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MGT 300 – Week 2 notes : Chapter 2

by: Siduri Notetaker

MGT 300 – Week 2 notes : Chapter 2 MGT 300

Marketplace > Ball State University > Business, management > MGT 300 > MGT 300 Week 2 notes Chapter 2
Siduri Notetaker
GPA 2.6
Managing Behavior in Organizations

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Here is week 2 of MGT 300 notes. Hope this helps!!
Managing Behavior in Organizations
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Siduri Notetaker on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MGT 300 at Ball State University taught by Terheide in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see Managing Behavior in Organizations in Business, management at Ball State University.


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Date Created: 09/07/15
MGT 300 Week 2 notes Chapter 2 The Evolution of Management Thought Adam Smith 18th century economist D Observed that firms manufactured pins in one of two different ways Craftstyle each worker did all steps Production each worker specialized in one step Smith found that the performance of the factories in which workers specialized in only one or a few tasks was much greater than the performance of the factory in which each worker performed all pinmaking tasks D process by which a diVision of labor occurs as different workers specialize in different tasks over time Workers who specialized became much more skilled at their specific tasks Increasing job specialization increases efficiency and leads to higher organizational performance D The systematic study of the relationships between people and tasks for the purpose of redesigning the work process to increase efficiency Very important during the scientific management time 1 Study the way workers perform their tasks gather all the informal job knowledge that workers possess and experiment with ways of improving how tasks are performed 0 Timeandmotion study 2 Codify the new methods of performing tasks into written rules and standard operating procedures 3 Carefully select workers who possess skills and abilities that match the needs of the task and train them to perform the task according to the established rules and procedures 4 Establish a fair or acceptable level of performance for a task and then develop a pay system that provides a reward for performance above the acceptable level Problems with Scienti c Management 1 Managers frequently implemented only the side of Taylor s plan B Workers did not share in the increased output 2 Specialized jobs became very boring and dull D Workers ended up distrusting the Scientific Management method 3 Workers could purposely underperform 4 Management responded with increased use of machines and conveyors belts D The study of how to create an organizational structure and control system that leads to high efficiency and effectiveness system of task and authority relationships that control how employees use resources to achieve the organization s goals D Developed the principles of bureaucracy as a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness a formal system of organization and administration designed to ensure efficiency and effectiveness Weber s Principles of Bureaucracy 1 A manager s formal authority derives from the position he holds in the organization l People should occupy positions because of their performance not because of their social standing or personal contacts 03 The extent of each position s formal authority and task responsibilities and it s relationship to other positions should be clearly specified 1 Authority can be exercised effectively when positions are arranged hierarchically so employees know whom to report to and who reports to them U Managers must create a welldefined system of rules standard operating procedures and norms so they can effectively control behavior O formal written instructions that specify actions to be taken under different circumstances to achieve specific goals 0 specific sets of written instructions about how to perform a certain aspect of a task 0 unwritten informal codes of conduct that prescribe how people should act in particular situations 0 The study of how managers should personally behave to motivate employees and encourage them to perform at high levels and be committed to the achievement of organizational goals O Concerned that Taylor ignored the human side of the organization 39 Suggested workers help in analyzing their jobs I If workers have relevant knowledge of the task then they should control the task The Hawthorne Studies and Human Relations Worker productivity was measured at various levels of light illumination Theorv X and Theorv Y Douglas McGregor proposed two different sets of assumptions about workers Theory X D A set of negative assumptions about workers that leads to the conclusion that a manager s task is to supervise workers closely and control their behavior Theory Y D A set of positive assumptions about workers that leads to the conclusion that a manager s task is to create a work setting that encourages commitment to organizational goals and provides opportunities for workers to be imaginative and to exercise initiative and selfdirection D Contemporary approach to management that focuses on the use of rigorous quantitative techniques to help managers make maximum use of organizational resources to produce goods and services D utilizes mathematical techniques like linear programming modeling simulation and chaos theory B provides managers a set of techniques they can use to analyze any aspect of an organization s production system to increase efficiency D focuses on analyzing an organization s input conversion and output activities to increase product quality 4 D help managers design systems that provide information that is vital for effective decision making D The set of forces and conditions that operate beyond an organization s boundaries but affect a manager s ability to acquire and utilize resources D A system that takes resources for its external environment and transforms them into goods and services that are then sent back to that environment Where they are bought by customers D A selfcontained system that is not affected by changes in its external environment D Likely to experience entropy and lose its ability to control itself D the performance gains that result from the combined actions of individuals and departments D Possible only in an organized system D The idea that the organizational structures and control systems manager choose are contingent on characteristics of the external environment in Which the organization operates D There is no one best way to organize TVDe of Structure D An organizational structure in Which authority is centralized tasks and rules are clearly specified and employees are closely supervised D An organizational structure in Which authority is decentralized to middle and first line managers and tasks and roles are left ambiguous to encourage employees to cooperate and respond quickly to the unexpected


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