology and learning new legal systems and family relations and new forms of economic enterprise and wealth creation Also savage warfare and widespread disease 0 From the outset dreams of freedom for Indians for settlers for the entire world through the spread of Christianity inspired and justi ed colonization Review Questions 1 Describe why the quotdiscoveryquot of America was one of the quotmost important events recorded in the history of mankindquot according to Adam Smith First of all they use quotation marks around quotdiscoveryquot because America was already discovered when Christopher Columbus arrived just no one had known about it It was one of the most important events in history because it set in motion some of the most pivotal developments in human history Changes that occurred upon discovery and colonization are still affecting us today With discovery came new crops diseases immigrants livestock trading skills architecture etc The list could go on Just think about everything that America is todaythat could not have been made possible without the quotdiscoveryquot of America 2 Describe the different global economies that Europeans participated in or created during the European age of expansion Indians were not devoted to the accumulation of wealth and material goods like the Europeans were To the Europeans land meant money but to the Indians it was just a resource 3 One of the most striking features of Indian societies at the time of the encounter with Europeans was their diversity Support this statement with several examples According to the Europeans Indians were either quotnoble savagesquot gentle friendly and superior in some ways to Europeans or they were uncivilized and brutal savages The Indians may have seemed noble because they had a better more nutritious diet But they were also seen as barbaric due to their religion land use and gender relations Europeans felt Indians lacked genuine religion They didn39t use their land the way the Europeans wanted them to They were also barbaric because they had matrilineal family structures hunting and shing was considered leisure European women who worked the eld were quotnot much better than slavesquot and had open sexuality 4 Compare and contrast European values and ways of life with those of the Indians Consider addressing religion views about ownership of land gender relations and notions of freedom Indian views are listed above European values were Christianity using land for pro t and con ning women to housework while men exercise greater authority within their families 5 What were the main factors fueling the European age of expansion European expansion of America began as an offshoot of the quest for a sea route to India China and the islands of the East Indies the source of the silk tea spices porcelain and other luxury goods on which international trade in the early modern era had centered Also the desire to eliminate Islamic middlemen and win control of the lucrative trade for Christian Western Europe combined to inspire the quest for a direct route to Asia Compare the different economic and political systems of Spain Portugal the Netherlands and France in the age of expansion The political system of Spain was harsh However Portugal the Netherlands and France was a little more laid back because they wanted to win over the Indians and colonize peacefully Compare the political economic and religious motivations behind the French and Dutch empires with those of New Spain The French and Dutch empires knew that if they went in softly kindly and empathetic then they could win over the Indians unlike the Spanish Describe how the idea of the quotBlack Legendquot affected subsequent policies and practices of Spain as well as those of the Netherlands and France The quotBlack Legendquot was the image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer This would provide a potent justi cation for other European powers to challenge Spain39s predominance in the New World It would affect the Netherlands and France because they would want to be able to control the Indians in a more humane respectable way They could look at what Spain had done and make sure they colonize differently How would European settlers explain their superiority to Native Americans and justify both the conquest of Native lands and terminating their freedom The European settlers brought organization of laws languages religion family life work etc Although it was a tough process the European settlers balanced everything out to make sure everyone bene ted from their actions They saw terminating the Indian39s freedom as a good thing for too much freedom wouldn39t get them anywhere Key Terms gt gt quotthree sistersquot corn beans and squash p 3 the basis of agriculture in the western hemisphere Tenochtitlan p 4 population 250000 the capital of the Aztec Empire in what is now Mexico was one of the world39s largest cities Comparable to that of European capitals made the city seem quotlike an enchanted visionquot Mound builders p 4 Native Americans who constructed a large community centered on a series of giant semicircular mounds on a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River in present day Louisiana before Egyptians built the pyramids Cahokia p 6 near presentday St Louis a forti ed community with between 10000 and 30000 inhabitants in the year 1200 Flourished in the Mississippi River valley after the mound builders traded across half the continent Iroquois League p 7 A league in presentday New York and Pennsylvania that intended to bring order to local regions Five groups the Mohawk Oneida Cayuga Seneca and Onondaga They formed a Great League of Peace bringing a period of stability to the area Animism p 8 the idea that spiritual power suffused the world and sacred spirits could be found in all kinds of living and inanimate things animals plants trees water and wind Matrilineal societies p 10 societies in which were centered on clans or kinship groups in which children became members of the mother39s family not the father39s quotChristian Libertyquot p 13 Freedom meant abandoning the life of sin to embrace the teachings of Christ quotWhere the spirit of the Lord is there is libertyquot Had no connection to later ideas of religious toleration Caravel p 16 a ship capable of longdistance travel Helped make it possible to sail down the coast of Africa and return to Portugal Reconquista p 19 the quotreconquestquot of Spain from the Moors African Muslims who had occupied part of the Iberian Peninsula for centuries VV Conquistadores p 21 Spanish explorers inspired by a search for wealth national glory and the desire to spread Catholicism who were often accompanied by religious missionaries and carrying ags emblazoned with the sign of the cross Columbian exchange p 21 The transatlantic ow of goods and people which altered millions years of evolution Mestizos p 24 persons of mixed origin By 1600 mestizos made up a large part of the urban population of Spanish America NinetyFive Theses p 25 Martin Luther39s 1517 document that accused the church of worldliness and corruption Luther wanted to cleanse the church of abuses such as the sale of indulgences of cial dispensations forgiving sins Bartolom de Las Casas p 27 Dominican priest who published an account of the decimation of the Indian population called quotA Very Brief Account of the Destruction of the Indiesquot Denounced Spain for causing the death of millions of innocent people Repartimiento system p 28 A system put in place by the Spanish government whereby residents of Indian villages remained legally free and entitled to wages but were still required to perform a xed amount of labor each year Black Legend p 28 The image of Spain as a uniquely brutal and exploitative colonizer Pueblo Revolt p 31 The Franciscan friars39 attempts to stamp out traditional religious ceremonies in New Mexico By burning Indian idols masks and other sacred objects the missionaries alienated far more Indians than they converted M tis p 38 children of marriages between Indian women and French traders and of cials who became guides traders and interpreters in New France Engag s or indentured servants p 35 Those who returned home from New France after their contracts expired Flushing Remonstrance p 41 One of the several limits on religious tradition a 1657 petition by a group of English settlers protesting the governor s order barring Quakers from living in the town of Flushing on Long Island Had little impact at the time Patroons p 41 shareholders who agreed to transport tenants for agricultural labor Required to purchase title to the land from Indians but otherwise his quotfreedomsquot were like those of a medieval lord
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