Chemistry 132 Chapter 10 First Week Notes
Chemistry 132 Chapter 10 First Week Notes CHM 132
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jada Dibble on Monday September 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHM 132 at Central Michigan University taught by Phillip Squattrito in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Central Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/07/15
Chapter 10 Liquids Solids and Phase Changes 9115 Gases liquids and solids Gas not condensed Liquid condensed uid flow Solid condensed non uid Attractions between the particles Gasltliquidltsolid Polar Covalent Bonds and Dipole Moments Covalent bonds may be polar or nonpolar Polarity depends on the electronegativities of the atoms Polar Covalent Bonds gt X Y 6 639 Y is more electronegative Wcrease electronega vity Increase electronegativity Periodic Table X X Nonpolar Equal sharing Equal electronegativites The polarity of a molecule depends only on the polarity of the bond X X X Y Nonpolar Polar 02 N2 Clz etc HCI HBr etc CI2 nonpolar has a zero dipole moment 0 o HCI polar has a nonzero dipole moment 21 11 o H CI o 6 639 4 gt Polarity is measured by the dipole moment 39u o Nonpolar u 0 0 Polar i0 0 As u increases polarity increases X Y X Y DipoleDipole interaction 6 639 6 9215 Determining whether a molecule is polar or nonpolar 1 Diatomic molecules 0 If bond is polar molecule is poar o X Y o XY different electronegativities polar u 0 o If bond is nonpolar molecule is nonpolar o X X o X X same electronegativity nonpolar u 0 2 Polyatomic molecules 3 or more Treat polar bonds like vectors See how they add up 0 For molecules with 2 or more bonds the polarity depends on oThe polarities of the bonds 0 How the bonds are arranged The individual bonds are treated as vectors All tetrahedral AX4 molecules are nonpolar 0 Vector sum to zero 0 CH4 T 0 H9 H 1095 H Nonpolar Example s each molecule polar or nonpolar need geometry and bond polarities Intermolecular Forces Polar Molecules attractions between negative and positive ends of neighboring molecules dipole dipole force X Y X Y 6 6 6 6 1 Dipoledipole attractions polar molecules Increases with increasing polarity dipole moments CXHy pure hydrocarbon u 0 Nonpolar regardless of structure Dipoledipole forces moment increase boiling point for similar size molecules 2 London Dispersion forces experienced by all molecules only forces experienced by nonpolar molecules 0 All molecules temporary distortions of electron clouds when close together 0 Increase with the size of the e cloud and surface area of the molecule 0 Boiling point increases with increasing London forces Temporary dipole interaction 6 6 6 Q 9315 Polar molecules with N H O H or F H bonds Strong dipoledipole attractions between the H on one molecule and a N O or F on neighboring molecule 3 dipoledipole interaction involving 0 H N H F H bonds X H Y 6 639 XYNOF A quotHydrogen bondquot is not a bond o It is an intermolecular interaction 0 quothydrogen bondsquot cause higher boiling points 0 H20 bp 100 C 0 CH3OH bp 65 C 0 CH4 bp 161 C O Csz 89 C 0 Polar molecules with N H 0 H or F H bonds have higher boiling points than similar molecules without these bonds 0 H F o H Cl increasing dipole moment 0 H Br Hydrogen bonding o H l For quotsmallquot m ecues o Londonltdipoedipoelthydrogen bonding For quotlargequot molecules these may be switched Some Properties of Liquids Molecules in contact 0 Can move past each other o Liquids have varying ability to ow 0 the resistance to ow 0 Viscous quotthickquot ows with dif culty Expect viscosity to increase with increasing intermolecular forces Sugars have many 0H bonds leading to strong attractions between molecules Compare nheptane C7H16 and motor oil C18H38 nheptane is thinner motor oil is thicker What causes one liquid to be more viscous than another 0 Attractions between molecules restrict ow 0 Tangling of long chain molecules can restrict ow Liquids have different surface tension 0 the resistance of a liquid to expand or minimize surface are V Su cch mar 6Q w Sit Increasing intermolecular forces increasing surface tension 0 Increasing surface tension decreasing surface area
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