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Standard and Higher Level IB Biology Topic 6 and 11: Human Health and Physiology

by: James

Standard and Higher Level IB Biology Topic 6 and 11: Human Health and Physiology

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Standard Level- Topic 6: Human Health and Physiology 6.1 Digestion 6.2 Transport System 6.3 Defense Against Infectious Disease 6.4 Gas Exchange 6.5 Nerves, Hormones and Homeostasis 6.6 Repro...
IB, Bio, Higher level, Standard Level, Biology
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Date Created: 05/30/14
Topic 6l Digestion lluriens food viiamins and minerals and wafer ihai organisms need io funciion and carrg our all meiabolic aciiviiies plus io survive and mainiain healih Food coniains all organic molecules lcarbs lipids proiein nucleic acid r l Caflsglxg allkl g Food source of energg Vifamins and minerals mainiains bodg and prevenis sickness Wafer moisiure solveni medium of iransporiaiion Fiberdraino Why do we digesi food l Break down macromolecules inio iheir monomersso ihai ihe nuirienis can be diffused ihrough ihe cell 2 Absorpiion iransfers ihe monomers from ihe small iniesiine for he blood siream 3 Change macromolecules from an insoluble for io soluble monomers lhgdrophilic ionic or polar 4 Assimilaiion ihe process of changing absorbed monomers and making ihem pari of ihe cell lmonomers are rearranged io ihe consumer cell composiiion Organs perform funciions of meiabolic reaciions Glands secreies hormones and enzgmes Oral caviig pl l 70 neuiral salivarg gland lsalivarg amglase gt chemical change breaks down siarchpolgsaccharides info maliosedisaccharides mechanical digesiion gt phgsical change from large io small molecules Digesied food is mixed wiih ihe saliva forming ihe bolus Oesophagus ihrough perisialsis lsmooih muscle ihe bolus is iransporied io ihe gasiric iCl ifl i epiglo isgt conirols swallowing prevenis ihe bolus from eniering ihe iracheae 65i lVUr7r Siomach lmuscular organ coniraciions pl l l52 acidic mechanical and chemical digesiion gasiric gland lpepsinogenhgdrochloric acid gasirin hormone pancreas liver boih glands and organs liver lgall bladder gt bile gt sali from recgcled haemoglobin Sm p whim Y G WW9 M WA pancreas gt gnzgmes lipase proiease l lormones insulin and glucagon Pmzm5 MCM dWlgtnlt lt aqww M A mnrrus Small iniesiine duodenumJ eJ unum ileum l5m PQWDPS dlfvll h glgcwai QM n J Cemul J coon small iniesiine gland ihai secreies coniains folds l9A where ihere are villi which are responsible for absorpiion of ihe monomers duodenum gt hgdrolgze poplgpepiide chain disaccharide lipid small dropleis place where all enzgmes secreied bg ihe liver and pancreas mix Mus z microvilligt increase ihe surface areas for absorption 5rl l u miiochondria gt produce ATP for cellular respiraiion laciive iransporiaiion V l 3 mucous producing cell io keep small iniesiine moisi allowing chime io pass ihrough 4 Q gta39lamp v ltquotl390l Large iniesiinecolon undigesied foods lfibers quot LsrW organic wasfe pigmenfe M reab9orpion of wafer Reofum anus WW Topic 62 Transport System Wk l leari muscular organ responsible for blood pumping Mn OK 4 2 chambers 2 upper latria receiving Jjegllrd 2 lower lveniricles pumping WW left veniricle wall is thicker a quotwv gepium divides into left and right I UL S o mgogenic gt pumps without the help oi the brain Qino atrial node lneiwork oi nerves in the right atrium lpacemaker regiongt electrical signals for the righileft atria to contract Wquot 50 atrial ventricular node receives the electrical signal Ol sec later and will send a signal to the leftright veniricles to contract Lubdub closing oi the valves l ljll pI339l 57 quot ll f N first sound gtatrial ventricular vales second sound gt semi lunar valve atria contractgt atrial ventricular valves open semi lunar valves close veniricles contractgt semi lunar valves open atrial ventricular valve close peri cardium gt tough connective tissue that covers and protects the heart coronarg arteries gt own blood supplg Valve structure the directs the blood flow in one wag onlg Semi lunar between right ventricle and pulmonarg arierg left ventricle and aorta Atrial veniricular between right atrium and right veniricle left atrium and left ventricle C l l f L S l l0 Blood fluid medium oi iransporiaiion 55 D 0 p 5 Wm M Cby l 2 H0 l 55 lg i Water Z 2 Mm 6 bcoil cel 2llutrienis 3 Mo lfl 3Aniimicrobialproiein ht iPixlJ 4 Oxggen and carbon dioxide W V TM 5 Enzgmes 6 l lormones 7 Waste 8 Vitamins 9 l leat Blood vesselsgt arteries veins Capillaries tubes that carrg exchange the blood lRBC Cellular component in the dei ense immune sgsiem llUBO Artery Vein Capillary Exchanges Transports Trans ms blood blood out of p between Direction blood to the the heart A vessels both hean away towards and from heard Oxygenated Deoxygenate blood d blood Oxygenated Type of exception exception and blood pulmonary pulmonary deoxygenate and umbilical and umbilical d arteries arteries Collagen Collagen outer inner outer inner Cequot wal39 elastin most elastin most Epithilial composition inner inner epithelial epithelial Size f Thick Thin Very thin lumen Valve No Yes No Topic 63 Defense Against Infectious Disease Droieciion againsi foreign obJ eci such as viruses dusi pollen bacieria parasiies Eic Line of defenses Firsi defense lnonspecific mechanism phgsical barrier gt prevenis enirg Ex skin mucous hair Second defense lnonspecific mechanism whiie blood cellgt desirog Ex phagocgie inflammaiion lfrom iniracellular fluid fever lmmune sgsiem speci c mechanism whiie blood cellgt produce aniibodies Ex lgmphocgie Daihogen a disease causing microorganism bacieria virus or prion Aniigen a ioxin or oiher foreign subsiance ihai induces an immune response in ihe bodg Aniibodg blood proiein produced io counier aci a specific aniigen produced bg ihe Bcell Leukocgies lwhiie blood cells lgmphocgies gt Bcell T helpercell Killer cells lcgioioxic cellgt kill viruses and fighis cancer phagocgie gt macrophage laniigen represenier neuirophil gt bacieria fungi eosinophil gt parasiies basophil gt allergies l9acieria Food poisoning salmonella siinkg arm piis No nucleus Reproduce ihrough spliiiing in half Viruses DNA no nucleus llusi be aiiached io anoiher cell lhosi io reproduce Can noi be killed bg aniibioiics Cold flu MRSA l ll AlDs eic Fungi llo proper nucleus Reproduce ihrough spores Aihleies fooi mould respiraiorg problems l3roiozoa l leieroirophic and can be sgmbioiic or parasiiic Malaria Forms of iransmissions Dropleis ex sneezing coughing Blood ex needles biies hepaiiiis B Coniaminaied foodwafer ex salmonella Direci coniaci ex herpes varicella Bodilg fluids ex sirep ihroai l ll Animal veciors ex rabies malaria Mucous siickggt iraps paihogen pl lgt levels are alkaline lnoi favorable for paihogens lgsozgmegt break down paihogen naiural organismgt compe ve exclusion bg nonharmful microbes Skin con nuosgt hard io nd openings mang lagersrough drg pl l gt alkaline lgsozgmegt break down paihogens naiural organismgt compe ve exclusion bg nonharmful microbes How are an bodies produced macrophage phagocgie engulf paihogen lo digesi ii once engulfed ihe macrophage is called an gen represenier ihe an gen represenier ihen s mulaies a speci c Thelper llgmphocgie cell Thelper cell s mulaies a speci c Bcell bg giving ii ihe an gen ihe Bcell replicaies iiseli Thousands of mes Also di eren aie iiseli inio plasmae ecior cell and memorg cell Be ecior cells produce an bodies io desirog ihe an gen Bmemorg cells help in case anoiher invasion oi same an gen SV 5 w39z W T V TNT quot7l4l l39cPrZjuka Ag represen ng cell nds T helper cell om ihe ihgmus Thai T helper cell is Then ac vaied To help The ag represen ng cell s mulaie ihe b cell bg binding io The class ll lVll lC proiein Once bonded The T helper cell secreies a chemical called cgiokines Topic 64 Gas Exchange Veniilaiion sgsiemrespiraiorg sgsiem lungs lalveoli irachea fD bronchi L R iH T mi diaphragm T Wquot lblw ribs ll2 cosial muscles iniernal Y P5 exiernal ave0 393 uyrvu sift orni ol 5 A pmg lV breaih ihe phgsical process of inhalaiion and exhalaiion Gas exchange ihe swiich of carbon dioxide for oxggen in ihe alveoli and blood vessels or beiween cells and blood vessels Cell respiraiion a meiabolic process in which oxggen is used io break apari bonds in nuirienis io gei ATP Releases 002 v ql bW7 l 1LR l39ix uv 5LlV1quot d Cal lu mr C m lo 5 x k L B6 E 7 by DYHGAIIuf Q5 Y 0 r 31lr9 egtm W iJmlwxJgt39 M C6 JLIew ver y J lkwJ 0 VWJS 44 m k VVV5 A4 ln 1 quot I I 391 4 P 45 aMaduNum o l n r A rowel l ml 39 W n M 7Wmquot 62 ml 0 W L mmw quot l b VIl 0 rquot WVquot QMWMI and NM Q I of to U 0mT W M W 9 kAk 0n WM 3 Eu lniomlo2ltw3crz bMgt Lonrcur ka GhbkJ ilelwv MA Jcla lj hbh J er lrwilLJ7ov Jam 3 LNLM WM 478 Fr ltNwH4ngt rckes Iurx C 07 PA 9 elJ39 JQLFUAK N v0 AquotL WL r 9 l06 399L gt k39C39Vln0Oquot f y 9 JV c a Way Pa39eltJiIL in zl J0quot 5H3 Pa cltJlvi in lquotQv7quotw 3 SWW H 15 cgni rm4Wu l 11215 fk cgnvfurvvx9hl gletuir Wf quot F M loom 25 a 6 A BQAFP llLV Pulw LL I L C 24 RoLL G hf pg E 039LcJ M iif ll JW 6 0L 39 V Q J wr 34 5 r vs quotquot399 J3liny ii L 41 a r Q cJl39 5quot bobs 5 J4 alxcoll wlurc bland L4wi egtyJ quotquot l A WW quot3 lr rf 11 eJU J4 lncmfa LrwjL W WW9 W p Slf Kxl39quotl llLnl gefquot 5 L7 c rf nl 1rlt lllhai is ihe purpose of veniilaiion A human is a muliicellular organism lsimple diffusion is noi sufficieni io mainiain ihe level of carbon dioxide llainiains homeosiasis Coniinues ihe supplg of oxggen ihorough inhalaiion veniilaiion coniinues ihe removal of CO2 ihrough ihe process of exhalaiion Alveoli adapiaiions l Single cell epiihelium lager gt shorier disiance for diffusion which increases ihe gas exchange raie 2 Numerous alveoli gt increase ihe surface area which increases ihe gas exchange raie 3 Surrounded bg capillarg neiwork gt mainiains conceniraiion gradieni lconiinuous supplg of oxggenl as well as increasing gas exchange raie 4 Cells inside ihe alveoli gt cell secreie fluid which prevenis ihe alueoli from siicking iogeiher 5 Spherical shape gt maximizes surface area Topic 65 Nerves Hormones and Homeostasis Cenral nervous sgsem brain spinal cord peripheral nervous sgsem nerve gt bundle 0 neurons ha connec 0 he cenral nervous sgsem 0 he res 0 he bodg neurons gt elecricallg exciable cell ha processes and ransmis inormai0n hrough elecrical and chemical signals Sensorg neurongt response receive inormai0n rom simuli lCllS lloor neurongt nerve cell ha carrg a response 0 a muscle or gland leFFecor Relag neurongt sends impulesinormai0n r0m neuron 0 neuron cranial nervesgt nerves ha feed and leave he brain Spinal nervesgt nerves ha feed and leave he spinal cord Neur0ransmiers lnhibi0rg GABA Benzodiazepine 485 Alcohol Ampheamine Anandamide Excia0rg Adrenaline Acegl Dopamine Aceglcholine boh inhibiorg and exciaorg Ex0ia0rg CNS uncionbinds 0 he aceglcholine recepors locaed on muscle bers opening sodium channels in he cell membrane 0 produce muscle conracion Whg simulai0n 0 muscles CNS FuncionEnhances senses bg Whg promoes REM ldeepl sleep producion disrupion is linked 0 depression and Alzheimer39s lnhibi0rg Acion poenial An even ha changes he elecrical poenial of a cell as a response 0 simuli gt ldepolarizaion repolarizaion acion poenial 4 J J 392 1 2 X 3 0 t 3 A gt W quotllquot 39 ru olarigLvx 370V 5 wxl 39 ov Na 9 c1oJ391 arm and Depolarizaion he change from a n39egav Jre sling polehllal 0 a p d lhle acion poenial caused bg he opening 0 he sodium channels Repolarizaion he change from a posiive acion poenial 0 a negaive resing poenial caused bg he opening of he poassium channels wk 59 F A Pk l M Jr ranv 3939 Fi L j 5 u h j p j Mk c K 0 0 41 res laxon is polarized Na channel closed 7 Q K channel closed llaK channel is acive Na and K are no disribued evenlg Volage of axon is 70mV llore Na on he ouside rm x Q P 2 1 iilpl is 0 f la 9gnapic ransmission 9imuli rigger acion poenial 0 occur along he axonshis leans 0 he opening of he sodium channel allowing a cerain amoun of sodium 0 ener he presgnapic neuron Nex he channel closes and depending on he amoun of sodium ha enered a speci c neuroransmier found in a vesicle locaed in he erminal axon is acivaed Once acivaed he vesicle wih he neuroransmier binds 0 he erminal bud Through he process exocgosis he neuroransmier is eJ eced across he sgnapic cle l20nm where i will bind 0 a speci c recepor found on he pos sgnapic neuron An exciaorg neuroransmier will cause he sodium and poassium channels 0 open 0 allows sodium and poassium 0 cause an acion poenial repeaing he process above l he neuroransmier is inhibiing he pos sgnapic neuron will be inhibied soping ang acion poenial from reoccuring exciaorg will rigger he sodium and poassium l lomeosasis ihe process of mainiaining a consiani iniernal environmeni of ihe bodg of an organism ai a sei range lihermoregulaiion 2conceniraiion oi gases 3 Osmoregulaiion 4 pl l regulaiion 5Glucose levels regulaiion of The conceniraiion gradieni of G02O2 when ihe levels of G02 increases in The bloodgt ihe pl l level will drop lGO2 l l2O gt H2003 carbonic acid Ghemorecepiors sense The chance in pl l and sends a signal To The GN9 lbrain io aciivaie ihe respiraiorg and circulaiorg sgsiems Thermoregulaiion The process of mainiaining ihe bodg39s blood iemperaiure ai a ceriain range 370 Under ihe conirol nervous sgsiem and endocrine sgsiem lgland sgsiem Ouiline Thermal recepiors will sense ihai ihe bodg39s blood iemperaiure is down iheg send a signal io ihe hgpoihalamus which ihen aciivaies ihe warming cooling mechanisms Nexi a signal is seni To The muscles io move lshiverieeih chah er goosebumps And The sweai glands will be shui down lso heal is non losi ihrough evapora on l leai is losi ihrough radiaiion lemi ing heal vasoconsiriciion will coniraci The blood vessels To move ihem awag from ihe skin iherefore hear is nor losi ihrough radiaiion Too hoi l lairs lie flaigt less hear is irapped in The hair Swear glandsgt increases heal loss ihrough radiaiion Blood vessels expandgt To be closer io ihe skin39s surface Too cold Shiveringgt creaies heal l lairs siand upgt iraps heal Shuis down swear glandgt heal isn39i losi ihrough radiaiion Blood vessels consiricigt io pull vessels awag from The surface Negaiive Teedbacllt when The bodg siops an aciion lo mainiain homeosiasis examplegt loo hoi ihe bodg will swear when if reiurns io normal iemp l37G negaiive feed back will slop ihe produciion of sweai lo mainiain homeosiasis Explain ihe conirol of blood glucose Glucose regulaiion Glucose is The primarg source of ATP The chemorecepiors regisier ihe blood glucose levels as nor normal l90mg of glucoselOOmL blood normal Under conirol oi oi pancreas and liver Too low ll lgpoglgcemic Ghemorecepiors sense The change in glucose conceniraiion Aciivaie alpha pancreaiic cell lo secreie hormone glucagon Glgcogen glucagon lhgdrolgsisgt glucose Glucose is released info The blood siream When Ghemorecepiors regisier ihe level of glucose as normal negaiive feedback will siop ihe aciivaiion of The alpha pancreaiic cell lo slop ihe secreiion of glucagon Too high lhgperglgcemic Chemo recepiors sense ihe change in glucose Aciivaie ihe beia pancreaiic cell To secreie hormone insulin Glucose insulin lcondensaiongt glgcogen l lnsulin also increases ihe upiake of glucose of ihe cells lihrough cell respiraiion 2 Liver will siore ihe glgcogen When ihe chemorecepiors regisier ihe level of glucose as normal ihen negaiive feedback mechanism will slop wciivaiing ihe beia pancreaiic cell lo slop ihe secreiion of insulin diabeies Tgpe l l lerediiarg weak relaiionship irigger is needed eg illness beia cell desiroged insulin produciion siops Tgpe ll l lerediiarg sirong relaiionship relaied lo obesiig and poor diei fewer insulin recepiors in ihe liver no glucose lo cells endocnne Direcilg inio ihe blood Exocrine Use of ducis lo pui hormones in blood siream Glands Hgpoihalamus k g l 4 C piiuiiarg gland r quotl 9 lil Wmr magi rm 0 Thgroid gland q03 C quot quotquot i W 8W o Thgmus gland WDML Adrenal gland gluten pancreas Ovaries Tesiis Where does negaiive feed back occur Topic lll Defense Against Infectious Disease Leukocgfes Whiie blood cells lmmune sgsfem lan bodg produc on Ergihrocgfes Red blood cells Carrg oxggen lhaemoglobin globular proiein Dlafelefs Cloi ng A small cui will break fhe epiihelial lager lskin and cuf fhe membrane of capillaries releasing red blood cells and plafelefs The broken epifhelial lager and membrane of capillaries are damaged cells Drofhrombin and Fibrinogen lsoluble are proieins fhaf are in ihe plasma of fhe blood all fhe me buf are inac ve When a cuf occurs fhe damaged cells will ac vaie fhe profhrombin and iurn ii info ihrombin which fhen changes brinogen fo brin l brous This brin will capiure fhe ergihrocgies leaking ouf fhe wound and af ihis me fhe plafeleis become s ckg causing cloi ng over ihe wound Leading io a scab vrelvrbnlon gtlt d0 T 9 Tbfgfbb Me Clo ing facfors grrbwf g 0 n Fmm Damaged cells ll7gt j quot39r JV QML3 Cell plafelefs UM Q SLuol WI Ell 8gloUV r S lOD Oiher faciors such as proiein lX Explain humoral immune response lf non speci c immuniig fails l rsi line of defense mucous skin phagocgfosis fhe bodg musi produce a speci c immune response if fargeis fhe pafhogen fhaf has invaded The speci c immune response is onlg used when challenged bg an an gen lEpiiopea cell surface proiein For example when ihe challenger pafhogen enfers ihe blood fhe immune sgsiem will respond bg engul ng fhe pafhogen bg a macrophage Nexf fhe pafhogen is digesied buf fhe macrophage and fhe an gen lepiiope a cell surface proieinl fhaf was on fhe pafhogen is faken on bg fhe class ll lVll lC Then fhe an gen represenier calls upon a complemenfarg helper cell which secreies cgfokine lo ac vafe a speci c Bcell io produce a speci c an bodg fo counier ihe an gen ln addi on fhe Bcell is mul plied mang mes inio effecior cells and memorg cells llonoclonal selec on Speci c an bodg will be produced fo a ack or desirog a speci c an gen lBcell is going io clone ifsel llonoclonal an bodies Treafmeni Diagnosis Explain selective reabsorption in the kidney 8 marks Water salts amino acids and glucose in glomerular filtrate need to be reabsorbed Selective reabsorption occurs in proximal convoluted tubule of nephron Convolutions and microvilli increase surface area for reabsorption Large numbers of mitochondria present in PTC cells generate ATP Active transport pumps Na ions from PTC cells into capillaries Generating concentration gradient between PTC cells and filtrate in lumen Na ions move from lumen to PTC cells by facilitated diffusion Glucose and amino acids follow by cotransport Solute concentration increases in PTC cells Leading to osmosis of water from lumen into PTC cells Facilitated diffusion carries glucose and amino acids into blood Flow of blood maintains concentration gradient 6580 of water is recovered 100 glucose and amino acids recovered Some urea also diffuses back into the blood Explain the process of ultrafiltration 8 marks Ultrafiltration occurs in the renal capsule In the cortex of the kidney Blood enters the afferent arteriole and leaves the efferent arteriole The afferent arteriole is larger than the efferent arteriole causing high pressure in the renal capsule Water glucose amino acids and solutes are forced out of blood including metabolic wastes Through fenestrated capillaries and basement membrane Podocyte cells act as a filter Plasma proteins platelets and cells are large so remain in blood Glomerular filtrate is carried through the nephron Where selective reabsorption takes place in the proximal convoluted tubule The Loop of Henle generates a high concentration of solutes in the cells and fluid of the medulla Output of urine is more dilute than input filtrate As solute concentration increases in medulla an osmotic gradient is established Some water leaves filtrate by osmosis Solute concentration in filtrate increases as loop descends Overall effects filtrate volume decreases output is slightly more dilute large amount of salts removed Selective reabsorption of glucose water and salts occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule PTC Active transport of sodium ions Na from PTC cells into blood plasma niltachoridrra 7radurr39 A TP for active transport generates a concentration gradient between the filtrate and the PTC cells so Na enters cells from lumen by facilitated diffusion down the concentration gradient rmrrovrr increase surface area for reabsorptor Channel proteins are also present descending loop is 0 permeable to water 0 impermeable to Na to collecting duct ascending loop is o impermeable to water 0 permeable to Na Na is pumped into the medulla by active transport Cf ions foow Solute concentration in filtrate decreases as loop ascends Countercurrent effect facilitates changes in the Loop of Henle Glucose and amino acids enter capillaries through facilitated diffusion Blood flow maintains concentration gradient The flow of Na ions into the PTC cells leads to cotransport of amino acids and glucose from filtrate in lumen into the cells Increase in solute concentration due to inflow of Na leads to osmosis of water into the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule some urea aiso diffuses back in The collecting duct balances the water concentration of the blood through hormonal control capillary duct Filtrate enters the collecting duct from the distal convoluted tubule Water moves from the collecting duct to the capillaries by osmosis They flow in opposite directions maintaining a concentration gradient a countercurrent system If a person is dehydrated ADH a hormone acts on the walls of the collecting duct producing aquaporins channels making it more permeable to water More water is transferred into the blood Urine output is hypertonic high solute concentration aquapo ns Explain osmoregulation in the kidney 8 marks Osmoregulation takes place in the Loop of Henle and collecting duct In the medulla Loop of Henle Descending limb is permeable to water but not to Na3939 Descending limb is permeable to Na but not to water Na is pumped out of the ascending limb into the medulla Generating osmotic potential between nephron and medulla Some water leaves descending loop by osmosis Output is reduced volume reduced salt concentration Collecting duct Filtrate enters collecting duct from distal convoluted tubule Countercurrent flow of blood in capillaries and filtrate in duct maintains concentration gradient osmosis of water into blood Dehydration detected by hypothalamus leads to release of ADH by pituitary ADH opens aquaporins water channels in walls of duct Increased transfer of water into blood therefore hypertonic urine Excess water in blood leads to break down of aquaporins and hypotonic urine Topic 66 Reproduction Disiinguish beiween sexual and asexual reproduciion Sexual requires 2 parenial gameies variaiion in oflsprings depends on meiosis division Asexual requires l cell no variaiion in oiclsprings miiosis or binarg ssion My Female f lt A 0 o H Ovaries sex organ lgonads Where female sex cells lgameies gt ova eggs are produced ihrough a process called oogenesis ldepend on meiosis Where maiure eggs are released io ihe oviduci in ovulaiion l loromones Gn Rl l Gonadoirophin releasing hormone lhgpoihalamus io piiuiiarg F9l l follicle siimulaiing hormone primarg oocgie io secondarg lpiiuiiarg io ovaries Ll l leuienizing hormone siaris ovulaiion lpiiuiiarg io ovaries Oesirogen prepares endomeirium for hosiing ova lmaiure egg and ovarg io ihe endomeirium l3rogesierone supporis pregnancg bg mainiaining ihickness of uierine wall lcorpus luieum and ovarg io ihe endomeirium Oxgiocin coniracis all of ihe endomeirium dilaiing ihe cervix during pregnancg l lOG human chorionic gonadoirophin keep esirogen and progesierone high during pregnancg lblasiocgsi Oogenesis Dxij 39 K pQL r mzow l VbVquot h1 CquotnlltN39cJ l 0OE I39C J A 39 39 l 39 l p I prim3fY tollicle od 39 g 1 p6 M ll fVlrC Q3 Ma FL evvlo IVH139J W39M J vlw M l YJ quot39 W 72 erMr39 Vquotquot39Q vVMo L OW 9 llaivwvvw in iwoMivN W O rimlgf gt ovvwron CA all 9 WMn 7 Wiomirvw 94 2fS Ll lk ll 2 wPWquotl Rh lquotLffnJI Ww 90 0 W D Siv 1 41 i iiwavivie eg rem kl 39 Slltl N O all MPMcl y MMrJiin W i 1 Lo fu lu vW1 altcC173lt W M lWl39 awk A o I T 6 V L MU H 9V 39053 cllsvalrlggill a Akv QUoL oI3quotquot xI fffvgt 5 gnrayC f4ww L 01 ca fLi4 in LH l Ow lbl93 T0 03 kcrom CMU5 ldptuwgofw Qggwi 0l fVP l39j QollLL 2 4 Fail V Ll 39 irs luluwl GelwquotK PWNWM r L O 39 Rf xlgvl 4 F0 W AKT 6 l v 0 rm 4 0 1 lo S V5 H K AlH 7 gum alvijg M i 4o 4l pl l 0Nquotb g Yp T k oV39 aw iniPVVMJ Dy o Coj Eaa r u GM tyre oio3 r3 erb DlquotT 7 quot Ixp HJW 3 5 O bxlost TquotWWfrl Tquotquot rm ax Vltl l zeai Q S 0 I 0quotl OVLLl U 0 LlWl gtV J Vtx O11le4lt rf lt W 9i ixl Anvioiw lnviiro Teriilizaiion llF l A er deiermining suiiabiliiv for lVF F9l l and Ll l are given io siimulaie muliiple egg releases 2 These eggs are oolleoied 3 Eggs are i wiih i aiher39s sperm in a peiri dish and inoubaied This is 39lVF39 4 A er inoubaiion viable lferiilizedl blasioovsis are seleoied and developed inio embrgos 5 Guidelines siaie ihai up lo 3 embrgos can be seleoied for implaniaiion l lopei ullg one or more will lake There is a risk of muliiple pregnanog 6 A er bed resi and a monih or so a pregnanov iesi is adminisiered ll posiiive pregnanog ooniinues as normal ll nor a woman mag wail a few monihs and a empi anoiher ogole Advaniages Overoomes inferiiliig lmprovemenis in ieohnologg has made is verg sale Less chance of passing geneiio sexual diseases l ligher chance of geiiing pregnani Can relieve emoiional Vo al rzfcn d Disadvaniages Whai happens lo unwanied embrgos Whai happens lo orphaned embrgos Should inferiiliig be bg passed 9 LU Expensivegt seleoiive 4XV l0jlb0uVf 3fV l Againsi religion W lluliiple ohildrengt eoonomioallg siraining Bx r Emoiional sirain l U f9id clt9VVlquotgt male g M ltU l iesiisgt produoiion of sperm is oreaied in ihe seminiferous iubules lspermaiogenesis lniersiiiial iissue main produoiion of iesiosierone Germinal epiihelial oells origin of spermaiogonia Serloli cells nourishes developing spermalozoa Developing spermalozoa almost complete sperm cells 9crolum regulales temperature of lhe leslis l3 degrees less than bodg lemp Epididgmis malures the immature sperm as deferencelake the mature sperm to three accessorg glandsgt seminal vesicle prostate gland and the bulbourelhral gland Seminal vesicle gives sperm llquotU0lOQQ glucose for energg to move prostate gland give sperm antibiotics and more energg as well as an alkaline solution for protection from the acidic environmenl oi the vagina Bulbourelhral gland secreles a fluid that washes the urethra from ang urine residue Urelhra lube that carries bolh semen and urine out of the penis Erectile lissue lls with blood erecling the penis ensuring entrance into the vagina l lormones M Gonadolrophin releasing hormone iniliales puberlg lhgpolhalamus lo piluilarg gland F9l l primarg spermalocgle lo secondarg spermalocgle lpiluilarg gland lo leslis Ll l slimulales lesloslerone production in the leslis linlerslilial cells helps F9l l nish Meiosis 2 lpiluilarg gland lo the leslis Tesloslerone lproduced bg lhe leslis slimulales meiosis ll l Develops secondarg characteristics 2 Growth oi the penisleslis 3 9permalogenesis sex drive Drimarg sexual characlerislic Facial hair Deepen voice Enlarge oi penis and lesles lluscle developmenl Secondarg sexual characlerislic production of sperm Oogenesis the process of the developing the oocgle lhrough meiosis Oogonium ldiploid Znquot l lnlerphase stage that replicales Zn so it has 2 l2n Mac lyqjom gr an germ Coll 49 ml 8 K53 M 39 SW4 quotj quot V Qelul Shae d g0iiC jcv iI3ssg L lamplzvIA vstiggfj 67 l t lt g 00 3 I SFoquotlyt E 43 quot ltmc ll g g H H L quot39 p alSrEMrlt VdLquot 0Y 0l39l53940quot ms 4 3523 l3eoilriid M Pq lSfquotlLJj dj445 quotquot Wquot no c3939r4j39 3aV Egg wgia5 Vquot PImzxL39u i 139 o gtc A4 ml 3 I39a J39 cquotquotf l39alnv l rxmlbfu 9 9 9 polixr arlit 9permalogenesis the process oi developing the sperm lhrough meiosis QR ed CZ Jmilugxs gtu 6L rl oz of w p w 1ILbl39 lYgtl rMdu ll Qfgt1quot C lxfom Al y Q 5bquotquot 577 f uip l siIS Germline epithelium at tubule lining 1 A I 9 Q1 I i Histology as soon with a light microscope Spemiatozoa in middle Sertoli cells within tubule not meiotic r j between tubules sp quotquotat 9 Oogenesls nesis Number of gametes produced 4 1 per primary cell On a cycle Formation of Constant every 28 gametes after puberty days I and II 2 Number of I am H 2 non continuous meiotic meiotic continuous divisions meiotic divisions divisions Method of Ovulation release of Ejaculation controlled by gametes LH Number of gametes Millions 1 released Hormones Testosterone proSreg39e NNill lL used FSH and LH FSH and LH Seminiferous Location tubules in Ovaries testis 514Win T m 139 rari l bl aI0H rs Qr vxwm gp WKFA I ho 5rM 39L glob l LIzaf u nl39Q 1 sorlrol lt6 IS K QR ltQ ffMall Sfrucfure of ova sperm O Jv Wo50llquotquot39 Ferfilizafion l One sperm reaches fhe zona pellucida 2 Acrosome reacfion occurs enzgmes in fhe head of fhe sperm digesf fhrough fhe zona pellucida 3 The plasma membranes of fhe sperm and fhe ova fuse lThis sfimulafes fhe release of Ca2 in fhe egg in furn sfimulafing meiosis ll in fhe nucleus 4 Af fhe same fime fhe corfical granule fuses wifh fhe egg plasma membrane releasing ifs confenf lfhis is called corfical reacfion fhe zona pellucida can no longer bind wifh fhe sperm so no more sperm can enfer 5 The nucleus of fhe sperm posfed info fhe cgfoplasm of fhe egg 6 The nucleus of fhe egg nishes wifh meiosis 2 7 The chromosome combine creafing zggofe Embrgonic developmenf l llafure follicle 2 Zggofe ldag 02 3 llorula llOO cells from mifofic division l3 4 Blasfocgsf ldag 7 5 Embrgo ldag 656 6 Fefus ldag 56 fo fhe end profecfed and supporfed bg amniofic fluid and amniofic fluid l9hocllt absorber allows skelefal developmenf wifhouf added sfrain from gravifg l3lacenfa connecfs fhe umbilical cord fo fefus fissue wifh lofs of blood vessels Umbilical cord gives nufrienfs fhaf fhe mom eafs fo fhe fefus Deoxggenafed blood and wasfe ouf via 2 umbilical veins oxggenafed blood and useful maferials in via an umbilical arferg birfh l Labor Opening of fhe cervix fo abouf lO cm Lasf l2l8 hrs for fhe firsf child fhe decreases for fhe second and fhird child Then fhe fransifion phase occurs which is when fhe cervix is almosf fullg dilafed 2 DushConfracfions become more infense and lasf a minufe and occur everg minufe The head lcrown of fhe babg begins fo show Ending wifh fhe deliverg of fhe babg Lasfs l2 fo 2 hrs 3 Affer birfh Dlacenfa is delivered from fhe uferus Usuallg lasf l hours Confracepfion Familg planning and coniracepiion I Birih conirol lchemical 2 Condoms lmechanicalphgeical 3 Diaphragm lmechanicalphgeical 4 quotIUDquot inirauierine device lprevenie Ihickening of ihe endomeiriuml 5 Abeiinence 6 Surgerg gt uaeeciomg lmale iubule ligaiion lfemalel Tging of vae deference or oviduci 7 Rhgihm meihodgt liming of meneiruaiion cgcle Pros I prevenie unwanied pregnancg 2 Dreveni eexuallg iranemi ed disease 3 Conirol populaiion growih Gone I Nor Iradiiional 2 Does nor follow religion 3 llag cause permaneni damage 4 Side eiclecie II4Reproducion Role of placenIa used Io exchange maieriale from moiher Io Ieiue and Ieiue Io moiher 6 RN n J f wV l fa irwxcf ll vquotlt5 Qiuag J2 lI Jl Con 4 l koflzo L Q mg ggtln mI Q04 8 VL5 wl LZrM Mo WV L01 Orjjeq UIquotL0 YIlquotII f AN l JltAwlm wwkl wkSL j Il39 VV9 61WI1 lflN39MukLf C4 C6 UlhMH fYe AL a I moi MVJ 5 aC l uliw


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